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Sir R. Walpole and Lord Chesterfield. ter from Archbishop Cranmer to Lord that he repented of his compliance, when Cromwell. “ Having had experience, he heard Lord Chesterfield hold forth one both in times pait, and also in our days, of the most virulent Philippics against the how the fect of prebendaries have not character, both of the minister and man, only spent their time in much idleness, which had ever flowed froin the lips of and their substance in fuperfluous belly- even that nobleman, lo distinguished for cheer, I think it not to be a convenient refined malice, wit and ingenuity. The state or degree to be maintained and esta- minister, during this harangue, preserved blished. Considering, firit, that commonly the utmost composure, both in countea prebendary is neither a learner, nor a nance and manner : upon his Lordship’s teacher, but a good viander. Then, by quitting the house (on a temporary occathe same name, they look to be chief, and fion), and suddenly turning round as he to bear all the whole rule and pre-emi- passed the bar, hé spied, with mingled nence in the college where they he refi- ihame and disinay, the minister perched dent; by means whereof, the younger, of in his fnug recess. Sir Robert, upon obtheir own nature given more to pleasure, serving his Lordship’s confusion, with good cheer, and pastime, than to abfti- great complacency and good-humour, yet nence, study, and learning, fhail easily mixed with a certain drollery in his tone be brought from their books to follow and manner, addrefed his Lordship with the appetite and example of the same pre a profound bow, and “ begged leave to bendaries, being their heads and rulers. thank him for the pleasure he had reAnd the state of the prebendaries hath ceived from his Lordship's eloquent been so excessively abused, that when speech; and, at the same time, to conlearned men have been admitted unto gratulate him, on his having, upon this such room, many times they have desisted occasion, taken a flight beyond his usual from their good and godly studies, and pitch of excellence.” This address comall other virtuous exercise of preaching pleted his Lordship’s embarrassment; and teaching.”
A. B. and though presence of mind, and quick
ness in repartee, were his Lordship's peTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. culiar qualifications, he flunk away from
the minister's presence, visibly confounded SIR, ERMIT an admirer of your valua- and chagrined. I am, Sir, your humble ble Miscellany, to furnish
with an anecdote, which, from its originality
Feb. 20, 1797. and authenticity, joined to the celebrity of the persons to whom it relates, may claim the attention of your readers. Hav
To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. ing strolled one day into the Houle of Lords, I entered into conversation with W
THEN we reflect on the great pro
gress which has been made in yeoman-ulher of the black-rod, Mr., natural history, during the course of the Quarme. Our discourse, among other to- present century, it will appear surprising pics, fell upon the character and peculiari- that the wonderful account given of the ties of the late celebrated Sir Robert Bohan Upas, or poison tree of Java, should Walpole. As a striking proof of the per- be so long credited. This account, which fect command of temper and easy plea- originated, I believe, from a Dutch surfantry, with which that minister fre- geon who actually resided some time in quently rebuffed his most virulent oppo- that island, has been published in various nents, Mr. Quarme mentioned the fole journals and periodical works, in differlowing occurrence; to which he was both ent parts of Europe; but it is now an eye and ear-witness.
known, from good authority, to be enOn some occasion, when it was expected tirely void of foundation. This circumthat a violent debate would take place in stance is mentioned by Sir George the House of Lords, relative to Sir Robert STAUNTON, in his Account of Lord Walpole's' supposed mal-administration, MACARTNEY'S Embassy to China ; and that gentleman came early to the house, the following extract from the letters of and requested Mr. Quarme to give up his Mír. Von Wur), who was settled at Balittle recess in a corner behind the bar, tavia, in the fervice of the Dutch East where he might hear the debates, unseen India company, and who died there at by the members within the body of the an carly period of life, seems to place the house. The yeoman-usher readily com matter beyond all doubt. This gentleman, plied. But, he good-naturedly confeffed, who was a member of the fociety elta
Correction of Errors in Natural History. blished at Batavia, for promoting the arts believe respecting their part of the world, and the sciences, says, in a letter addressed and which they endeavour to impress o to his brother : ós The whole relation them as abfolute truths. One, therefore, which you read, in a German journal, of has every reason to be very cautious and the bohan upas, or large poison tree, faid diffident in regard to such tales as are reto be in the island of Java, the poisonous lated by the natives of little known counevaporation of which produces so dreadful tries. The old books of travels abound effects, that no animal or plant can exist with wonderful histories of this fort, within a great distance of it, you may which are even yet credited by the comwith certainty consider as one of tholé mon foldiers and failors. Among these fables with which ignorant or lying tra
may be claffed the accounts which you vellers have inundated the world. The read, of the monstrous serpents produced relater of this wonderful history, accord- in this island. The largelf here, are fel. ing to your account, says, that this dom above nine feet in length, and nine tree grows on the territories of one of the inches in circumference, at the thickelt princes here, and that to obtain its poison part of the body. In the remote forests for the purpose of poisoning weapons, a
and mountains, however, some are found, numbers of malefactors are every year but very feldom, about twenty feet in employed; that these wretches, mounted length; and these indeed may be destrucon horseback, and having their mouths tive and dangerous to large animals. In covered, proceed towards the tree, but the low lands, where they for the most only at times when the wind is in their part frequent the rice fields, tliey never backs, so as to convey the evaporation attain to such a size. They live there on from the tree to the quarter opposite to small birds, mice and rats; but the bite that in which they are advancing ; that of these snakes is not considered as poieven then, they haften towards it with fonous." the utmost speed, and having pricked it Another point in natural history, pero with their javelins, and received the poi- haps equally fabulous as the relation of fon, retire from it with the like precipi- the bohan upas, is that respecting the ex. tation. That it frequently happens, by istence of the unicorn. Such an animal, the wind speedily changing, that there indeed, is mentioned in Scripture; and it men, being overtaken by the vapour of has been described by Strabo*, Plinyt, the tree, are suffocated; and that as their Ælian 1, Phile ll, and other ancient au. bodies remain on the spot, the ground thors. Some have asserted, that the ani. around the tree is covered with skeletons. mal alluded to by the ancients, was the He pretends also to have witnessed the one forned rhinoceros; while others have sudden and violent effects of the poison, controverted this opinion, and maintained at the court of the prince, on a woman
that the rhinoceros is an animal totally condemned to death, and whose sentence different. Amongst the latter, may be was executed by means of a slight wound reckoned Julius Cæsar Scaliger, who, in made with an arrow that had been dipped his " Exerciations against Cardan," cites in it.' That the Indians, in general, are the testimony of one of his friends, who well acquainted with the dreadful art of law an unicorn. That a belief of the expoisoning, their weapons, is a faét fully istence of this animal itill prevails, is well established; but for this purpose there is kn«wn; and, as it may afford fatisfacno need of such a wonderful tree, as in tion to those curious in natural history, all hot countries, there are abundance of to be informed upon what grounds it is herbs, plants, and shrubs, the poison of founded, I thall fübjoin the following exwhich, when conveyed into a wound, be tracts. The Baron de Vollzogen, an ofcomes mortal. If the relater was really ficer in a German regiment, lent by the present at such an execution, the Javanele Duke of Wirtemberg to the Dutch East muf, undoubtedly, have fabricated the India company, in one of his letters froin whole story of the poison tree, in order the Cape of Good Hope, speaking of the to impofe on his credulity: 'The Indians royal antelope, antilope pygmæa, says: are not only highly credulous and superHitious themselves, but they find a mali. cious pleasure in telling the Europeans
*" Minoceros. Strabo Geograpb.” Lib.
p. 1037. Edit. Almelov. the most singular and romantic tales;
+ “ Plin. Hijf. Nat." Lib. viii. cap. 21. partly in order that they may
| - Ælian. His. Anim." Lib. xvi. cap. 20. more consequence; and partly, perhaps, p. $83. Edit. Gronov. to retaliate for the
wondrous things #“ Phile de Aniinal. propriet." Iu. Paw. which the Europeans wish to make them Traject, ad Rhen. 1730. p. 161.
« I was
Errors in Natural History.
341 6i I was told of such a delicate animal, lous. For this,” adds he, “ I have more said to be haped like the wild buffalo, than one reason, though my intention is and to have small horns; but notwith- rather to express a doubt respecting the standing all my endeavours, I have not non-existence of the unicorn, than to afbeen able to see it, nor to procure an ac firm that there is really such an animal curate description of it. The case is the in nature. In the first place, the acfame with the unicorn, said to have been counts given of it by the ancients are not lately discovered in the interior parts of abfolutely incongruous; they do not Africa. A planter, we are informed, speak of it as of the sphynx, the griffin, saw there an animal shaped like a horse, and other monsters ; but as of an animal which had one horn only in its forehead. which appears to differ scarcely so much It was of a grey colour, and had cloven from the inost common, as the rhinoceros, feet; but his observations extend no far or the giraffe ; so that the corresponding ther. This account is, in a certain mea- testimony of almost all the ancient natusure, confirmed by some Hottentots, who ralists seems to deserve some attention, gave a somewhat more accurate, though Secondly, I find in its favour the testivery imperfect, description of an animal mony of fome modern authors, one of of the like kind. People here, in general, whom asserts that he saw two unicorns believe in the existence of such an ani- alive. Lewis Barthema, or Bertoman*, mal.”
in his travels, which, indeed, in some Zimmermann, professor of mathematics places, appear to contain faldhood, says, and natural history, in the Caroline Col- that he law, near the temple of Mecca, lege at Brunswick*, speaking on the fame two live unicorns, which even there were subject, says: “ Take away from the ac considered as a wonderful animal. They counts given of this animal by the an were shaped like an horse; were of a cients wh.it is evidently fabulous, and yellowish brown, or weasel colour; had also what belongs to the rhinoceros, and a head and legs like a stag, with a the following will remain as the descrip- straight horn three ells long, and a mane, tion of the unicorn. It is an animal, feet cloven, like those of goats; and the which, in bulk and shape, resembles a fore part of their hind legs thickly cowell built, middle-sized horse, and which vered with hair. One of them, he says, bears on its forehead an untwisted, smooth, was younger and smaller than the other, Tharp-pointed horn, two ells in length. They both seemed to be very fpirited, Most authors give it also a mane and though not untractable; and they had a short tail, like that of a swine. It in- been sent from Ethiopia, as a great rahabits the unfrequented interior parts of rity, in order to be presented to the sultan India, or of Africa. Pliny, Ælian, and of Mecca.' other ancient authors, make India proper " I have not," continues he, “ made to be the place of its relidence. Bar- these observations through' fondness for tholint says, that he heard, from a prince paradox, but to thew that we ought not in Guinea, that in the desart of Cano, to be too precipitate in rejecting the fo there were unicorns known there by the called fables of the ancients, and to renname of Tirebina, and that this African der future travellers more attentive. It had seen some of them dead. On account was not till lately that we obtained, by of their swiftness they could never be means of Dr, Sparrmann, a proper knowcaught alive. The horn was only three ledge of the two-horned rhinoceros, which spans in length. Bertoman, who is indeed was well known to the ancients. Figures often fabulous, places the unicorn in of the unicorn, which have been copied Ethiopia ; and Garcias ab Horto I makes by Le Bruynt, are not only to be seen its native country to be Africa also, viz. on the ruins of Persepolis, but among that part which extends from Cape Cor- the moderns. Ruysch, in his edition of rientes to the Cape of Good Hope.” “ Johnston's Netural Historyf,” has col.
“ It may be asked,” continues Mr. lected several of them.” Zimmermann, “ how I thonght of intro It appears, therefore, that Profeffor ducing an animal which has been consi- Zimmermann does not entirely reject as dered by almost all zoologists as fabu- fabulous, the accounts given of the uni
*" Geographische Gesebichte de Menchen und * " Travels of Lewis Barthema, or Vertoder vierfüsugen ihiere.” vol. ii. p. 158. mann in Purchas Pilgr." vol. ii. p. 1189. t" Barchelinus de Unicornu." Amitel. 1687. † “ Cornel. de Bruyn's Reizen." Amft. 1711.
fol. tab. 126. p. 129. “ Garcius ab Horto Aromat. Hift.” Lib. i. I“ Rivysch Theatrum Univers. om. Animal.” cap. 14.
Amstel, 1718. t. ii, p. 21, tab. 10, 11, 12.
Since the year
for Inoculation. corn by the ancients; and that there are pox, in Germany, is computed, on a fome, though very weak grounds, for average, at 70,000. believing that such an animal may ftill 1721, general attempts have been made fomewhere exist. With the interior parts to check the fatal proğrets of this disorder, of Africa, where it is supposed to reide, by introducing the practice of inocuwe are utterly unacquainted ; and it is lation : but our bills of mortality fur. consequently impossible to fay, what that nish but too evident a proof, that the country may contain in its immense bo- succes has hitherto by no means answered fum*. ' It is, however, to be hoped, from the expectation. Several enlighteneå the increasing spirit of enterprise and physicians have, therefore, fuggelted the thirst for knowledge, which characterise propriety and necessity of employing the the present age, that these pathlefs re fame means of precaution in arresting gions may, at some future period, be the destructive march of this cruel dit. explored; and that the truth or fallity of ease, as are adopted in the case of the the existence of this animal will then be plague. For this purpose, they advise fully determined. A TRAVELLER. the interference of the police of the counLondon, Oct. 2, 1797.
try, by causing hospitals to be erected, to
which, all persons infected with the dif. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.
order should be compelled to repair I. In the month of August 1796, the Col.
lege of Physicians, in the Pruflian states, IN
I particularly noticed a statement recommending the adoption of such a regu. lative to the success which has attended lation, the necessity of which was itill the practice of Inoculation in London.
more forcibly evinced by the bills of morFrom the report of the hospital for ino- tality for the principality of Halberstadt, culation, it appears, that of 1300 persons which exhibited a mournful lift of 781 on whom that experiment has been made, persons, who had fallen victims to this only two have died in the course of the disorder within the year. It was resolved
This extraordinary in- accordingly, to make a practical expestance of success must convince even the riment of the project, by establishing a most sceptical among your readers of the Small Pox Hospital, in the city of Halberbeneficial consequences, which cannot stadt, the capital of the principality. fail to result from the general adoption of This benevolent institution, it is but a plan, by which fo many thousands of justice to remark, is in great measure our fellow creatures may be saved from an owing to the active zeal and public spirit untimely grave. But as the practice of of the Rector of Halberstadt. inoculation, in Germany (however be In the erection of this hospital, the neficial, has not been attended with a views of the founders extend farther than success which bears any proportion to the to the mere cure of the several patients. above statement, I am induced to tranf- Their aim is to ascertain the possibility mit the following succinct account of an of totally eradicating this distemper; institution lately established in the prin- which, however visionary and chimerical cipality of Halberstadt, for the total the attempt may appear, to those who prevention and † eradication of this dif- regard the small-pox as an inevitable temper, I am, &c.
malady, is supported by strong arguHamburgh, PHILANTHROPOS.
ments of probability, and, indeed, has in Jan. 18, 1798.
part been realised by the success attendant The number of persons who annually on a similar institution in the province of fall victims to the ravages of the small
| Similar regulations have been adopted
in various parts of England, particularly in * In old books of travels and old maps, Oxfordshire. Whether this regulation obmany wonderful things occur respecting the tains, at present, I am not competent to interior parts of Africa; fuch, for example, determine, but some years fince no patients as nations who employed lions in war: people labouring under the small pox were suffered with teeth like those of tygers, and others to remain in their houses, and communicate with long white, or yellow hair; amazons the disorder to society at large. They were and dwarfs; people with monstrous lips, who taken immediately to an hospital established have no language, or cannot speak; and men for this purpose ; and their nearest relatives who feed upon locuits and elephants.
were not permitted to visit them, till all + A very interesting and learned treatise danger of communicating the contagion was on the “ Extirpation of the Small Pox," has past. See further, Dr. HAYGARTH's exbeen lately published by the celebrated Dr. cellent “ Treatise on the Prevention of be caual SAEDER), of Naples.
Prevention of Small Pox.....Winter Scenes on the Wye. 343 Rhode Illand, in North America. To railing, so that the tenants of each refpeca this instance, I shall add some facts, tive division could see and converse with which have fallen under my own immedi-. each other, but were kept at such a dia ate cognizance, during a temporary fo- ftance as to prevent any possible commu. journ in France, and which prove, in nication by contact. One of these divimy humble opinion, the practicability of fions was occupied by children infected a preventative system. The department with the sinall-pox; the other, by a party of the Cote d'Or, contains a commune, who were exempt from all variolous taint. isolated as it were, from the rest of the Notwithstanding both parties breathed province, by a range of mountains, the same air, and conversed hously togewhich of course excludes them in a great ther, none of the children not previously measure from all communication with the infected, caught the disorder. À stronger neighbouring districts. In this com- proof, I appreikend, cannot be furnished mune, the memory of the oldest inhabit- of the ultimate practicability of totally ant cannot furnish a single instance of eradicating this cruel disease, by the a person infected with the small pox adoption of a preventive system, fancamongst them. But, then, the inhabit- tioned by the legiilature, and converted ants no sooner are apprized that the into an object of national police. symptoms of this cruel disease have ap. peared among their neighbours, than
For the Monthly Magazine. they scrupulously abstain from all inter- The Phenomena of the Wye, during course with them. In Dijon, no symp
the Winter of 1797-8. toms of the small. pox had manifested *HE enchanting beauties of the River themselves for a confiderable number of years, when, unfortunately, the wife of between Rofs and Chepstow, are by this an organist and music-master, resident in time pretty generally known among the that town, received a letter from her lovers of the picturesque. They have filter, who lived at Aix, informing her acquired a due celebrity from the descripthat she lay dangerously ill of the finall tions of Gilpin, and curiosity has been pox.
This letter, the music-master's inflamed by poetry and by profe, by wife kept in her pocket, and not many paintings, prints, and drawings, till days after complained of a violent pain they have been rendered a subject of uniin her head. A physician was immedi- verlal conversation ; and an excursion on ately consulted, whó, on examining his the Wye has become an effential part of patient, pronounced her illness to be the the education, as it were, of all who arImall-pox; which prognostication was pire to the reputation of elegance, taste, soon verified. Meanwhile, her husband, and fashion. But artists in general are a who was in the practice of giving lessons fort of butterfly race-they expand their on the harpsichord, not being willing to wings only in the genial rays of the fun, decrease liis profits by neglecting his when the rose is in bloom, and zephyrs scholars during his wife's illness, con- play with the foliage of the grove.
In tinued to repeat his daily visits of instruc- those chilling months, when vegetation is tion. In a very short time the contagiun at a stand-when the bleak rock casts its became general in every family
where he long shadow over scenes of equal fterility taught; and, from the precincts of the --when the rivers are turbid with descendtown, communicated to the adjacent vil- ing torrents, or locked in icy fetters, and lages; and, in brief, to the district at the mountains are covered with a veil of large; where a considerable number of snow, they remain wrapped up in their copersons fell victims to the virulence of a cons, fhrinking from the blast, and strån. disorder, which, if proper means of pre- gers to the stern magnificence of Winter. vention had been speedily employed, This, in the professed artist at least, is would, in all probability, have been con not very wise. Nature, to be understood, fined to a single patient.
should be studied in all her varieties. To As a farther proof that the progress of know how to cloath her to the best adcontagion depends entirely upon the vantage, we must strip her naked. The communication by contact, may be ad- anatomy, if I may só express myself, of duced the following interesting experi- woods and hills, is as essential to the ment, made at Paris. In one of the landscape painter, as that of the human hospitals of this city, a ward was pur- form to the historical branch of the art; posely fitted up for ascertaining this im- and the leafless grove, the dismantled hill, portant point. It was divided into two nay, the very gloom of night itself, when parts, separated by a double range of nothing is discernible but the mere outMONTULY MAG. No, XXXI,