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FOR JUNE, 1798.

(vol. v. About the middle of July will be published the suPPLEMENTARY NUMBER to the FIFTH

Volume of this work, which, besides the Title, Indexes, and a variety of valuable papers, will contain a critical and comprebenhve Retrospeet of all the Books published

during the last fx months. Complete Sets, or any former Numbers of this Work, may be bad of all Booksellers.

ORIGINAL COMMUNICATIONS. To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. On Education

130 On Physics and Natural History 310 SIR,

On Geography and History in general 82• IT is no longer doubted, that by a On Polite Literature

690 free and reciprocal communication of On the Arts and Manufactures ideas, which are current among different On Politics and Finances

380 nations, not only individuals derive much On Mathematics benefit and amusement, but also the best interests of science are thereby pro

In these branches

2670 moted.

Besides which, there are published every. Whether our modern translators from year, nearly the following number of the German have not consulted the former works in the other departments of literaspecies of advantage, rather than that re- ture, viz. fulting from versions in favour of general In Philology and General Science 310 literature, is not very difficult to ascer. In Divinity, Metaphysics, and Moral tain.


1250 Among the five or fix thousand publica- In Jurisprudence, and the Art of War 440 tions annually issuing from the German In Medicine and Surgery

360 press, it is a matter of astonishment, that In the History of Literature, and Books those in the more useful branches of

on Miscellaneous Subjects

330 science Thould be almost entirely overlooked by our translators. Upon repeated


Adding the above stated number 2670 inquiries among booksellers and publithers in this country, during the last Total annually fifteen years, it has been generally asserted, that scarcely any other versions from

From this fummary view of German the German, but novels, ghoft-ftories, publications, it is easy to conclude that, poems, and the like, would meet with a number of excellent as well as many fri

such a variety, there must be a ready sale in the English market. This, volous productions. But, as my present however, appears to be an objection equally frivolous and ill-founded. With- aim is not so much directed to investigate out presumption it may be said, that the the nature of the subjects which deserve want of good translations of scientific

to be tranllated, as to point out a few reworks from the German, is owing in marks on the manner in which they have tirely to our imperfect acquaintance with hitherto been translated, I must confine the true Itate of the literature of that my observations within these limits. country. And, in order to enable the lation from one modern language into

In attempting to make a correct transreader to judge of the great variety of books on useful subjects, I have been at another, it certainly is of the utmost im. *considerable pains of discovering the portance to preserve, as much as possible, overage number of works that have annu

the spirit of the original, to unfold, elly appeared during the last twelve in accurate expressions, the idiom, or years*, in the following branches, which genius, of the language from which we are throughout interesting to every cul- trandate, and thus to do justice to the tivated mind :

author. Whether a native of England or Germany is better calculated to fulfil

these conditions, is a queition that can be * Namely, from the year 1785 to the decided only by the relative degree of close of the year 1797.

knowledge which either of these indivia MONTHLY MAG. No. XXXII,



3 F


Who from my

400 Dr. Willich on Translations from the German. duals possess of the respective languages. Sie drehen im kreise fich um, bis sinn und Yet, if we were to judge from the number

athem entgeht. and excellence of German translations Triumf, herr ritter triumf! Gewonnen if

die schöne. made of all English classics, the advan

Was fäumt ihr? fort! der Wimpel weht; tage appears to be in favour of the GerTheir language also is more co

Nach Rom, dass euern bund der heilige vater

kröne! pious, and, I may add, more pliable in its modern construction (or rather inverfion), than other modern tongues, so as

Mr. SOTHEBY's Transation. to facilitate every translation into it from

Yet, once again, ye Muses! once again foreign languages: and, on that very ac Saddle the Hyppogryf! and wing my way count, it is more difficult in its acquisi- Where regions of romance their charms diftion, especially as it is uncommonly load

play. ed with particles, or expletives. Hence What lovely dreams entrance th' unfetter'd

brain? it may be accounted for, that the French and English translations from the Ger- Who round my brow the wreath enchanted

braids? man, generally are deficient, both in point

ravilh'd of fenle and diftion.

eye dispels the shades, In order to prove this assertion, I in. That veil the wonders of the world of old ?

Now conqu'ring, conquer'd now, in battle tended first, to furnish you with compa

bold, rative passages from either the “ Merah I see the knight's good sword, the pagan's of Klopstock," or from fome of "Gefner's

sparkling blades. Idylls;" both of which have been most faintly and incorrectly translated into In vain the hoary sultan foams : in vain English. But, as I had not the originals lt breathes, the iv'ry horn with sprightly

A wood of threat'ning lances bristles 'round: of these authors in my possession at prefent, I have taken the liberty of subjoin. And, whirl' in eddying dance, the giddy

sound, ing a literal translation of the two first

train Aanzas of Mberon, by Wieland;" the Spin, till their breath and senses dic away: prince of German poets, who has very Triumph! the fair is won: why, knight, lately met with a translator of great po-, delay? etical talents, in Mr. SOTHEBY. Yet, Forward to Rome: for thee, th’extended fail, as I cannot approve of twisting the ori- And beck’ning streamer fly before the yale. ginal of a great writer into a variety of Haíte! that the holy fire may bless your turns and forms, merely for the fake of

bridal day! the rhyme, I have, as literally as was consistent with the idiom of both lan-, Dr. WILLICH's literal Translation. guages, turned my fpecimen into blank

Once more, kind Mufes! saddle the Hypverse; while I have followed the author from line to line, without increasing the And Speed my ride ta regions of romance !

pogryf, number of verfes, or changing a lingle What charms are these 'round my untetter'd idea. A. F. M. WILLICH.

breast ? London, June 1798.

Delightful dreams !--Who twists the magic


Round Ob'ron's brow? Who frees nine eyes Erster Gefang. Noch einmal lattelt nir den Hippogryfen, That hide the wonders of the ancient world?

from shades, ihr Musen,

I fee, in various groupes, now victor, captive Zum Ritt ins alte romantishe land!

now, Wie lieblich um meinen entfeffelten huren Der holde wahnfinn spielt! Wer schlang das The knight's good sword, the pagan's daz

zling Ateel. magische band Um meine Stirne? Wer treibt von meinen In vain the hoary sultan foams with rages augen den nebel

In vain a wood of frightfül lances darts : Der auf der vorwelt wundern liegt? *The iv'ry horn with pleasing notes invites, Ich seh' in buntem gewiihl, bald siegend, And, raging like a whirl, they all muft bald besiegt,

dance Des ritters gutes Ichwert, der Heiden blink- In giddy turns, 'till breath and senfes fail. ende (äbel,

Triumph! brave knight, rejoice! the fair is Vergebens knirscht des alten sultan's zorn,

gain'd: Vergebens dräut ein Wald von starren Lanzen: Why fill delay? Begone! your streamer Es tönt in lieblichem ton das elfenbeinerne points horn

To Rome: where th' holy fire shall crown Und, wie ein Wirbel ergreift fie alle die wuch

your plight!



zu tanzen

I the .


Origin of the Highland Dresso,

401 For the Monthly Magazine.

Lesley and Buchanan, 1570-1580, are Letter from an ANTIQUARY to the

therefore the first who mention the mo

The former reCOLONEL of a HIGHLAND Regi

dern highland dress. MENT, on the HIGHLAND DRESS.

presents tartan as then confined to the

use of people of rank. The latter fays, now the honour to send you a few re Advocates for the antiquity of the marks on the Highland dress.

philibeg say it is borrowed from the Ro. When I first saw in the papers, that man military dress. But it is quite difyou had appeared at court in a new high- ferent; for the Roman skirts were merely land dress, fubftituting trowsers or pan- those of the tunic, which was worn under taloons for the philiheg, I was highly the armour, whereas the philibeg is a pleased with the improvement. The detached article of dress. highland dress is, in fact, quite modern, It once appeared to me that the tunic and any improvement may be made with- with skirts to the knee, used by the comout violating, antiquity. Nay, the mon people of England in the Saxon and trowsers are far more ancient than the Norman times (lee Strutt's plates), had philibeg.

passed to the lowlands; and thence to the The philibeg cannot be traced among highlands, where it remained, as mounany of the Celtic nations, Ireland, Wales, taineers are now in changing fashions. or Bretagne, either as an article of dress, But it now seems far more probable,

as an old word in their languages. that the philibeg arose from an article of Giraldus Cambrensis, A. D. 1180, in- dress, used in France, England, Scotland, forms us, that the Irish wore braccæ or from about the year 1500 to 1590, namely, breeches (that is, the long, ancient the ancient haut de chauffe PROPER. In breeches, now called pantaloons or trow- Montfaucon's plates may be seen some of fers).' On old monuments, the Irish these which are absolute philibegs. kings are dreffed in a close tunic or vest, The ancient loose braccæ were followed long trowsers down to the ancle; and a by tight bose, covering thigh and leg : long loose robe, fastened on the breast by but, as manners advanced, these began a large broach. Perhaps the broach to feem indecent (being, linen, fitting might be substituted in your regiment for close, and sewing every joint and form); the breast-plate, with much costume. and the haut de chausse (or top of the hose)

· In the book of dresses, printed at Paris began to be used. At first it was very 1362, from which fac-similes are pub- fort, and loose as a philibeg; was lished, the highland chief is in the Irish lengthened by degrees, and Henry IV. dress, and I can discover no philibeg. of France wears it down to within three No part of the dress is tartan ; nor is there or four inches of the kiiee, and gathered a plaid, but a mantle. The women are like a petticoat tucked *. Louis XIII. dressed in sheep-lkins; and as that sex is first appears with what' we now call always more ornamented than the other, breeches. there is reason to believe, that the com Hose were still worn under the haut de mon highland dress was then composed of chauffe. But as the latter was lengthened, sheep or deer-skins.

the former were shortened, till the preCertain it is, that Froissart, though , fent fashion prevailed. The Germans astonished at the sauvages d'Ecolle, as call breeches hosen, a term which we conforeigners termed the highlanders, even fine to stockings. down to Mary's reign, and though a But the haut de chausse, or philibeg, at minute observer, remarks no fixt appro- first invented for the sake of modefty, and priated dress among them; though the to cover that indecent article the brayette plaid and philibeg, if then used, muft or codpiece, has become among the highhave struck him as most particular. landers most indecent in itself, because

Fordun, lib. ii. cap. 9, only mentions they do not wear, as they ought, long the highland people, as “ amictu defor. hose, covering thigh and leg, under the mis," a term which, I dare say, you will philibeg. It is not only grossly indeagree with me, rather applies to a vague cent, but is filthy, as it admits dust to favage drefs of tkins, &c. than to any 'the skin, and emits the fætor of perfpiregular habit.

ration; is absurd, because while the Hector Boyce, 1526, though very breast, &c, are twice concealed by vest minute, is equally silent; but he men and plaid, the parts most concealed by tions canvas hose or trowsers, as a part of the old Scotish dress,

* In England termed the bases. 3 F 2


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402 Highland Dress.--Names of the Deity. all other nations are but loosely covered ; Nothing can reconcile the tasteless reis effeminate, being merely

a short pet- gularity, and vulgar glare, of tartan to ticoat, an article of female dress; is beg- the eye of fashion, and every attempt to garly, because its shortness, and the introduce it has failed.

But in your Mortness of the stockings, joined with uniform, by using only two tints of a the naked knees, impress an unconquera- colour proverbially mild, and without ble idea of poverty and nakedness. glare, all such objections are 'avoided,

As to the plaid, there is no reason to and the general effect rendered very pleas. believe it more ancient than the philibeg. ing: The chief in 1562 appears in a mantle ;

From these remarks it may be evinced, and if the common people were then that no antiquary can object to the proclothed in theep skins, the plaid was priety of changing the philibeg to panfuperfluous. But I suppose the plaid taloons, a change which, if univerially and philibeg passed from the low lands to introduced into highland regiments, and the high lands about the same time. Our into the highlands, would be a laudable old historians, in speaking of the high. improvement. I have the honour to be, landers, always judge and describe, as &c. was natural, from those next the low N. B. On the back of this letter is a lands. In 1715, as appears from Mr. note by the colonel.

“ The philibeg Dempster's letter, the remote highlanders was invented by an Englishman in Scotwere only clothed in a long coat buttoned land, about 60 years ago,", i, e. about down to the midleg.

1705. It is to be regretted on many accounts,

* From the foregoing remarks it that our old historians wrote in Latin, will appear how completely absurd the whence their terms are often so vague coflume of many late painters, theatrical as hardly to admit accurate interpretation. pieces, &c. must be in representing the John Major, who wrote in 1521, fays, tartan as a Scotish dress in all ages. It p. 54, that the caliga (hose ?) of the high- is also proper to inform them, that a landers did not extend below the mid-leg; highlander is as different from a lowand he describes their whole dress to be lander as a Welshman from an English. a linen shirt tinctured with saffron, and man.

The rebellion of 1715 and 1745 a chlamys (plaid, mantle, or loose coat!) were those of highlanders only. above. He is speaking of the chiefs.

The highlands comprise Sutherland, The commons he describes as proceeding Caithness, Ross, the west part of Inverto battle in a quilted, and waxed, linen ness and Perthshire, and all Argylethire. tunic, covered with deer-skin. Not a particle you will obferve of the modern To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. dress.

The tartan, I dare say, passed from
Flanders (whence all our articles came),

S it appears to be a singular circumto the lowlands about the fifteenth cen.

called the principle of the universe' by a tury *, and thence to the highlands.

word which consists of four Jetters, I Tartan plaids were common among send women in the lowlands, in the last, and firmation of this position; and shall only

you the following catalogue in coneven the present century: Lord Hailes (Annals I. 37,) ludi- and Plato, celebrated the first effable

further observe that Orpheus, Pythagoras, crously supposes tartan introduced by divinity as a Tetradic God. St. Margaret. The writer he quotes is Manor Place, only speaking of cloths of several colours,

Yours, &c. Walworth.

Tho. TAYLOR, red cloth, blue cloth, green cloth, &c. while the Scots probably before followed

God was called by the Persians Syre : the old Norwegian custom of wearing by the discipline of the Magi Orh, from only black.

whence Oromafius : by the Assyrians Adad, which, according to Macrobius,

signifies one. The Goths, according to * It is never mentioned before the latter part of that century. It firt appears in the Olaus Magnus, called their greater god Accompts of James III. 1474: and seems to

Oden, but their most powerful divinity have passed from England, for the rouge tar

Thon. The Macedonian priests, as we tarine in the statutes of the order of the Bath, are informed by Neanthes Cyzicenus and in the time of Edward IV. (apud Upton de Clemens Alexandrinus, invoked in their Re Mil.) is surely red tartan, or cloth with prayers Bedy, that he might be propitious med stripes of various shades.

to them and their children. The Maho



Life of John Rheinhold Forster.

403 metans call God Abdi. The Gauls Dieu. George resided with him fome years at The Tuscans Efar. The Spaniards Dios. Warrington, and foon acquired a very The Teutones Golt. The Hetrusci call perfect use of the Englith tongue. He hin Signor Idio, that is Lord God. The also diftinguished himself greatly by his Arabians, Turks, and Saracens Alla Ibel, attainments in science and literature in that is, God the Fufi. In the Sclavonian general ; adding to an excellent memory, tongue he is called Boeg, from Goodness. quick parts and a fertile imagination. In Chaldea and India he is called Esgi His temper was mild and amiable; in Abir, that is the fabricator of the uni- which he much differed from his father, verse. The name of the supreme Jupiter one of the most quarrelsome and irritable among the Egyptians is Amun, which by of men; by which disposition, joined to corruption came to be called Ammon. a total want of prudence in common con

This word, according to Manetho, fig. cerns, he loft almost all the friends his ta.. nifies the concealed and concealing. Ac- lents had acquired him, and involved him. cording to Jamblichus (" De Mysteriis, self and family in perpetual difficulties. sect. 8."), this god is the demiurgic in- At length John Reinhold obtained the tellect, who prelides over truth and wife appointment of naturalist and philosopher dom, descends into generation, and leads (if the word may be so used) to the feinto light the unapparent power of con cond voyage of discovery undertaken by cealed reason. By the Greeks God was the celebrated Cook; and his son George called Theos; and by the Romans Deus. was associated with him in his office. The proper name of God with the He- That M. POUgens should entirely have brews is Adon, or Adni. By the Dutch lost sight of the father, the undoubted he is called Godt: and with us the word principal on this occafion, is not a little Lord is synonimous with God. By the extraordinary; nor would it be easy to Chinese ton, the supreme God is called parallel the absurdity of the epithet of the Tien, and by tlie Danes Goed.

is illustrious rival of Cook," bestowed by

that writer on his young hero, not a na. To the Editor of tbe Monthly Magazine.

vigator, but a naturalist of inferior rank.

On their return, the two Forsters pubSIR,

lished jointly a botanical work in Latin, I

able to you to receive some additions new genera of plants discovered by them tó, and corrections of, the account of in their circumnavigation. The account George Forster, printed in your last Ma- of the voyage itself was published in the gazine. You may rely upon their accu name of George alone, in evasion of fome racy. :

obligation under which the father lay, not M, Povgens seems very strangely ig- to publish separately from the narrative norant of the history of John REINHOLD authorised by government. That the lun. FORSTER, the father of George, a man guage, which was correct and elegant, more diftinguished as a literary character was furnished by the son alone, could not than his son. He did not send, but brought be doubted; any more than that the mathis son George, along with the rest of his ter proceeded from the joint stock of their numerous family, into England, in search observations and reflections. Several parts, of a better settlement than his own coun- particularly the elaborate investigations try afforded. It was one of those fpi- relative to the languages spoken by the șited, though finally unsuccessful, at- natives of the South-lea illands, and the tempts to promote the prosperity of the speculations concerning their origin and Warrington Academy, to engage this successive migrations, were strongly imperson as tutor in the modern languages, pressed with the genius of the elder Forfwith the occasional office of lecturing in ter. I have nothing to add to the fublevarious branches of natural history. For quent history of George, as given by the first department he was by no means M. POUGENS. To criticise on the well qualified ; his extraordinary know. French sentimentality displayed in the de. ledge of languages, ancient and modern, licately ambiguous relation of his con. being unaccompanied by a particle of nexion with Miss Heyne, is far beyond taste; and his use of them all being bar- my reach; nor am I at all disposed to in. barous, though fuent. As a natural quire into the justnefs of his " revolu. historian, a critic, geographer, and anti- tionary principles.” But with respect to quary, be ranked much higher ; but, un his travels into Brabant, Holland, &c. fortunately, these were acquisitions of (in the preface to his French translation liitle value in his academical department. of which, M. POYGENS has given the


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