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354 A Dialogue in Empyreum, between Louis XVI. and Charles I. dering their conversion probable, before That unconscientious temper, which could the growth of a new chieftain, an instan- pardon to the demolishers of the Bastille taneous general tranquillity, and the ul. the exercise of summary vengeance, first timate attachment of the nation to an weakened the personal security of all those equitable republicanism was likely to en- whose functions or whose conduct might Gie from

become obnoxious to the spirit of the L. From murder ?

times. Men content to derive advantage C. They felt, indeed, that, every illegal from the decent imprisonment of their precedent facilitating a future breach of king after the 6th of October, have little law, the oppression of a boor is a crime to charge upon those who sent a mob to of infinite magnitude; because liable to the Louvre on the 20th June. Propribe repeated upon millions of the human etors, who could deprive the clergy of race--that the arbitrary usage of an ele- France, in their life-time, of an income vated man is a heavy evil; because it acquired and enjoyed under ancient staencourages against thousands the like tutes, ought at least to tolerate the prowrong—and that the injury, even of a posal of other agrarian laws. The supfolitary class in society, beside being in- pression of feudal rights, without a full generous, is highly dangerous. But indemnity, is no lets inequitable than they thought, that by encompassing this the offer of a composition upon national crime with formalities, which would for debts. Yet, where is the French patriot ever necesfătate the concurrence of many of integrity fo fevere as to have concurred men reputable among the people, and re- in none of these wrongs ? sponsible to posterity, they had deterred L. Did Roland ? its repetition without mighty motives of C. There are too few such. Can we national expediency.

treat one man's life with levity, and exL. Such reasonings would apply in my pect another’s to be respected ? View one case.

form of property with an indifference, c. Would they

and look for another to be held facred ? L. And therefore must be nugatory But this rigid justice once dispensed with, and fiagitious.

each particular infringement must be estiC. Certainly my English judges did mated by its own peculiar expediency. not foresee that the hereditary superstition, L. Judged of then by its fuccess ? which, during my life, was an offspring C. Not if that success becomes itself a of the ignorance of my subjects, was by misfortune to the human race. The fuc, my death to become the dotage of their cess of Harmodius encouraged Brutus to passions, and therefore incurable---that tyrannicide ; but we now condemn them the example was to take for ever that both with Sindercome and Ankarstroem. confidence between subjects and fove L. Would you have had Brutus assemreigns, which disposes both parties to ble a convention of the Roman fenators, bring their complaints before the pure to decree Cæsar's death? tribunal of universal reason, and to arbi C. The tyrant would have been pu. trate by a gentler sway than that of force, nised by an ex post facto law. by the healing voice of deliberate public L. There should too, be some remedy opinion, their reciprocal public griev- for usurpation. ances that it was to embolden the C. Surely no grievance of general French nation first, and in consequence concern can ever need an individual vicof their success-

tim. The obnoxious power of any one L. O, they cannot succeed against the man must depend upon a force attached detestation of Europe.

to him by pay, or by opinion. Are his C. Not unless that detestation should resources personal property ? it has a right appeal to force, and choose an umpire to its natural operation Public property? whose decisions are unconnected with it may be withheld. Does he conciliate right reason.

opinion by personal qualities? they have L. Heaven will ayenge their breach of a right to their natural operation-Byą every duty.

prejudice of sanctity or birth? remove c. By insuring to all their conduct its the superstition, or you effect no cure. natural reward.

In every facrifice of individual property L. Yet injustice, you were insinuating, or life, to public pretexts, it has ever been may be policy.

ignorance that cuts the knot, which skill C. The obligation to justice, in all might have untied.. cafes, undoubtedly depends upon its L. Impatience rather. utility-and France is severely feeling the c. Perhaps fo. The just are seldom Horrid hayoc of immoral legislation.

numer:

You

SIR,

A Dialogue in Empyreum, between Louis XVI. and Charles I. 355 numerous enough to war successfully dividing with them mý power. with an abuse, without assistance; and should have made it the interest of demathe unjust have some immediate end to gogues to increase your influence by joinServe by its extirpation, which renders ing in the overthrow of the privileged the tolerance of delay insupportable. classes. My country was ripe for aristo

L. Then it will always happen in cracy, where rank is power; I had to great events, that

preserve the prejudices of condition. C. General causes every where operate Your country was ripe for democracy, alike. We both fell short of money from where opulence is empire ; you had to incircumstances unavoidable. We both terest each successive administration in enassembled the deputies of the people to circling you. Had you earned your penobtain more. We both found them de- fion by zeal--had you been a Jacobin termined to buy privileges for their con- king, instead of a roi fainéant, all had tributions; and, not relishing the terms, been well—But Dorillaus beckons. we both tried to break off bargaining, and L. Leading hither the execrable Pela found them the strongest

letier, L. We did not draw back before the C. Not so boisterous, Louis. Though antagonist became so palpably infolent your enemy, he was honest. You have

c. Louis, it is the last prejudice we yet the passions of earth. In time, you doff in these etherial seats to be ashamed will acquire the equanimity of our íhaof pleading guilty to the meaner vices. dowy dwellings. We were both tainted with insincerity: Our foes never knew wherewith we would

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. be content; and, therefore had, in every

R. against us.

wife, Mrs. L. You were born in an age when the Godwin, says, “ I believe it may be highest thought much of kings; I, when admitted as a maxim, that no person of a the lowest thought little of them. By well furnished mind, that has shaken off early and moderate concessions, therefore, the implicit subjection of youth, and is you might have retained a more than not the zealous partizan of a fect, can reasonable share of power.

bring himself to conform to the public and C. Brought up as kings, it was natu- regular routine of sermons and prayers." ral for us both to over-rate alike that share I cannot, however, admit, that this obof power which the general will would servation of Mr. GGDWIN's has any just have vouchsafed. I fear there is, in this claim to be acknowledged as a maxim. case, no other measure of the reasonable. Many of the first and most enlightened of

L. My facrifices have been such the human species have thought it their

C. As bore to the times the same pro- duty to attend public worship, and have portion with mine. You partook the attended it with pleasure. Among the philofophic temper of your age, I the chi- firm believers of the Christian religion in valrous spirit of mine. You had indo our own country, and those who attended lence, and thought a reputation acquirable public worship, may be numbered Boyle, by commuting your power for a pension.' Newton, Locke, and Addison. These

I had activity, and fancied my honour men will not easily be matched by the required that I should hand down iny opposers of revelation and of public worpatrimony of power undiminished to my ship. It appears to me, that an attendTon; but now I perceive, that true honour ance on public worship, when rationally consists in the voluntary foregoing of un- performed, and diverted of superstitious reasonable privil. ges.

ceremonies, has a natural tendency not L. That is, according to your own only to inspire a reverence of the Deity, criterion, of those one cannot keep. but also to promote a love of virtue, and

C. Of those one cannot keep in con- the practice of benevolence. Its effects formity with the general will, with the are beneficial to the heart, and to the public interest. Opinions were, perhaps, manners. And those, who may not in your time, so mature, that true honour stand in need of religious instruction required a complete abdication of the themselves, may still think themselves crown. Yet, I do not believe the French under an obligation to attend, from the nation so far advanced in information. reasonableness and propriety of public Prudence might have kept us both upon worship, and that their example may inthe throne. I should have made it the duce others to attend, who need moral interest of parliament not to thake the and religious instruction for the regulaprejudices which gave me importance by tion of their conduct.

H. S.

( 356 )

WALPOLIANA;
Or Bons-Mots, Apophthegms, Observations on Life and Literature, with

Extracts from Original Leiters
OF THE LATE HORACE WALPOLE, EARL OF ORFORD.

NUMBER III.

XXXVII. HOURS OF COMPOSITION.

XXXVIII. HUME AND BURNET.

This Article is communicated by a Literary Gentleman, for many yiars in kabits of intimeet with Mr. WALPOLE. It is partly drawn up from a collection of Bons-Mcts, &i. in his own band-writing; partly from Anecdotes written down after long Conversations with him.

for himself; as he gets older, he finds he I “mult ia kenit as it is eight days, or rather eight nights;

It is imprudent in a young author to for my general hours of composition are

make any enemies whatever. He fnould from ten o'clock at night till two in the

not attack any living person. Pope was, morning, when I am sure not to be difs perhaps, too refined and jesuitic a proturbed by visitants. While I am writing fessor of authorship ; and his arts to eitaI take f veral cups of coffee.

blish his reputation were infinite, and Sometimes perhaps exceeded the bounds

of severe integrity. But in this he is an I am no admirer of Hume. In con example of prudence, that he wrote no versation he was very thick; and I do be satire till his fortune was made. lieve hardly understood a subject till he had written upon it.

XLI. PULLIC VIRTUE. Burnet I like much. It is observable, world, I was apt londly to blame any

When I first thrust my nose into the that none of his facts has been controverted, except his relation of the birth of defection from what I esteemed public the Pretender, in which he was certainly I found the times were more to blame

virtue, or patriotism. As I grew older, mistaken-but his very credulity is a

than the men. proof of his honesty. Burnet's style and

We may cenfure places manner are very interesting. It seems as

and pensions; while the placemen and if he had just come from the king's closet,

the pensioners are often intitied to our or from the apartments of the men whom

esteem. One man has a numerous family he describes, and was telling his reader,

to provide for, another is ruled by a vain in plain honest terms, what he had seen

wife, &c. &c.

I think some temptaand heard.

tions would have cvercome even Brutus, But why talk of Brutus, while inen not

measures are the object? I have always rather tried to escape the acquaintance,and conversation, of authors. An author talking of his own works, or the First.

I do remember fomething of George

My father took ine to St. censuring those of others, is to me a dose of hypecacuana. I like only a few, who after waiting some time in an anti-room,

James's while I was a very little boy; can in company forget their authorship,

a gentleman came in all dreRied in brown, and remember plain sense.

even his stockings; and with a ribbon and The conversation of artists is still worfe. Vanity and envy are the main in

far. He took me up in his arms, killed

me, and chatted some time. gredients. One detests vanity, because it shocks one's own vanity.

LIKENESS IN ANTIQUE POR: Had I listened to the censures of artists, there is not a good piece in my collection. On looking at the bust of Marcus AnOne blames one part of a picture, another toninus, in the gallery at Strawberry Hill, attacks another. Sir Joshua is one of the Mr. Walpole observed that cren the moft candid; yet he blamed the itiff worst artists among the ancients always drapery of my Henry VII, in the state hit the character and likencís; which the bed-chamber, as if good drapery could best of ours seldom, or never, do. be expected in that age of painting. This is a problem worthy of ample

discussion, in a country fond of portraits. XL. CAUTION TO YOUNG AUTHORS.

Had the ancients any particular mode, or Youth is prone to censure. A young machine; or was it the pure effect of ittman of genius expe&ts to make a world perior genius ?

XLIV, POR

XXXIX. AUTHORS AND ARTISTS.

XLII.

GEORGE THE FIRST.

XLIII.

TRAITS.

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XLIV. PORTRAITS,

were.

RIOUS MOTHER,

On Mr. Walpole's return, he said be I prefer portraits, really interesting, had printed a few copies of this tragedy not only to landscape-painting, but to 'at Strawberry Hill, to give to his friends, history. A landscape is, we will say, an Some of them falling into improper hands, exquisite distribution of wood, and water, two surreptitious editions were advertised. and buildings. It is excellent-we pass

Mr. W.in confequence desired Dodfley to on, and it leaves not one trace in the me- print an edition 1781, and even caused it mory. In historical painting there may

to be advertised.. But finding that the be fublime deception--but it not only al

stolen impressions were of course dropped, ways falls short of the idea, but is always

he ordered his not to be issued, and none false ; that is, has the greatest bleniíla

were ever fold, incidental to history. It is commonly XLVI. GRAY'S POLITICS. false in the costume ; generally in the portraits; always in the grouping and atti

I never rightly understood Mr. Gray's tudes, which the painter, if not present, to incline to the side of authority; some.

political opinions. Sometimes he seemed cannot possibly delineate as they really Call it fabulous-painting, and I

times to that of the people.

This is indeed natural to an ingenuous have no obje&tion.---But a real portrait we know is truth itself: and it calls up so

and candid mind. When a portion of the many collateral ideas, as to fill an intel

people shews gross vices, or idle fedition, ligent mind more than any other species,

arising from mere ignorance or prejudice ;

one wishes it checked by authority, XLV. AUTHORS IN FLOWER-MYSTE When the governors pursue wicked plans,

or weak measures, one wishes a fpirited At Strawberry Hill, Ioth Sept. 1784, opposition by the people at large. Mr. Walpole remarked that, at a certain

XLVII. DR. ROBERTSON. time of their lives, men of genius seemed to be in flower. Gray was in flower

Dr. Robertson called on me t'other three years, when he wrote his odes, &c.

day. We talked of some political áfThis starting the idea of the American

fairs; and he concluded his opinion with, aloe, some kinds of which are said to

“ for you must know, fir, that I look flower only once in a century, he ob

upon myself as a moderate whig.” My served, laughing, that had Gray lived a

yes, doctor, I look on you hundred years longer, perhaps he would

as a very moderate whig." have been in flower again. Sir Charles Hanbury Williams bore only one blossom; We now talk of the British empire, and he was in flower only for one ode.

of Titus and Trajan, who were absolute Next evening, about eleven o'clock,

emperors. In my time it was the British Mr. Walpole gave me the Mysterious monarchy. What is this mighty empire Mother to read, while he went to Mrs.

over ten or twelve millions of people, and Clive's for an hour or two. The date was

a few trading colonies ? People Thut up in remarkable, as the play hinges on an

an island have always pride enough--but anniversary truentieth of September, this is too ridiculous even for Pattery to -but often as returns

invent, and the abfolute power of a The twentieth of September, &c. Roman emperor to swallow, along with *This odd circumstance confpired with the an apothcolis. complete folitude of the Gothic apart XLIX. DON QUIXOTTE. ments, to lend an additional impression to the superstitious parts of that tragedy. In when a man is once fo mad, as to mil

Don Quixotte is no favourite of mine. point of language, and the true expresion of passion and feeling, the new and juit take a wind-mill for a giant, what more is delineation of monastic fraud, tyranny, and

to be said, but an intipid repetition of cruelty; it deserves the greatest praise.

mistakes, or an uncharacteristic deviation

from thein ? But it is surprising that a man of his taite and judgment should have added to the the minute description of life and character, as

[This judgment was surely too harsh. It is improbability of the tale, instead of mel

they occur in Spain, that interests us in readlowing it with softer Mades. This might ing Don Quixotte, and make us pardon the exbe cured by altering one page of the travagance of the chief character, and the incountess's confession in the latt at.- fipidity of the pastoral scenes. Tlie episodes are The ftory, as told in Luther's Table bad; except the tale of the Spanish captive Talk, seems more ancient than that in and his Moorish mistress, which is wrought the Tales of the Queen of Navarre, up with great truth and nature.]

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XLVIII. BRITISH EMPIRE.

L. VOL

358

L. VOLTAIRE.

man.

Walpoliana, No. III.

messenger at length said, “the Duke fent Soon after I had published my “ Historic me to see you in bed, for in this bed he Doubts on the reign of Richard III." Vol. means to sleep." taire happening to see and like the book, fent me a letter, mentioning how much

LIII. TWO MINISTERS. the work answered his ideas concerning the Mr. Pitt's plan, when he had the gout, uncertainty of history, as expressed in his was to have no fire in his room, but to Hifoire Generale. He added inany praises load himself with bed-clothes. At his of my book; and concluded with entreat- house at Hayes he sleeped in a long room; ing my amitié.

at one end of which was his bed, and his As I had, in the preface to the Castle of lady's at the other. His way was, when Otranto, ridiculed Voltaire's conduct to. he thought the Duke of Newcastle had wards Shakfpere, I thought it proper first fallen into any mistake, to fend for him, to fend Voltaire that book; and let him and read him a lecture. The Duke was understand that, if after perusing it, he fent for once, and came, when Mr. Pitt persisted in offering me his amitié, I had no was confined to bed by the gout. There objections, but should esteem myself was, as usual, no fire in the room; the honoured by the friendship of so great a day was very chilly and the Duke, as

usual, afraid of catching cold. The Sometime after I received from my Duke first sat down on Mrs. Pitt's bed, acquaintance the Dutchess of Choiseul, at as the warmest place; then drew up his Paris, a letter, inclofing one from Voltaire legs into it, as he got colder. The lecto her, wherein he said that I had sent him ture unluckily continuing a confiderable a book, in the preface to which he was time, the Duke at length'fairly lodged loaded with reprvaches, and all on ac himself under Mrs. Pitt's bed-clothes, count de son Bouffco de Shekspere*. He A person, from whom I had the story, ftated nothing of the real transaction, but suddenly going in, saw the two minifters only mentioned the sending of the Castle of in bed, at the two ends of the room, while Otranto, as if this had been the very first Pitt's long nose, and black beard unshaved step.

for some days, added to the grotesque of

the scene, I am firmly convinced that a story

LIV. DR. JOHNSON. might be written, of which all the incidents fould appear supernatural, yet

I cannot imagine that Dr. Johnson's turn out natural.

reputation will be very lasting. His [This remark was made in 1784.] dictionary is a surprising work for one

man--but sufficient examples in foreign

countries thew that the task is too much The chief apprehension of the Duke of for one man, and that a society shculd Newcastle, the minister), was that of alone pretend to publih a standard diccatching cold. fummer the debates, in the House of tionary. In Johnson's dictionary, I can Lords, would stand still, till fome window full of words no where else to be found;

hardly find any thing I look for. It is were shut, in confequence of the Duke’s and wants numerous words occurring in orders. The Peers would all be melting in sweat, that the Duke might not catck good authors, In writing it is useful;

as if one be doubtful in the choice of a cold. When sir Jofeph Yorke was ambassador

word, it displays the authorities for its

usage. at the Hague, a curious instance happened of this idle apprehension. The late of what I call triptology, or repeating the

His essays I detest. They are full King going to Hanover, the Duke must same thing thrice over, so that three papers go with him, that his fues might not injure him in his absence. The day they

to the same effect might be made out of were to pass the fea, a messenger came, at have had a bad heart---his story of the

in the Rambler. He must

any one paper five o'clock in the morning, and drew for facrilege in his voyage to the Weltern Joseph's bed curtains. Sir Jofeph starting, islands of Scotland is a lamentable inasked what was the matter.

The man

Itance. said he came from the Duke of New castle. « For God's sake, exclaimed fir

LV. PHYSIOGNOMY. Joseph, what is it? Is the King ill ?" No.

Lavater, in his Physiognomy, says that After several fruitless questions, the Lord Anfon, from his countenance, muft

have been a very wise man. He was one * Of his buffoon Shakipere. of the most stupid men I ever knew.

LVI, INDO

LI. NEW IDEA OF A NOVEL.

LII. COALS TO NEWCASTLE.

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