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324 Obfervations on Mr. Tennant's Bleaching Liquor. ing a chevaux de frize along the top, he ercised in the serious use of it? not as a will do better than by providing tables fo graceful and manly exercise of sport, but finely polished, as to lerve for looking- as a defence, which both its efficacy in glasses, and chairs of so delicate a fa- itself and its novelty in European warfare, brique, as to be fit for every thing but might very justly recommend to be adopta fitting upon. If there must be a china ed into our tactics. closet, let him take care that there is This may strike the eye of several, nothing in it more brittle than porcelain; whose professional knowledge and expe. and if there must be music, let the notes rience will enable them best to judge be foftened and harinonized, by passing whether this proposal deserves attention. through a key-hole. In the course of I have understood it was one of the these preparations, I cannot help observ weapons which Marshal Saxe had mediing, that we fhall be greatly assisted by tated to revive.
C. LOFFT, the superior ingenuity of modern me April, 1798. chanics. Besides the usual help of bolts and bars, we may adopt the patent lock,
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine, which, we are told, is fo contrived that
*IVE me' leave, sir, to make a few no dishonest person can pick it; and that the owner may depend on the security of new method of preparing the chemical what he guards by means of it.
bleaching liquor, described in your exI see nothing else that can prevent the cellent Magazine for March. Mr. TENabuse of liberty, but means like these. It NANT combines the oxygenated' muriatic is in vain to think that people will not acid, produced by 301b. of falt, with a abale liberty, if they have it. They may ley, consisting of a solution of 30lb. of alls for a little, and that little may not falt, and Golb. of lime, diffused in water; feem unreasonable, but, if it is granted, instead of combining it with an alcaline can we be fure that they will stop there? ley, as it has hitherto been practised. No, for, the more liberty you give to a The question is, whether his method be min, or a woman (which is the point preferable to the old one at present in use. here), the more they will require. It is if it be preferable, it must be either like giving drink in the droply. It grows cheaper, or better in point of quality, or by what it feeds on. We live, however, both. We find, that seven pounds and a in times, where I hope there is not much half of pearl-ashes are sufficient to fix the occasion for my dilating upon this fub- acid produced from zolb of falt; the exjest. It is a general maxim now, that pence of this quantity of ashes is, at sixthe abuse of any thing is a sufficient rea
pence a pound, 35. gd. To fix the same fon against the use; and it is highly re. quantity of acid, Mr. TENNANT em, quisite we fhould
carry this theory into ploys pra&tice. If I have not fully explained 3olb. of salt at 114.
39 every part of my plan, I trust many of and bolb of lime, about your readers will have entered into the spirit of it, fufficiently to supply my defects; and I hope, in a very short time, It appears, therefore, that the calcato find that crim, con, and all its confe
reous liquor is not cheaper, but even quences of “ deprivation of comfort, and dearer than the alcaline liquor, independheavy damages, will be for ever extin
ant of the additional labour which Mr, guished and abolished, by my plan of TENNANT's method requires. But, is FAMILY BARRACKS. I sır, your's, his method better? is the quality of the
liquor improved by it? I have seen, in a
paper published in the last half volume of To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the “ Memoirs of the Literary and PhiloSIR,
Sophical Society of Manchester," that in A
Ninvasion being expected, and pre- proportion as the oxygenated muriatic
parations being at length beginning acid is neutralised by an alcali, it beto be made, on a system and on an extent comes lets active in bleaching. The same which bears fome proportion to the mag- must be the case when this acid is neunitude of the evil we may scon have to tralized by any other bafis. Now the encounter, I would wish to ask those who quantity of calcareous earth which Mr. are the proper judges, why our antient T. prescribes, is more than sufficient national weapon, the ENGLISH HAND. completely to saturate the acid produced how, should not be revived, and fome by jolb. of falt; whereas 7lib. of pearlselect orps invited to be trained and ex: athes will not saturate it; hence Mr. Ten.
Account of the Rota Club.
325 KANT's combination must be less active. convinced that he was no longer likely to Unanswerable as this reasoning seems to retain the protectoral office with the conme, I shall determine the point by experi- sent of the legislature, he deterinined to ment, and communicate to you the relult, dismiss it, and to attempt an undisguised if it should be different from the above military despotism. The republicans deduction. There is another objection took alarm; and the more literary politito the calcareous bafis: it is to be appre. cians among them collected into a debate bended, that part of the oxymuriate of ing society, called the Rota, whose spelime will, in the process of bleaching with culations had for their object to involve it, be decomposed, and its calcareous a true idea of the bett form of governbasis fixed upon the cloth. In this case, ment. " Their discourses of ordering a the stuff, though white at first, will in a commonwealth (says the royalist Abfhort time become yellow; or, if it were thony Wood), were the most ingenious printed, it would be stained in the bath and finart ever heard; for the arguments in which the colours are raised. I have in the parliament house were but flat to ftated this objection to an eminent chemist those. This gang had a balloting box, of this town, who differs from me in opi- and ballotted how things should be carnion, alleging, that the lime being dif- ried by way of essay; which not being folved in an acid, would prevent the bad used or known in England before, on this effects I apprehended from it. But he account, the room was every evening very did not consider, that no basis for any full. Beside James Harrington and colour can be applied to cloth, if that Henry Nevil, who were the prime men of bafis be not in actual combination with this club, were Cyriac Skinner, Major an acid.--Such an inconvenience, how- Wildman, Roger Coke, author of “ The ever, cannot arise from the use of the Detectim of the Four last Reigns," Williana oxymuriate of potash. But though the Petty and Maximilian Petty, and a great alcaline liquor be superior to Mr. TEN- many others, fome whereof are still living. NANT's (which I am, however, inclined The doctrine was very taking, and the more to think is capable of much improve. because as to human forelight there was no ment), both in point of price and strength, poffibility of the king's return. The greatyet it is inferior to a simple solution of eft of the parliament-men hated this rotathe oxygenated muriate acid in mere tion and balloting, as being against their water. Nothing is cheaper than water, power. Eight or ten were for it, of and no other vehicle impairs the bleaching which number Henry Nevil was the one power of that acid less than water. The who proposed it to the house, and made only inconvenience lies in its application. it out to the members, that except they The fùffocating vapours which escape embraced that fort of government, they from it, require that it should be used in must be ruined. The model of it was, close vessels, which mould, however, be that the third part of the fenate, or houie, fo contrived as to enable the bleacher to should vote out, by ballot, every year, work his pieces in the liquor, that is, to and not be capable of being elected again expose every part of them, to the action for three years to come ; fo that every of the liquor, as otherwise the stuff would ninth year the senate would be wholly be of an uneven colour. Having invented altered. No magistrate was to continue an apparatus for this purpole, I refer above three years, and all were to be your readers to the last volume of the chosen by a fort of ballot, than which « Manchester Memoirs," in which I have nothing could be more fair and impartial given to the public a description of that as it was then thought, though opposed apparatus. I am, fir, your most obe- by many, for several reasons." It is prodient servant, Theo. LEWIS RUPP. , bable that Milton was a member of the Manchester, April 19, 1798.
Rota; since the satirical attack on his
« Ready and Easy IFay to establish a free For the Monthly Magazine.
Commonwealth," profelles to be the cene
sure of the Rota, on Milton's project of Some ACCOUNT of the ROTA:
After the death of Cromwell, these emptorily diffolved the last of the republican parliaments. He had hitherto tion of St. Albans, in November 1647, congovernedi * constitutionally; but, being formed by the second convention of 1653, and
proclaimed in the instrument of government. Conformably to the conftitution settled. Fairfax presided in the firft, Barebones in the hy the agrsement of the people at the conven- Second of these conventions.
Rota Club..... Lady W. Montague's Letters, political philosophers gave great publicity To the Editor of the Montbly Magazine: to their proceedings. In the works of
SIR, Harrington, the following memorandum
Y W of one of their meetings is preserved.
POUR anecdote concerning Lady
Wortley Montague, containing the *. At the Rota, December 20, 1659. assertion--" When the publication was
“ Resolved, that the proposer be desired, about to take place, Lord Bute, who had and is hereby desired to bring in a model of a married her daughter, sent for the editor, free State or equal commonwealth at large, to be further debated by this fociety; and that and offered one hundred pounds to fup. in order thereunto, it be first printed.
The man took the money, “ Resolved, that the model, being pro- promifed--and published,"—is a gross posed, in print, shall be first read, and then mistake. My worthy and intimate friend, debated by clauses.
the rev. Benjamin Sowden, of Rotterdam, “ Resolved, that a clause being read over who died during the American contest, night, the debate thereupon begin not till informed me, in fome of those annual visits the next evening.
be paid to Ipswich (where I was once « Resolved, that such as will debate, be settled), and to London, to the following desired to bring in their queries upon, or ob- purpose: When Lady Mary Wortley jections against, the clause in debate, if they Montague was returning from the Contithink fit, in writing. “ Resolved, tha lebate being sufficiently
nent to England, she resided for a while at had upon a clause, the question be put hy the Rotterdam, waiting for a 20 gun frigate balloting box, not any way to determine of to bring her fafely over, as it was a time or meddle with the government of these na of war. During her stay Mr. Sowden tions, but to discover the judgment of this waited upon her. His good sense, agreefociety on the best form of popular govern- able conversation, and suitable conduct ment in abstract."
were so pleating to her ladyship, that the At length this club of law-givers, this made him a present of her manuscript committee of constitution, having agreed letters; and, in her own hand-writing, on the model at large of a free state, pro- attested her having given them to Mr. posed, through Henry Nevil, to the re Sowden. Lady Bute having been inassembled fragment of the too celebrated formed (probably by Lady Montague's long parliament, to appoint a committee chaplain), that the manuscripts of her to receive Mr. Harrington's proposals ladyship were in the poffeffion of Mr. for settling the government of this coun- Sowden, claimed them of him. He try. He assigned as the reason for his consulted, if I mistake not, among others, motion, that the fairest way of introduc- Messrs. Cliffords, the bankers. Lord ing a government is, that it be first pro. Bute was acquainted with the particular posed to conviction, before it be imposed donation of them to Mr. Sowden. The by power: and he further recommended, giving them up was still urged. At that to the committee of the house might length Mellrs. Cliffords and Mr. Sowden be added one hundred persons (who were concluding, that a proper acknowledge named) as of such judgment and autho- ment for lo valuable a manuscript treasure, rity, that they being convinced, the plan would undoubtedly be made, the letters mult needs have an healing effect. So were safely conveyed to Lady Bute,
No great was the reputation of this disinter- acknowledgment was made. The lettere ested and patriotic fociety for learning, for were shortly after published, and had an talent, and for eloquence, that it became amazing sale. This raised the spirits of a question, whether it were more honour- Messrs. Cliffords and Sowden, and such able to belong to the Rota, or to the measures were taken, that the latter was society of Virtuosi.
The members of the presented with three hundred pounds. It Rota threw in the teeth of their rivals, was at length discovered, that a Scotchthat they had an excellent faculty of mag- man, who was to enjoy the whole profits nifying a louse and diminishing a com of the impression, paid the three hundred monwealth. When the perfidy of Gene- pounds. 'I remember, that meeting Mr. ral George Monk had accomplished the Sowden afterwards at Mr. Field's, the Restoration, Charles II. revenged this bookseller, the latter faid to the former, epigram, by erecting the Virtuosi into a if we had posseffed the publishing and sale Royal Society; by dispersing the mem. of them jointly, we should each have bers of the Rota; and by exiling Har. gotten three hundred pounds. rington for life, to the island of Saint St. Neot's, Your humble servant, Nicholas.
April 9, 1798. WILLIAM GORDON.
On Sonnets and the Word ' Aspect”... Quakers. 327 To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Mr. D. I trust, will pardon the mi
nuteness of these observations, and may SIR, IN the ingenious hints on versification, probably concur with the writer in think
p. 263, Mr. Dyer is certainly mif- ing it unfafe to follow the track of any taken when he says that Milton intro
critical predecessor, without a careful exduced the fonnet-measure into England. amination of the ground on which he It was ingrafted upon our stock of na
trod. I am, &c. tional poësy at least a century before, by
S. K. Henry, Earl of Surry, who celebrated his Geraldine, a lady of Florentine ex To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. traction, in the Petrarchian stanza, It was
laft and appears to have been as favourite a fpecies of composition in the age of Eli- exculpate the society of Friends, or zabeth as it is at the present day: fince Quakers, from the charge of deism many centuries of sonnets, amatory, en- brought against them by Huine, Guthrie, comiaftic, sentimental, and spiritual, were
and others. It is indeed unjuftifiable in published near the close of her reign. writers of their class, to have 'misrepreDuring that of James (though he had fented, in various ways, a very respectabeen a lonnetteer) the fashion seems to have ble body of people, concerning whom they declined; and Milton, therefore, rather had the power of obtaining the most acrevived than introduced, that Italian curate information. mode of metrical dress; which, however
If, according to the sense of the term unbecoming on many occasions, almost all generally received, deifm consists in “acour modern poets have condescended to knowledging the existence of one God,
the creator and preserver of the universe; At p. 264. col. 2. Mr. Dyer has and in following the light and law of nacommitted another light mistake, in ture, to the exclusion of all revealed recharging Milton with a fault which is ligion, the Friends are certainly not imputable to the æra at which he lived. Deifts :—for they allow of divine revelaThe word aspéct was,' before his time, tion to a much greater extent than any uniformly accented upon the last fyllable. Other denomination of Christians. In my researches among the works of our Perhaps, Mr. Editor, we might class earlier versifiers, one folitary instance only them better, were we permitted to estahas occurred of a contrary usage, which blish two kinds of Deists: ist. Those of may be considered as a mere exception to natural religion. 2dly. Deists of revelaà generally established rule. Dr. FAR- tion; the former being as above stated; MER, in his well-known Essay, doubts the latter acknowledging one perfect and whether aspect, in any sense of the word, eternal God (not composed of different was ever accented on the first syllable in persons, as the majority of Christians the time of Shakespeare: and he alludes would persuade themselves); and believe to a paffage in Hudibras, where even ing that his will has been revealed to manButler followed the ancient accentua
kind at sundry times, and through a tion,
number of individuals. " As if the planet's first aspeet
The Quakers are clearly not TrinitaThe tender infant did infeët.”
rians: they never personify the holy Spirit, but consider it as an attribute of
God, or an emanation from him, which This very accent, he adds, hath trou- enlightens men beyond the extent of nabled the annotators on Milton. Dr. tural reason, and gives them an inward BENTLEY observes it to be a tone dif- sense or consciousness of the divine will. ferent from the present ule ;” and Mr. I. N. however, afferts they do recognize MAINWARING remarks, in his “ Treatise “ the divinity of Christ, the Son of God, of Harmony and Numbers," that the line the Messiah, the Word, the Mediator of cited by Mr. DYER is “defective both the new Covenant :” but how do tliey acin accent and quantity, a fyllable being knowledge it, Mr. Editor ?-because Jes acuted and long, which ought to be graved fus Christ " is the wisdom' and power of and thort.” These gentlemen have not God unto salvation.” This, Sir, is albeen fufficiently aware that Milton af- lowing Christ's divinity in words,.na but fected the antique,
the elucidation of the thing completely MONTHLY MAG. No. XXXI,
Part II. 1. 941.
Religious Opinions, &c. of Quakers..... Biondi. sets it afide, by constituting the word of the professors of them among the firt God, not a prion, but, as has already kind of Deists. been said of the holy Spirit, an attribute It is scarcely possible, Mr. Editor, for of the Deity, and his power exerted in a a person not a member of the fociety, to particular direction, or to a particular be acquainted with every circumstance end.
relating to it. Should there be any misWe may conclude, therefore, that the statement in what has been said, I shall be Quakers, according to the distinction very happy to see it corrected; and am above made, are Deists of Revelation, confident it would afford satisfaction to nearly agreeing in their leading tenet many others, to see the opinion of the with the Socinians, or Unitarians, though society more explicitly detailed than it they differ from them in points of difci- has yet been, respecting the points above pline, and with respect to the ministry. mentioned. If it should appear that the This conclusion at lealt is deducible Friends, as a body, have no established from I. N.'s statement, which seems creed, no system at all, but leave indivi, taken from the Friend's last thoughts on dual members to interpret nice fcriptural the fubject*, published, I believe, by points for themselves, as well as they order of the society.
may be enabled, I fee no harm there It must, however, be confessed, that would be in openly avowing this. Who individual writers of the society give dif- will not think'it better to do so, than en. ferent views of the point in question. deavour to enforce a belief, the terms of Some acknowledging tlie Trinity, though which can scarcely be understood, under faintly and rather evasively; others, from the threatened penalty of temporal sufferwhat they have said, and from the quota- ance, or eternal damnation ? tions they have carefully selected, appear A free communication on these sub. more inclined to the Arian doctrine; but jects, from some enlightened Friend, the greater number tiem defirous of wav- would, I think, be highly satisfactory to ing the question altogether, or, in fpeak- the public, and might give additional ing of it, content themselves with bring reputation to the fociety, which is aling forward some very general texts of ready so much admired for its correctness, Scripture.
and for its exemplary internal discipline. From a shyness in the Friends, of com The society can now boast of many emi. paring ideas on these subjects with other nent literary characters, both male and professors of christianity, and from their female: and surely the information des holding the scriptures only in a secondary fireable could in no wise be diffused to a degree of estimation ("Jesus Christ, and greater extent than through the channel not the scripture, being,” according to of the Monthly Magazine. them, “ the word of God”), some Tuf Hermitage, May 7, 1798. M. N. picion of heterodoxy has at all times atfached to their fect. By maintaining that To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. none can rightly understand or profit by
SIR, the scriptures, except those who read them under the influence of the same fpi- Y OUR Correspondent T. X in your rit, as was communicated to the prophets, of Biondi, an historian recommended to or evangelists, in writing them; and that men, at this day, may be so immediately naldino de Rebolledo, « as a name with.
students by the Spanish poet, Ber. actuated and enlightened by divine inspi- which he is unacquainted.” It may, ration, that no external teacher whatever therefore, be an acceptable piece of informcan be requisite for them ; they not only ation to him, and to your other readers, diminish the importance of the scripture to be told, that Biondi, or rather Şir as a rule of practice, but seem to render, Giovanni Francisco Biondi, was a native in fome measure, unnecessary the revela- of Liefena, an island of Dalmatia, in the tion therein contained. Hence, the Ca. tholics, Lutherans, and many members the ambassador there, introduced him to
gulph of Venice. Sir Henry Wotton, of the church of England, not attending the notice of King James the First, by properly to the mode in which the Friends whom he was employed on secret comqualify their doctrines, denounce them miffions to the Duke of Savoy. He was without hesitation, and unjustly arrange afterwards honoured with the knight
hood, and made gentleman of the bed• In a Summary View of the Doctrines and chamber to King Charles the First, to Discipline of the People called Quakers, &c. whom he dedicated the historical work,