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Toads in Stones.....Elkington on Draining.

259 history, of a toad existing for a length of ging the same well, at the depth of forty-one time in a confined situation, without any feet and a half from the surface, the workmen fupply of fresh air. The following fact's found the body of a tree, eighteen or twenty are mentioned by Dr. WILLIAMS, of inches in diameter; partly rotten, but the Vermont, in America, in a work which biggest part found. The probability is, that has never appeared in Europe, and which both the tree and the frogs were once at the I conceive is scarcely in the hands of any that the waters of Onion river, constantly

bottom of the channel of a river, or lake; person in this country, and I have little bringing down large quantities of earth, gradoubt but they will be found acceptable dually raised the bottoms; that by the conto many of your readers, as in some de ftant increase of earth and water, the water gree illustrative of the same subject, though was forced over its bounds, and formed for relative to an animal fomewhat different itself a new channel or passage, in its descent in its habits.

into lake Champlain. How vigorous and per" At Windsor, a town joined to Connec manent must the principle of life be in this ticut river,” says Dr. WILLIAMS, “ in Sep- animal! Frogs placed in a situation in which tember, 1790, a living frog was dug up at they were perpetually supplied with moisture the depth of nine feet from the surface of and all waste and perspiration from the body the earth. STEPHEN Jacobs, Esq. from prevented, preserve the powers of life from whom I have this account, informs me, that age to age ! Centuries must have passed since the place where this frog was found was they began to live, in such a situation; and about half a mile from the river, on the in- had that situation continued, nothing appears, terval lands, which are annually overflowed but that they would have lived for many cene by its waters.

turies yet to come!” “At Castleton, in the year 1779, the inha The same author has some curious facts bitants were engaged in building a fort, near relative to the migration of swallows, the centre of the town. Digging into the martins, &c. which I should conceive well earth five or fix feet below the surface, they entitled to notice in your Magazine, as found many frogs, apparently inactive, and the work never has been, and I apprehend supposed to be dead. Being exposed to the

never will be published in England. air, animation foon appeared, and they were

Your's, &c. found to be alive and healthy. I have this

PHILOPHUSIKOS account from General Clark'e, and a Mr. April 9, 1798. MOULTON, who were present when these frogs wese dug up. Upon viewing the spot, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. is did not appear to me, that it has ever been overflowed with water ; but it abounded with

SIR, springs.--A more remarkable instance was at

AVING seen your very useful Burlington, upon Onion river-In the

year 3788, SAMUEL LANE, Esq. was digging a munication signed R. H. (Kelso) re. well near his house : at the depth of twenty- specting Mr. Elkington's mode of draining five or thirty feet from the surface of the land; has induced me to offer a few obexth, the labourers threw out with their sho- fervations on that subject. vels, something which they suspected to be Extracts from every new and useful ground nuts, or stones, covered with earth. treatise, especially those relating to the Upon examing these appearances, they were improvement of agriculture, might tend found to be frogs ; to which the earth every very much to benefit the community, if where adhered: the examination was then made of the earth in the well, where they conveyed through the channel of periodical were digging. A large number of frogs were

publications. found covered with the earth, and to nume

Your correspondent, R. H. has only tous, that several of them were cut in pieces taken notice of the utility of Mr. Elkingby the spades of the workmen. Being ex ton's method of draining marshes by the posed to the air, they soon became ačtive; detection of springs, as he is pleased to but unable to endure the direct rays of the sun, call it ; but, although he says, that he has the most of them perished. This account is had opportunities of seeing the effects of from Mr. Lane and Mr. Lawrence, one of the his (Mr. Elkington's) practice, he has workmen, who were both present when the frogs were dug up. From the depth of earths of the principles on which his lystem is

not gratified the reader with an explanation with which these frogs were covered, it can- founded, neither has he given any hints, not be doubted, but that they must have been covered over in the earth for many ages, or

whereby a practical farmer might be rather centuries: the appearances dencte that enabled to adopt his method, or at least the place from whence these frogs were taken be induced to make the experiment. was once the bottom of a channel, or lake, On this subject, however, I have lately formed by the waters of Onion river. In dig: had an opportunity of perusing a very


H a

260 Letters of the King of Pruffia.....Mr. Dyer on English Versification. useful and ingenious treatise, published unfeeling despot. If your correspondent, under the patronage of the Board of 1. S. thinks that he has made any new Agriculture and Highland Society of Scot. discoveries respecting Frederick's characland, by Mr. Johnstone, who has been ter, his ideas on the subject should be more instructed in the art by Elkington himself, diftin&tly stated.

H. S. and who is likewise practising it in this April 3, 1798. country with great success. The principles of the art he has clearly duinonStrated, and by means of various views

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. and sections, which accompany the work, SIR, has certainly contributed much to the TN a former letter were dropped a few extension, both of its theory and practice. hints concerning English versification:

My reason therefore, forthus addressing the species of verle, to which those obseryou, is with a view, to your gratifying vations more immediately referred, was fiich of your readers as may not have an the Heroic, or Iambic rhyme*. It is opportunity of perusing Mr. Johnstone's now intended to consider the other species book, with such extracts, as your own of verse adopted by English poets: though judgment may lead you to select *; and it must first be noticed, that many reguallo with a view of making it more lations applicable to the lambic rhyme, generally known, anong the landed pro- will, with some few variations, apply to prietors of this country, where I believe the other metres. An equal attention for your publication is pretty extensively example, should be thewn to varying the circulated. I am, Sir, &c. &c.

pauses, to improper rhymes, to open vowA FRIEND TO IMPROVEMENT. els, and the like.' There will be lefs occaHaddington, Feb. 1798.

fion, therefore, to repeat fuch obfervations : good sense will direct where a deviation

from general rules becomes necessary. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. The ELEGIAC '

measure, in English SIR,

poetry, is various, but more generally Nyour Magazine for March, you have two-fold ; the Heroic or Iambic rhyme third king of Prussia, to the Duchess of on the death of an unfortunate lady: Brunswick. Your correspondent, I. S. by What beck’ning ghost, along the moonlight whom they were transmitted to you, seems shade to think, that the character of Frederick Invites my steps, and points to yonder glade? is not accurately known ; but more copious and Mr. Mason's Isis; or, the Heroic, information has not, I suppose, been pub- with an alternate rhyme, as Mr.Shenstone's lished, concerning, any prince who ever Jeffy, and his other elegies. Of the forexisted, than has been communicated to

mer species of Elegiac verse I have already the public relative to this celebrated treated: and of the latter little remains monarch; and I think, that there are no

to be said, except, that the practice just grounds for any material doubts of our best writers seems to authorize respecting his character, which has been

to say, that the fourth line natufufficiently ascertained and developed. rally cloles the sense, and that the last The letters, communicated by your cor- word of that line should not be joined to respondent, as they were written by a

the succeeding stanza: Mr. Gray's Elegy monarch of such celebrity, were very in a country church-yard will exemplity properly inserted in your miscellany; but this remark: the utmost liberty that the it does not appear to me, that they throw any new light upon his character. It is well known, that Frederick, in his private

* In the former post of the last letter were relations and comexions, could frequently places rhyme is used for rhythm. Rhyme is

two material errors of the press. In those act and write like a very amiable man;

rather a particular species of rhythm. By though, on other occafions, in his public RuYTHM, I meant measured motion, in genecharacter, he could foinetimes act like an ral, in the sense used by Ariftocle : which

will apply to mufic and dancing, as well as * Our correspondent, is a reader, ought to poetry: and to any species of poetry measured have known that it is not our practice to give into particular metres: rhythm applies to extracts froin English books, though we have Milton's verse, as well as to Pope's. The word 10 objection to point out to public notice such rhyme is aiterwards used in its common acas are valuable.



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Mr. Dyer on English Versification.

261 poet has allowed himself, is in the follow- {ponded in the length of its fyllables to ing lines :

the strophe; and the epode of the first Th’applause of lift’ning senates to command, system of stanzas to the epode of the second The threats of pain and ruin to despise,

fyftem *: “ Gray's I'rogress of Poetry," is To scatter plenty o’er a siniling land, an example of a complete Pindaric. And read their history in a nation's eyes,

In the former letter, the impropriety of Their lot forbad:

calling certain irregular odes pindaric

was hinted at; fuch, for example, as Our English writers seem, in this re- Cowley's: this impropriety has been nofpect, to have imitated the precision of ticed likewise by Mr. West, the elegant Ovid, who never indulges himself in translator of some of Pindar's odes, and greater liberties than Gray: though the

by other writers. This obfervation, Greeks, from whom the Elegiac measure however, means to censure the appellation, is borrowed, frequently suffered the last fyllable of the Pentametre to run into the ters, in their Scholia, Pæans, and Dithy

not the measure. The ancient lyric wrinext line; of which we have examples in rambics, used an irregular and uncertain the exquisite verses of Tyrtæus, Tigo Tong

measure: and, it seems to be in reference Tomeuszns Agatns, in Thecgnis's Elegies,and '". Solon's Sentences :"ex.

to dithyrambics, properly so called, that

Horace speaks of the irregularity of PinZuror d'Eoðaoy TOTO TORNITE, TANTI TE Smuw, dar’s verse, for otiier odes besides thoro διαβας εν προμαχοισι μαχη

that have come down to us, were written Νωλεμεως, &c.

by Pindar t. The fine Pæan of AriI have said, that these measures are phron is an example of the irregular meamore generally used in the elegy: for sure, beginning, fome writers, I am aware, Morten the Υγιεια πρεσβσσα μακαρων Elegiac measure, as in the “ LoveElegies:” and the much admired ode of Aristotle, nothing else, however, need be said on this measure.

Αρετη πολυμοχθε We come next to consider the Ode; of Γενει βροτειω, &c. which there are various kinds : as,

Of the fame character also were the anThe Pindarić, fo called from Pindar, cienç Hyporchemata, the celebrated Theban poet. Whether

Τις ο θορυβος ουτος, &c f. Pindar was the original inventor of this measure, or only used it more gene

There is an irregular kind of verse, inrally than other poe: s, is a matter of deed, well adapted to occasions of grief small consequence. The ancient He- and melancholy, in which the artifice of brew poets sung several of their sacred frophe, antistrophe, and epode, would odes with alternate choruffes, acccm

be improper; such is the MONODY. panied with music, of which fome ex

Milton's Lycidas, Lord Lytttelon's Moamples remain: in conformity to theft, nody on the Death of his Laily, and Coletlie αντιφωνος υμνωδια, or responsoria ridge's Monody on the death of Chatter

ton, are odes of this character. The among the primitive Chriftians were formed; as to the latter the chaunting of true pindaric odes, on the contrary, were cathedral worship. This has been no

more immediately adapted to occasions of ticed by Bishop Lowth: but no example victory and triumph; hence called ETproduced by that elegant writer of the ancient Hebrew poetry resembles the Pin

Collins's admirable “ Ode on the Pasdaric*: though the contrary has been fons,is an irregular ode of this kind : asserted by some authors.

-Particular rules are not to be laid down The Pindaric ode was formed in refer- for such odes: the writer's own feelings ence to the heavenly spheres, and consisted and a correct ear are his best guides .. of three stanzas, called a Strophe, an Antistrophe, and Epode : in the strophe the

* Well's Preface to bis Translation of somedancers moved from right to left; in the of Pindar's Odes.

+ Laureâ donandus Apollinari antistrophe from left to right; in the

Seu per audaces nova Dithyramlos epode they stood still: for the strophe and

Verba devolvit, numcrisq fertur antistrophe were accompanied with danc

Lege solutis, ing; all the stanzas were accompanied Seu Deos, &c. Horat. Od. L. iv.ö. with music; and the antistrophe corre I “ Julii Scalig. Poet. Lib. i. сар. . xliv.

xlv. Vid. 66 Loweb de Sacra Hab xor:1193 || It may be proper to hint, that the introPerfi." Lib. xxiv.

ductory ode to the " Monthly Magazire,



Mr. Dyer on English Versification.

Od. 14.

The Sapphic .(so called from the Lõveý cõurier { $f the { kỹ, charming Lesbian poetess, Sappho,) our Whēnice, ănd | whither | dõst thou fill. language with great difficulty admits,

The following justly admired song is and affords very few examples of : this

more agreeable to the Anacreontic meadifficulty the translator of a fine ode of fure (as are several of our popular conviSappho was well aware of, and threw it vial longs); at least they are Iambics. into a different measure,

You gen | tlémen 1 of Eng | lānd,
Φαινεται μοι κηνος ισος


Thăt līve 1 åt home l åt tale,
Εμμεν' ανηρ οςις εναντίον του

Ah! lit | tiě do | you think I ůron
Ιζανει, και πλασιον αυ φωνα-

The dan 1 gers of the feās.
---σας υπακοει. .

With respect to the ode, it admits of Bleft as th' immortal Gods is lie

almost endless varieties in the Englith lanThe youth who fondly fits by thee, guage, as well as in the Greek and Latin, Who hears and secs thee all the while,

and it would be unnecessary even to menSoftly fpcak, and sweetly smile.

tion them individually; the measures, inThe Anacreontic measure (so called deed, are as varied as are those of Horace, from the amorous and convivial bard of who, of all ancient writers, has the greatTeos) admits of a few varieties of mea- est variety; and whose correctness, elefure, as Anacreon himself used it, and gance, and appropriate use of epithets, does not confine itself to the votaries of his curioja felicitas) have made him conBacchus and Venus. The most usual lidered almost as a model for the odes of measure with Anacreon is the short Iam- shorter measure. bic wanting one syllable (called by the One general observation it may be

pro critics, Dimiter lambic Catalectic), ex. per to make here, that odes consisting of

Itanzas, or veries, have a natural close at «Θελω, θελω φιλησαι

the end of each verse; so that the syllable

of the latt line does not run into the subI will | love, mūst | love thee, | fair.

fequent verse. Waller, who was among Another measure frequently used by the firit of our English poets, who studied Anacreon is the same measure, varied correct versification, and whose forte was only by an anapest, that is, a foot with the finaller ode, affords not a single exthe two first short, the last long, in the ample to the contrary. I mention this, first place: ex.

because some modern poets have been leis Μεσονυκ | τιοις | πoθωραις. Οd. iii.

scrupulous in this respect, though, I In thờ grăve | dărk nīd | vight hoūrs [ 1. if I recollect right, never deviates from

think, with a very unhappy effect. Prior, There are a few somewhat different from this practice; Covey a very few times. there, and which have even varieties in the The Greek and Roman poets, however, fame ode; as in that pretty ode (ode v.) did not confine themselves to such striet10 the Rose. The Anacreontic, how- nefs, as may be seen in the different meaever, in English, does not bind itself to fures of Horace: ex. the exact quantity of Anacreon's odes.

Qui nunc te fruitur credulus aureâ, The following lines of Waller's may he

Qui semper vacuam, femper amabilem called Anacreontic, though the opposite

Sperat, nefcius auræ to an Iambic verse, viz. a Trochaic.

Fallacis! miferi, quibus * Phyllis, why should wē dělay

Intentata nites, &c. Pleafures 1:örter than the dãy ;

A species of ode, of which mention has Could w = (though wẽ revề căn) Strētch cür lives beyond tbě plān.

already been made, when not dividing it.

felf into ftanzas, adapts itself very agreeWaller's Poems.

ably to descriptive poetry; and when thus The following pretty song is also con- directed, admits of a little diversity of sidered a anacreontic,

measure. Of this number are Mr. WalBusy, curious, thirsty fly,

ler's fine ode to Vandyke, and those two Drink with me, and drink as I,

excellent descriptive odes by Mr.J.DYER, Freely welcome to my cup,

and Mr. Thoinas Wharton, entitled Couldr thou drink, and drink it up. “ Grongar Hill," and " The First of April.And Dr. Johnson's translation of Ana “ Mindful of diforder past, creon's ninth ode :

And trembling at the northern blast,

The Teety Ttorm returning still, is not a proper Pindaric, though so called, in The morning hoar, the evening chill, conformity to others.


Mr. Dyer on Englijh Versification.

263 Reluctant comes the timid spring, rhyme, and is now, generally, understood Scarce a bee with airy wing, &c.

to favour of conceit: The First of April.

Of all the keene conquerors to carp it were In this and the other two odes, there kind, is a constant varying from a line of eight Of fell fighting folk a ferly we find *. lyllables to seven; from an Iambic to a Trochee.

Poets, however, occasionaile fall into Some of Anacrecn's descriptive odes, have a pleasing effect :

them, and inftances occur, when they also, are distinguished by some irregularity of measure, particularly his 4th and Et sola in fịcca fecum fpatiatur arena. Virgil. 37th.

The stately tread, and solitariness of There is a smaller species of verse, of the raven teem well expressed here.. very artificial construction, which, merely Double rhymes are rarely admitted by for the fake of conciseness, I take the correct verlifiers. In the following chalte Liberty of ranking among odes, though stanza, however, it has no unpleasing effect : the generality of critics will think im

Oh! that the chemist's magic art properly, I mean the sonnet.

Would crystallize this sacred treasure; The measure is of Italian origin, and Long should it glitter near my heart, was first introduced into England by A secret source of pensave pleasure. Milton; whose sonnets, however, with

Mr. Rogers's Verses on a Tear. two or three exceptions, are but indiffer

Generally speaking, it may be frid, that ent. In the fonnets of Petrarch and Metaf- The rule with Greek and Latin writers,

the verfe requires molt strength at the end. tafio, consiiting of fourteen lines, the is, to close with a Spondee, two long fyl. sense regularly closes twice in the course of lables: the last syllable at least is considered the eight first lines; fo that they might long, as being the closing line of the verse, compofe two regular stanzas of four lines. though by nature it should happen to be This is true of every fonnet of these fort :

:--a verse ending with a supernume. writers that I have examined. I mention rary fyllable, with a vowel, is no excepthis circunstance the rather, because tion to this rule ; the supernumerary fyllamany modern writers of sonnets have de- bie going on to the next verse, which parted from the Italian practice. It may always begins, in that case, with a be said, and, I think, with reason, that

vowel. the flow of many of these verses, much resembling that of blank verse, is adapted Quem non incufavi amens hominumque deoto the querulousness of language, the melt

rumque Aut

Virgil. ings and varyings of those lensibilities, which the sonnet wishes frequently to ex

Verses that end with a dactyl carry the prefs; and that the strictness of the laws ; appearance of negligence, are very rarely for the funnet, in other respects, justifies admitted by very correct versifiers, and, the poet's liberty in this particular in- when adinitted, generally damage the ftance.

verfe : The following hints, though more im “ As oft the learn'd by being fingủlăr.” mediately applicable to odes, will, many

Poft. of them, apply to all other species of ver As verse is considerably assisted by vaGfication.

riety in its pauses, it will be damaged by The softness and melody of verse are the use of low, feeble words, more parti. considerably assisted by the use of liquids: cularly when the accent is made to fall on for example,

them: The laughing flow'rs, that round them blcw, While expletives their feeble aid do join, Drink life and fragrance as they tow. Gray. And ten low words oft creep in one dull line. -Tu Tityre lentus in umbrâ,

Poft. Formosam resonare doces Amaryllida sylvas. Instances, however, occur, where mo

Alliteration, or an artful repetition of in blank verse.

nosyllabic lines are beautiful, particularly the fame letter, was agreeable to the ge

I say nothing concerning the Hudibra. neral practice of the Saxon poets, and was

stic or Travestie: they set all the laws of afterwards adopted by the English and Scotis *. It afterwards gave place to

* See “ Tournament of Tottenham, in Percy's See “ Pinkerton's Diffirtations prefixed to

Collection of Englih Bellads; and Pierce Plowo bis Satrijh Ballads.Vol. i.

men's Visions." MONTH. MAG, No. xxx.


quem, &c.

: ex.


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