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FOR APRIL, 1798.

[Vol. V.

The Four Volumes of the MONTHLY MAGAZINE, which are now publisbed, may be had complete of any Bookseller, price Thirty Shillings, neatly balf-bound, or any single Number, or Volume, may be bad separate, at the Pleasure of the Purchaser.

et rex,

To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine.

Virtus, fama, decus, divina humapaque, pul

THentence in Ariftotle's rhetoric, pro-
He double correction of one short Divitiis parent; quas qui conftruxerit, ille

Clarus erit, fortis, juftus. Sapiens ne ? Etiam posed in your last Magazine, by W.C.H.

Et quidquid volet. appears to me perfečtly gratuitous and

GILBERT WAKEFIELD. unnecessary. He refers the passage to . lib. ii. cap. 18. I find it in lib. i.


Hackney, April 2. 16. of Sylburglus's edition, and in cap. 13. fect. 2. of the same book in ed. Ox To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine , on. 17,59. The purport of the clause will

SIR, beft

appear from the context, which stands thus :


HEN I sent you an account of the

Female Friendly Society at Ber“ Now the peculiar manners, which wick, I engaged to transınit fome account are the concomitants of wealth, present also of a Female Friendly Society at themselves on the surface to every man's York, which was instituted in the year obfervation: for rich men are prone to 1788. The idea of forming it arose prininsult and arrogance, from feelings invariably connected with the potr:ition of cipally from the wish of prolonging the

patronage of the ladies, who had for fome wealth; for they perceive themselves so time superintended two charity-schools in affected, as if they were masters of every this city, to the young girls educated in thing good ; inasmuch as money is the com-, them, beyond the period of their contimon standard, by which the worth of all nuance in their respective schools. For it other things is estimated :" ode (fome edi- always seemed to me that the business tions, o yage with an immaterial varia- was left incomplete, however well the intion) πλατος, οιον τιμη τις εστι της αξιας των titutions them felves might be regulated, αλλων δι' ο φαινεται παντα ωνια ειναι αυτα : if the objects of them were abandoned to “ because every thing appears purchase- take their chance in the world, often able by money."

without parent, protector, or friend, at All this seems to me as plain and unex- the very moment when they are most liaceptionable as possible, and arranged with ble to a train of evils, more fatal perhaps that consecutive dependence of the clauses, in their consequence than even those from which preeminently distinguishes this which, in their infant years, they had incomparable reasoner. The domineering been rescued. manners of rich men arise from the fan

The outline of the plan is as follows : cied superiority of their endowments;

--That every girl, on her leaving either this notion of superiority in wealth springs of the schools, if her behaviour in them from their conception of wealth as a cri was approved, shall have the option of terion of value to all other things, and becoming a member of the friendly society this conception is produced by daily ex on the following terms. Entrance no. perience, which actually ascertains this ney 25. 6d. Subscription for the first general truth, that all things have their

two years (when her wages as a servant price, and are accessible to the influence of

may be supposed to be very small), quar. wealth: a position, too much counte

terly, is. Afterwards the fum of is. 6d. nanced by the conduct of men in all ages. quarterly. And when the subscription The testimony of Horace is fo very perti- has been paid one half year, she shall be nent and explícit to this effect, lat. ii. 3. entitled to the benefits, which are as 94-99, as to deserve quotation :

follow: Omnis enim res,

The sum of 4s, per week in any exMonth. MAG. No, XXX.

I i


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Mrs. Cappe on Female Benefit Societies. treme case, where admiffion into the coun- ftance, mortifying as it may be, will not ty hospitai thall be judged ineligible by surprise, if it be remembered, that conthe stewardesses for the time being. siderable comprehension of mind is re

2s. per week in any lingering disease, quired to relinquith a very fmall advanwhich may not confine the fick member tage, if it be present, for the sake of a far to her bed, oblige her to leave her service, greater good, if it be distant; and elpeor wholly disable her, if married, from cially if it appear in any measure continattending the care of her family.

gent: and moreover, that the restrictions The sum of 10$. 6d. on the birth of of a charity-school, if it be well regulatevery child, if her circumstances are such ed, in themselves however juft and necefas to require this assistance.

sary, and the very circumstance of the va. 1s. 6d. per week, if she be entered a rious wants of the children fo educated patient in the hospital, during her ttay being regularly fupplied, must necessarily there, for washing and cloaths; and more. preclude both that acquaintance with the over,

character of others, lo useful to put a After having been a member 40 years, young person on her guard againit bad she shall be entitled to all the benefits of advice, and that experience of the wants the institution, without farther contribue and distresses, incident to extreme indition, if the state of the fund shall at that gence, which the same girl * would have time be such as to admit of it.

acquired in the house of her parents, or Honorary menibers contribute 6s. per other needy relatives; so that the very ann. by advance, into the public fund; circumstance, which renders some sort of and the like sum of 6s. annually into a patronage on leaving such an institution fund intended likewise for the benefis- of efpecially neceffary, creates, at the same the society, but not subject to particular time, considerable difficulty in adopting laws, and for the dispofal of which the any which may prove effectual. honorary members are not accountable It may not be impertinent to add, that to the society at large. Without hono- this total ignorance of human life is a rary members, and indeed without a fe- defect, which unavoidably must attach parate fund, properly their own, one itself to this mode of education, and af, great ubject of the institution, which is to furedly lessens the utility of it so much, afford patronage in health, as well as that, except in the case of orphans rescued pecuniary aid in sickness, would not be from a parish work-house, or of children, obtained.

whose parents are notoriously abandoned;

it The number of honorary

may even become a question, how members at present is

far it is defirable; notwithstanding the

47 Of benefitted ditto


advantages which result from those habits Cash in the general fund £110 0

of sobriety, order, industry and cleanli

nels, which may, and ought to be geneIn the ladies fund

rated in such an institution. So far, I The ladies subscribe out of their own think, must be granted, that wherever the fund to the county hospital, and to a difpensary established in this city, to the parents are living, and are decent charac:

ters, it is the best charity, most favouraend that they may always have recom ble to the cultivation of the social affecmendations for the use of fick members. tions, and most conducive to the well being Besides the girls educated in the charity- and happiness of all parties, that they schools, each honorary member has the should have such aids judiciously afforded privilege, of recommending one every them, as may enable them to educate their year, at the quarterly meeting in Febru- children under their own roof. ary, who has not been educa ed in either

But to return from this digression. The of them, provided the be in good health, honorary members of the fociety flatter of good character, and under 25 years of themselves, that when time shall have age.

shewn the great advantage of being a It must not be concealed, that all the member, by the different fate in their good effects hoped for from this institu- progrelis through life, of those who have, tion have not yet been found to result and those who have not remained such, a from it: many of the girls who have been conviction of its desirableness, fo forcible admitted, even after they have received will be the result, as to supply the inabigreat assistance, and patronage of every kind, have from time to time ceased to This observation does not hold equally in pay their small contribution, and have respect to boys, who may be placed out to litwithdrawn themselves. This circum- tie trades much earlier.

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Prize of the Royal Medical Society, Edinburgh. 241 lity of reasoning and judging for them- To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, felves, even in the minds of the most in

SIR, experienced; and they are encouraged in THE following article of intelligence this hope, by seeing that withdraw theinfelves considerably lefsen some of your philosophical readers. every year. In the mean time, however, in order to attach these young people by Society of Edinburgh offered a prize for

In the year 1794, the Royal Medical a principle which applies to their present the best experimental effay which should be feelings, the hunorary members join them presented to them, in reply to leveral que, in a procession, once in two years, to the ries proposed on the fubject of animal cathedral here, in which they walk at electricity. Some unavoidable caules of their head, giving each a green ribbon to delay have deferred the final determinaplace in their hats, as a mark of distinc- tion till the .present time, when the protion, and wearing the like themselves; feffors, who were nominated as judges, and after the return of the procession, re. communicated to the society the following gale them with tea and cake, addressing decision. each member personally, and inquiring

“ The effay to which the motto nemo into their reípestive situations. It deserves ultra posle tenetur is prefixed, containing to be remarked, that not one instance has occurred of a young person's withdrawing swering all the questions proposed, is the

new and ingenious experiments, and anherself from the fociety, who has been in- best experimental essay which has been retroduced by an honorary member.

ceived, and is therefore entitled to the The plan adopted by the ladies at

prize; at the same time the judges unaniWilbeach, mentioned in your Magazine mously declare, that they cannot coinfor February (p. 83), of allowing an

cide with the author in his theoretical deannuity to aged members, who have re

ductions." mained single, or who, being married, have not received any contribution during panied this effay, it was found to have

Upon opening the letter which accomtheir lying-in, is, I think, an essential been written by Dr. Creve, professor, at improvement, and goes far to obviate the

Mayence. difficulty arising from the inequality of

By order of the Committee, benefits received by married and unmar

G.C. DELARIVE, M. D. ried members, where pecuniary assistance

GEORGE BIRKBECK. is allowed from the fund, in disorders inci

Јону Bosтоск. dent to child-bearing. May not the reafon, however, be akked, why a member Edinburgh Medical Hall, Feb. 23, 1798. Teinoving from Wisbeach is not entitled to any further weekly allowance ? May For te Monthly Magazine. pot many circumstances arite, to make luch removal matter of necessity? and will A LETTER from a Merchant of Tom

BUCT00, a capital City on the Medipoor meinber be less likely to itand

terranean Sea, in the Center of Africa, in need of pecuniary assistance, because

to his FRIEND there. the is no longer under the immediate

eye of her generous and benevolent patro- (liansiated from the Original Tombustan by a

Moorish Dragoman.) I am sorry to have lengthened this arti London, the 22d of the Moon of the Lion, ticle far beyond what I had intended ;

Year 50, 751. bat as the hints refpečting a charityished. T metropolis of the world, to his

, of the lubject, and are the result of some observation friend Cooo, the scribe; a found mind in and experience, I have hoped that they a found body. Joy, my friend! while might not be without their use. If, by these favages are endeavouring to discover injerting them in your valuable Magazine, our city, I am in the midlt of theirs, it Nould appear that you, Mr. Éditor, Their whole manners are fo remote from are of the same opinion, I may perhaps, those of the civilized world, that I am in a future number, trouble you with overwhelined with strange particularities, Come account of the cise, progress, and and hardly know where to begin. I shall, present regulations of the two particular therefore, content myself, at present, with Ichools, with a view to the future benefit a few observations; reserving furrler işof the girls educated in which, the friendly formation for future opportunities, Society above described was principally In the first place, I shall, as in duty formed. I am, Sir, your huınble servant, bound, consider the important project York, April 2, 1798. C. CAPFE, li?



nelles ?


Letter from a Merchant of Tombuetoo. which our monarch (of whom thou art ecration of those cannibals. That they the skilful servant) has formed, for the are cannibals I am convinced: Would subjugation of thefe barbarians. To pre- thou think, my friend, that out of thouvent any other African nation from assert- sands of blacks, imported by them, I ing any claim of prior discovery of this have hardly seen half a dozen, spared, I remote island, I in the night proceeded fuppofe, as usual among the worst fava. boldly to the chief temple, in the center ges, by fome favour, or fortuitous circumof this city, and affixed the holy badge of Itance? The rest are all eaten! our religion, as a token of the right of The vengeance will be sweet; we fall the glorious fovereign of Tombuctoo. I export them by whole thip loads, and also buried a bottle containing all his titles, fell them to the southern cannibals of subjoined to which is a folemn claim of Africa. Many of the people are


fat these newly discovered illands in the and fair, particularly of the casts of the northern sea, as gems inherent in his Spankidoodels, and of the Hahums and crown; and of the inhabitants, as sheep the Mummums. This fpeculation will reserved for his own flaughter-house. be excellently profitable. I should expect There can, therefore, be no future doubt from five to twenty dinars per man. to whom these islands belong.

As to the colonies to be sent here, they Our numerous fleets may easily proceed may be easily and firmly established. A down great river, and, entering the few myriads destroyed by the artificial ocean, asfail these lands on the west, earthquakes, which we know how to proThe favages have, indeed, many and duce fo easily; and two or three millions large ships; but they are happily stran- blasted by our artificial peftilences, the gers to that subinarine fire, lo long pre- rest will be overawed ; and will respect our lerved as a secret of our state, and by farther progress in civilization, and fuwhich a few of our boats may send all perior skill in the arts of death and detheir fleet into the air, and render it only struction. We must, by all means, inan illumination of our triumph. Their fist on the establishment of a despotic foldiers are numerous, but not clothed in government, exactly similar to our own. metal; in consequence they are quite ex Without this the people could have no posed to those Towers of active and liberty nor happiness, and of course cauftic poison, used by our troops; by would grow fretful and lean; the

Very which, when ejected to a prodigious thing to be avoided; as our profit deheight by our vast machines, whole territo- pends much upon their fat and good conries may be overwhelmed, and myriads dition, of men sent to their fathers; the touch The lean and deformed may, however, being instant death, and the very air be occupied for our profit, in manufac. rendered poison. May the l-leffing of all tures, in which they shew some little ikili, our gods attend the glorious inventor of Indeed, I am told they have, in this this artificial pestilence, the secret of branch, excelled most of the favages of which is only known to us, the chosen the north, for these forty years. Before people of heaven, the chief of all civilized this, most articles were imported, in exnations! Let us bend to the gods in change for their wool, a staple commohumble adoration for this favour, and dity, and always a favourite; infomuch, ever remember their infinite goodness and that perhaps some of our Tcmbuctan mercy. Most just it is, and most necef- fociety of antiquarians may thence derive sary.

the fingular partiality of this voracious There is a king in this country, but it people for the woolly heads of the negroes. is chiefly ruled by a sort of senate; which, This I leave to the learned. I have told instead of meeting in the morning, the thee, Friend Cooo, that, about forty years usual and chosen hour of the soul's vi- back, these savages imported molt artigour, assembles in the night, even in the cles of manufacture; and, I am told, but nights of winter. Hence follow colds know not how to credit it, that such was and catarrhs, and political fevers, and formerly their rage for importation, that many infiammatory symptoms. Their they have repeatedly imported their kings state councils, as may be expected, are from the Continent; as being men of a far inferior to ours; and forgetting that superior manufacture to any made in wisdom is the lot of the few, they al- their country. This I suppose is one of ways decide by the majority, a singular the fables, obtruded upon ignorant tra, instance of direct opposition to our consti- vellers, tution.

I know not well what religion these I heartily agree with all Africa in ex- wild people profess, Buţ we must fend



Interefting Description of Gibraltar.

243 foine miffionaries to convert them to our fied substance found in our culinary fires, faith, to the holy profession of Magotism, commonly called clinkers, and a consider without which no man can be saved. able portion of it exhibits a surface very Their bodies are undoubtedly ours, by similar to the dross of iron. When there every law human and divine : and we is an east wind, a dense cloud is seen to rest Shall send them to the fambles by thou- on its fummit; this cloud is called by lands, according to the itatutes of Tihi, failors its cap. One should be led to supconcerning peace and war. But heaven pose, from the variety of dresses, manners, forbid that we should not previously en- forms, and physiognomies, that throng the deavour to save their fouls, for we cannot landing place and principal street of the fell that aerial part. If a few myriads town, that there was a grand convention be roasted by a flow fire, and remarkably established here, in which every nation had well bafted, I could almost answer for its representative. The habits of fome of the conversion of the remainder. Adieu! the Moors throw you back to the age of

the apostles, and their countenances are To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

marked with all that energy, so much ad

mired in the sublime compositions of Ra. SIR,

phael. I saw sandals on the feet of a TH "HE inclused letter was written by a

Greek exactly similar to those of the anyoung artist on his way. to Rome, cients. The only articles that are cheap with a view of prosecuting his studies in here, are, Malaga and Catalonia wines, the line of his profession. As it contains a fuller and more curious description of India commodities. Mackarel are a penny

fruit, Barbary fowls, fish, and a few Ealt the rock of Gibraltar than I have ever each; a fine bream, fufficient for the dinseen, I cannot but hope that it will prove ner of three persons, a quarter of a dolacceptable to your readers.

lar; a water melon, fixpence; the finest 10th April, 1798.

grapes three halfpence a pound; large DEAR SIR,

Sept. 22. onions a penny a pound; the wines about You will, no doubt, be surprised when ten-pence a bottle. Their butter is exeyou find by this letter, that we are still at crable; their meat very indifferent, and Gibraltar.

The finest part of both very dear, as is indeed every thing the year is passing rapidly away, and elfe: I onnitted the fowls; they are genethe time, which might be usefully em- rally about three dollars the dozen. The ployed, is diffipated in langor and chagrin. charge at public places of entertainment, How different are the emotions with which for a very moderate dinner, is never lefs I now contemplate this celebrated fortress, than a dollar per head. No person is sufto those I experienced when we first cast fered to visit the upper parts of the rock, anchor before it.' Then my soul was or the curious works, which are construct. transported with enthusiasm, and so eagered in them, without a permit from the gowas I to visit it, that I had nearly been pre- vernor. It requires a day to go over it, eipitated into the sea through my impa- and you muit provide yourselves with a tience to get on shore. At prelent it appears number of necessaries to enable you to like a melancholy memento of time unprofi- perform the journey with pleafure. As I tably wasted, and only excites sensations of was one of a party who got a permit, I will unavailing anxiety and regret. Notwith- conclude this account of Gibraltar with standing, as it must always be considered, an extract from my journal which relates in every point of view, as a most interest- to our expedition. The day being arrived ing object, I shall make it the principal that had been appointed for our excurfion, fubject of this letter. We arrived in the I let off early in the morning, and met the bay of Gibraltar on the night of Friday company on board the **** brig. Sethe 28th of August, and came to an anchor veral articles were provided, both to enaabout twelve o'clock. The following ble us to satisfy our curiosity with convemorning we changed our station, and got niency, and to refresh us when fatigued ; closer to the town. At nine an officer besides refreihments, we had coarse jackets came on board for our certificate of health; and trowsers ; candles, fiambeaux, fint previously to the delivery of which, no one and steel, and a tinder box : we had also is permitted to Jand. The rock of Gi- four failors to carry our rattle traps. When braltar has the appearance of an immense we had reached the rock, by a tolerable mals of calcined itone; the upper part of easy descent, we arrived at the lower range it, as seen from the bay, Inoks as if com of the subterraneous galleries. The idea posed of a brownish pumice stone; fome of forming thefe galleries was originally part of it has the texture of that hali yitri- conceived by the late governer Elliot, and


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