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On the Culture of Wale Lands.
269 I shall only beg the reader to recolle&t, 2. In very many instances, in which that this note was written near trucniy lands remain very much in the state of years previons to the breaking out of the walles, this is owing, either to their American war. It will be unnecessary lying in unfavourable situations, remote to remind him of the part which that from the means of improvement, and heroic youth, GEORGE WASHINGTON, from markets, at which the produce took in that memorable ttruggle, or of the might be told, or to their lying, on the success with which his pairictie efforts contrary, in situations on the rea-coat, were crowned.
and soinetimes in the vicinity of great I have withed to contribute fomething cities, where the induitry of the people to your miscellany, in return for the is called entirely away, to be employed entertainment it has oftentimes afforded upon more flattering objects.
If this mite accord with its delign it 3. In other instances, lands are retained is at your fervice.
in a comparatively walte state, either as I am fir, your's respectfully, commons belonging to incorporations, or
JOHN EVANS. as chaces reserved for the amufeinent of Hoxton-square, March, 20, 1798. great iandholders. But, that proportion
of the territory of the island, which is To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. thus, of delign, kept in a fort of waste SIR,
condition, is much finaller than that of IN your Magazine for February laft, which the improvement has been prevented fenlible and well-intentioned letter on the 4. Of all those obstacles, which have Culture of Walte Lands, which is signed opposed the cultivation of our most barren A Lincrpoolian. I entirely concur in lands, the most powerful has had, and opinion with your correspondent; that still has, its existence in the ignorance and the cultivation of our waste lands is one the prejudices of the farmers and their of the most important means which re labourers. Agriculture, and all the arts main to be employed for the improvement of husbandry, have hitherto been com-> of the national wealth of Great Britain. monly taught, in Britain, by tradition Some of his facts, however, appear to ine alone. Rural oeconomy has never yet to be stated with a certain degree of in. been reduced to any thing like a system correctness; and his principal fuggestion of scientific principles affording a foundaI take to be rather too hastily hazarded. tion to rules by which its practice, as an You will, therefore, oblige me, by having art, might be regulated. In every differthe goodnels to submit the following ent part of the country, the diversities in considerations upon this interesting agris the modes of husbandry, are, not such as cultural subject, to him, and to your the diversity of local circumstances alone readers.
recommends, but such as accident has 1. When we speak, in Great Britain, introduced, in ancient times. The old of Wafte Lands, it is not to be understood, Anglo-Saxon implements of the seventh that there is any land in the island, which, and eighth centuries, are still used, alınolt if not covered by stagnant water, or ex. without improvement or variation of form, hibiting, at the surface, nothing but bare throughout the greater number of the rock, can deserve to be regarded, as farms in the illand. The most absurd absolutely watte. Even our moraffes, where practices of husbandry prevail, merely these are not ablolutely inaccesiible to because they have prevailed. Too many cattle, yield grasses which both cows and of our farmers know no other ratio of sheep crop with remarkable avidity. their plans of farmning, than that the Our bleakett moors afford excellent partire fame were followed by their fathers, their for sheep. Goats clamber among the cliffs grand-fathers, and their great-grandof our highest mountains; and these find fachers. Their prejudices are in the alpine plants which are to their peculiarly direct proportion of their ignorance. grateful. There is no land, either in That ground which has been once proScotland or England, which has its fur- nounced not arable, they hold almost as face at all covered with herbage, that religioufly facred from the plough, as the ought not to afford at least sixpence, an Druids of old could hold their inmolt and acre, in the year, to the landlord, if it be most mysterious groves. favourably útuate in regard to markets, 5. Notwithstanding these powerful obthat may not yield at leaft Half-a-crown stacles, very great progress has, at length, 2 year, for each acre, to ą ikilful and begun to be made in the improvement of indystrious tenant,
270 Plans for the Cultivation.of Waste Lands, lands, which were once accounted to be not nine-tenths of all the great projects invincibly barren. Multiplying population of governments for the accomplishinent bas produced a necessity for new inclosures, of sudden and extensive improvements in new subdivisions of fields, extended till- industry and manners been unavoidably age. Augmented wealth, luxury be- defeated, by disadvantages inseparable coming continually more sumptuous, from their own nature. The plan of tafte more jutt, more capricioully fickle, Braschi, the last of the Popes, for draining more magnificent in its designs; have, in the Campagna di Roma ; that of a Spaniid. the formation of new ornamented grounds, minister for peopling and cultivating the brought vast tracts of territory into a Siena Morena by the introduction of a. ftate of rich cultivation, which were, German colony ; that of the Scottish before, barren and neglected. All these Trustees, forty years since, for improving means have concurred to enlarge our the forteited estates. Were not these all domestic market for the produce of lands great fchemes, not unlike to this which is improved by husbandry; and of conte- proposed by your correspondent; and quence, to promote their improvement. which were frustrated chiefly by that The diffusion of knowledge throughout management which became peculiar to the land, and the encreasing application them, as being the schemes of ministers of science to the improvement of every and of government ? Let any one but one of the useful arts; has also begun enter, in imagination, into all those cirat length to lend its powerful aid towards cumstances of management, which would the advancement of agriculture ;, and has neceffarily attend the execution of your suggested various means of the most correspondent's project ; the influence it effential utility, for reducing waste would have upon the price of land and on grounds under profitable cultivation. For sales, the partialities which might be the use of all the arts in general, our exercifed in parcelling cut the little fields, roads and canals have been, within these the jealousies which would be excited last thirty years, prodigiously improved, among all the candidates for the purchases, extended, multiplied: Ănd this opening up the injuries which the present proprietors of the country, has, in the most eminent would, in a thousand instances, luftain, degree, contributed to rescue all its parts from being forced to sell, even at any from desolation. I know not, if any direct price, that which they rather desired to measures employed for the fertilization of reserve: And he will easily be convinced, our more harren lands, could have, within that there could be nothing much more the same time, so effectually atchieved unwise, than the adopting of fiich a plan their purpose, as have those natural and of improvement as that proposed by your indiredt means here enumerated.
correspondent ! 6. I cannot but think, that a moment's 7. But, how, then, prosecute this reflection would induce your enlightened improvement to its die point of perfeccorrespondent to see the impropriety of tion? any plan which should legally au Extend, repair, multiply your roads thorise government to purchale and then and canals, till, by- means ot' them, the parcel out, anew, our present wasle lands. molt diftant parts of the country shall be It can never be adviseable to put into the brought virtually nearer together; and hands of government any powers, save the mutual communication between its those of providing for cur immerliate provinces, which are mutually the most naticnal defence, of maintaining public remote, hall be easy, almost as if they order, by the administration of diftributive · were but different streets of the faine great justice, of levying, under a proper fanction, town. means for the necessary public expence, and Cherish, with particular care, those of giving the watchword, if poflible, to arts which work up for exportation the the nation, in regard to whatever can pro- products of agriculture. Such are those mote the general welfare. Is not our own of the brewer, the distiller, the maker of government invested, at present, by the starch and hair-powder, beside all our unavoidable exigency. of circumstances, other manufactures which demand lawith, perhaps, too much power over bourers, that must be fed from the pro. private life and property? Is it not duce of our cwn land. universally known, that; wherever govern Cultivate commerce, manufactures, and ments have descended ino tco particular agriculture, as reciprocally conducive to an interference in the general economy of one another's prosperity. But, wherever the national industry, this ceconomy has the interests of our manufactures intestere been always deranged and injured ? Have
271 with those of our commerce, give the endeavours to improve some few-acres of preference to the former : Wherever the such grounds, such as may be worthy of interetts of our agriculture clath with the imitation of his tenants. Let the those of our manufactures, prefer thofe of landlord's improvements be so conducted, agriculture,
that their profitableness may be undeni, Patronize every: ingenious and diligent ably evinced to the farmers whom her effort to apply the principles of* fcience wishes to imitate them. to the improvement of rural economy : Follow nature, or even lead her ; but And endeavour to provide manuals of attempt not to drive or drag her.. Above agricultural rules and principles, suf- ally avoid those hasty projects which tend ficiently simple and popular, such as to bring all improvensent into disgrace. may make every farmer at once an able It is hardly to be conceived, by those philosopher and a consummate artist in all witò have not observed, how much our that belongs to husbandry.
waste lands have been brought under Let every landholder let out his estate culture, since the year 1794. under good improving leafes : And let
I am, Sir, your's, him set himself an example of prudent Dumfries, March 5, 1798.
THIS remarkable edifice stands near « Maitland Poeirs," vol. ii. p. 253, there
Haddington in East Lothian. is a Scottish poem on this subject, not a It was the chief residence of the Mait- little interesting, as observing the manlands, ancestors of the Lauderdale family. ners and amulements of the time. The Sir Richard Maitland, the poet, and his Editor obferves, p. 428, that the Lidingsons, the chancellor, and the much celë: ton apple takes its name from this house. brated secretary of state in Mary's reign, And among the poems of Thomas Maitare names known to most of our readers. land, in the “ Delicia Poetaruin Scotarum,"
This chateau has had the fortune to tom. ii. p. 167, is now Ityled Dorrus be twice described in verse. In the Leiliniona.
excused for offering my
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. have practised for several years, and of
which I have had occafion to observe the SIR,
result in the practice of others; I hope I Monthly Magazine for September, opinion upon it. concerning the best method of sowing land The folia zingt extracts is taken from with grass feeds, without a crop of corn; the agricultural report of the north rid. and alto the answers in that for the suc- ing of Yorkshires ceeding inonth; the latter appeared to me * Several farmers in this country fow to come from perfons who were unac their..grass feeds with the first сгор,
after quainted with the fuperior advantages at a fallow or turnips; and a few fow then tending that mode of culture, which I upon a Spring fallow without corn, upon MONTH, Mac, No. XXX.
Mr. Tuke on sowing Grass Seeds, &dc. ftrong land, and find it answer much bet- seeds, are greatly enriching the land by ter than fowing them with corn: and the manure they leave. The last summer there is a very evident fuperiority in fa- I lowed tome tares instead of rape, at vour of that practice, when compared the rate of one bushel per acre, along with that of lowing them with corn. The with the grass feeds, upon land which method is to low them as early in the had been cropped with potatoes the year fpring as the land can be made tit; the before; as soon as the tares had got about tops of the weeds which may grow amongit ancle deep, I turned in fone Theep; but them are mown off twice in the course of I foon found it almolt impoflible to keep Tuinmer, and the land rolled after each it down with the stock, and at this time mowing; by autumn, if the feafon has it is as beautiful a piece of swarth as I been tolerably favourable, a rich, luxusiant pasture is produced.”
I find it the best practice, not to fow Although the above method is well the lieds until a month or fix weeks after adapted to strong land, an improvement the last ploughing; in the fore part of inay be made upon it, by fowing along that time, the land should be manured, if with the grass feeds one buthel of tares or necessary, with short manure; and repeat. yetches. Where this is practised, the ed opportunities taken, in dry weather, to crops thould be mown for hay as soon as harrow it well, and it Mould be once the vetches are got well into power ; by rolled; by thete means, the weeds are this method the produce mown is rendered destroyed, the gets a considerable devaluable, but in the former case it is of gree of firmness, the manure is well mixed very little value, rarely worth the expence with the soil, which lies within reach of of cutting. The feeds thus having a free the roots of the grass, and the feeds lie at admission of air, will spread, and get a more equal depth than when the land is ftrength fast, and the tares ipringing again, fresh ploughed; if any weeds should af. will, with the feeds, form, in a short time, terwards appear, care should be taken to a most excellent pasture for Meep.
extirpate them. It is a settled principle with me, that The feeds per acre I should recommend the land cannot be too rich when sown to be Town on light, or loamy foils, are with grass feeds; for the richer the land ten pounds of trefoil, fix pounds of white is, the more Itock the feeds will carry, clover, four pounds of red clover, and fix and the stock consequently, leave a larger bushels of hay feeds, if the latter can be quantity of manure, and thus increase its depended upon to be of good kinds, and fertility in almost an arithmetical progref- without a mixture of any thing prejudifion; and when the field is again plough- cial; but this is rarely to be met with : ed out, it will be in a state to produce for want of good hay feeds, I recommend the more plentiful crops of corn. On the one bushel of rye graks; and even if hay other hand, if land be sown down poor, feeds are used, I should mix one peck of it carries little stock, remains poor as long rye grass with them, unless a confiderable as it lies in grass, and when ploughed out, quantity of rye grais appears contained will scarce clear expences.
among them, which rarely happens. It was from reatoning in this manner, Rye grass, if properly managed in that I was led to low grass feeds without spring, by being kept well eat down, is corn; which I have done on a winter and valuable grats.
JOHN TUKE. ipring fallow limed, as well as the fame Lingcroft (near York), kind of fallow manured ; and allo on land 27th of 3d Month, 1798. well manured, which had been cropped the preceding year with potatoes: the two latt have answered the best. My soil
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, being a light fand, I preferred fowing SIR, Toinething along with the grass feeds, that "HE high price of gall-nuts, and the would soon make a good sheep pasture; I therefore fowed one half puck of rape leed bark, 'being frequently subjects of per acre along with the grass feeds; as plaint among those wlio use these infoon as it got a pretty good leaf, I turned gredients in their respective employments; in tuch a ttock of sheep as I thought would and the peculiarly vieful art of tanning, rat it as fast as it grew; by which ma- and the dying of various articles of nagement, the rape affords a ihelter for manufacture, depending, for their perthe young seeds, and the theep, at the fection, on the highly aitrixgent qualities fame time that they are eating the rape, of the two above named substances and faltening the foil to the roots or the many other fubitances have been applied
Mr. Gray on Substitutes for Bark.
273 in their stead to the fame purpose; but Mr. Bourne of Newcastle, and his comthey are, for the most part, either inferior mentator, Mr. Brand, in this, are our chief in quality, or liable to the fame objections. sources of information on subjects of this A vegetable which is both common and nature. Indeed the valuable additions of plentiful has claimed my attention, as the latter to the antiquitates vulgares of possessing the aftringent quality in a very his predecessor, contain a fund of curious high degree; and from fome experiments observations, worthy of the station which which I made with it, though at a most their author holds as secretary to the improper season of the year (winter), I was Society of Antiquaries. They are howkrongly induced to the conclufion of its ever, chiefly confined to the author's utility for tanning leather, and for a black personal knowledge of the opinions, dye, or other purposes to which aftringents cuttoms and traditions of the common are applied. It is the root of the Pseuda- people in the northern counties, which, corus or Yellow Water Flag: and, if while it establishes their authenticity lo found convenient for such ules, its de- far as they go, must necessarily detract mand can be supplied to any extent, as from their claim to be considered as a the culture of it in marshy grounds cannot general work upon the subject. We may be difficult. For present use it may be Tortly expect much curious information only crushed as apple for cyder ; it may from Mr. Boucher of Epfum, whose Provinalso be dried and kept to be used as oc cial Glossary will probably soon make its casion may require. But those who may appearance. think this communication worthy of their In the mean time give me leave to attention, will fuggelt the best modes of occupy a corner in your Magazine, with applying it. As far as I know, it has a few queries on a custom, with which I not heretofore been either used or recom remember to have been much ftruck mended for such purposes.
during my residence, twenty years ago, in Newcastle upon Tyne, G. Gray. Lancashire ; which used to be the terror April 10, 1798.
of the infirin and the timoronis ; but P.S. Since writing the above, a friend which has of late been wisely checked by has shewn me the following article in the civil magiftrate, as a rude, indecent, Rees's edition of Chambers : which I and dangerous practice. I refer to the gladly annex as a corroborating evidence liftings which prevailed in Manchester, of its aftringent properties.
Bolton, Warrington, and the adjacent “ Iris lutea palußris, or yellow water flag, country, to what extent I know not, on grows naturally in ditches and moist places Easter Monday and Tuesday. On the in most parts of this country : The common
former of these days the women, on the people in Scotland have found out an use for latter the men, forming parties of fix or this plant, which has escaped the most ac- eight each, lurrounded every one of the curate writers on botany. In that country oppolite sex whom they met, and lifted the common ink is made of it. They cut them thrice, not very gently, above their some of the roots into thin Nices, and either heads into the air, with loud thouts on boil or infuse them in water till the liquor each elevation. I have often enquired is highly tinged with them; they then pour into the original of this strange ceremony ; it clear off, and then putting into it the blade but it seemed to bear the same testimony of a knife, or any other piece of iron, they to its antiquity
which Mr. Brand alleges rub it hard with a rough white pebble, and by degrees the liquor becomes black : they refpe&ting most of the customs of the continue rubbing till it is as deep a black as common people, that it has “ outlived they require, and it is a tolerable good ink.” the general knowledge of the very causes
which gave rise to it." *
Mankind, indeed, are naturally prone To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, to invent causes for any appearance,
rather than submit to confess their ignoHE ftudy of popular antiquities, rance : I have, accordingly, heard many
though the materials for it lie so reasons assigned, none of which appeared widely diffused, and indeed seem to obtrude to me at all likely to be the true one. Some themselves upon every one's attention, have said, that, like the paste or paschein proportion to the extent of his inter- egg, it was an emblem of the resurrection courte with the common people, do not of Jesus Chrift; but it can hardly be appear to have engaged so much of the thought that a fact, which christians notice of enquirers into human life and manners as might have been expected. * Observations on Popular Antiquities, The learned but pedantic writer of the preface, p. i.' vulgar errors, in the last century, and