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On the Personification of Abstract Ideas in Poetry. 409 When this business is dispatched, the Ariosto in the personification of Molheavy deity immediately composes him Lesse in his Lutrin. This is a being self to slumber again.

compounded of laziness and luxury, for ursus molli languore solutum

whom I know not an adequate English Deposuitque caput, itratoque recondidit alto. name. Her abode is suitably fixed in

Ib. 648. the dormitory of an abbey. Her attendHis head again, in languor soft diffolv'd,

ants are very happily conceived and chaHe dropt, and funk upon the swelling couch.

racterited. The original personification of Sleep Les plaisirs nonchalans folatrent alentour. is in Homer, and various poets have L’un paitrit dans un coin l'embonpoint de adopted it, and have assigned him a refi

Chanoines; dence and preper officers or companions. La volupté la fere avec des yeux devots, ,

L'autre broie en riant le vermillon des moines; Ariosto, in his Orlando Furioso, has done Et toujours le sommeil lui verse des pavots. this with more novelty and judgment

Lutr. ch. ii. 100. than any other whom I recollect, porterior to Ovid. He has been particularly Boileau, that he puts too long a speech

It has, I think, been justly objected to happy in his description of the attendants into the mouth of this languid personage; on Sleep.

but he could not resist a favourable ocIn questo albergo il grave Sonno giace ; casion for some ingenious adulation of L'Ozio da un canto, corpulento, .e grasso; Louis XIV. The conclusion, however, Dall'altro la Pigrizia in terra siede, Che non puo andare, e mal si regge in piede:

though closely copied from Ovid, is per..

fectly beautiful: Lo smemorato Oblio sta su la porta ;

-La Molleffe oppressée Non lascia entrar, ne riconosce alcuno :

Dans sa bouche a ce mot fent sa langue glacée, Non ascolta imbasciata, ne riporta,

Et lasie de parler, succombant sous l'effort, E parimente tien cacciato ogn’una.

Soupire, étend le bras, ferme l'æil, & s’enIl Silenzio va intorno, e fa la scorta:

dort. Ha le scarpe di feltro, e'l mantel bruno; Ed a quanti ne incortra di lontano,

In Thomson's allegorical poem,

66 The Che non debbian venir cenna con mano. Castle of Indolence,” similar conceptions to

Orl. Fur. xiv. 93. those of the writers above-mentioned are Here drowsy Sleep has fix'd his noiseleis dressed up in the most exquisite beauties throne,

of description and versification. But it Here Indolence reclines with limbs o’ergrown is necessary to select parts of a well-known Thro' sluggish ease; and Sloth, whose trem- piece, the whole of which is fo admirable. bling feet

I. A. Refuse their aid, and sink beneath her

[To be continued.] weight. Before the portal dull Oblivion goes,

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. He suffers none to pass, for nonc he knows. Silence maintains the watch and walks the SIR,

round Innhoes of felt, with fable garments bound; BY your leave, Mr. Editor, I will correct

an error of Mr. HOUSMAN, in the And oft as any thither bend their pace, last


he has favoured us with in your He waves his hand and warns them from the valuable Miscellany. Speaking of Litchplace.


field, he says, “ This town is remarkable It is a truly characteristical stroke in for having given birth to two eminent Ariosto, that when the command is de- men, viz. the late Dr. Johnson, and Mr. livered to Sleep, he makes no reply, bụt Garrick the comedian.” The latter was intimates with a nod that it shall be per- born at the Angel-inn at Hereford, in the formed.

year 1716, and was son of Captain Peter The learned and elegant Professor G. (a French refugee) who was quarHeyne, in an Excursus to the fifth book tered there with a troop of horse. It is of Virgil, has enumerated various ways true he received the firit rudiments of his in which the poets represent Somnus as education at the free-school at Litchfield causing sleep. Virgil makes him fprin- (which he afterwards completed at Rókle the temples of Palinurus with a chester), where Dr. Johnson and he were -branch wet with Lethean dew, Some fellow-Itudents. By the insertion of these ingeniously describe him as lulling to few words, you will not only restore to repose by the fanning of his wings; and Hereford the honour the juftly claims, but one gives him a horn out of which he also confer a favour on your obedient serpours lleep.


HEREFORDIENSIS. Boileau has imitated both Qyid and Cambridge, March 6, 1793.



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On the Tie of Relationship. "To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. firmly to one another ; but, unfortunate. SIR,

ly, both policy and morality will someN your Magazine for April last, in the times lose their hold upon the mind, when eminent foreign literati, you have nb- rality teaches us “ to do unto others, as served, that Archenholz's Picture of Eng- we would they should do unto us:” and landis “ highly complimentary to the policy shews us, how serviceable it is to genius and manners of Great Britain."

our interests to cultivate the esteem of It certainly is fo; but though the work those amongit whom we are placed. In is not wholly destitute of merit, it con

fact, to him who has observed how often tains many mistakes in point of fact, the most valuable ends are brought about which might easily be pointed out, and in life, by the most subordinate agents, it which are calculated to mislead foreigners. will be superfluous to urge this remark. About fix years ago, a“ View of England, Necefsity, or mutual want, appears to towards the Clojë of the Eighteenth Cenhave been the foundation of most of the tury, was published, in two volumes, by public and private relations of society; Dr. Wendeborn. That work is not to upon which was afterwards gradually complimentary to the English, as the raised a superstructure, of fentiment, copublication of Archenholz ; but it is a- operation, and attachment, constituting bundantly more accurate, and contains the fineft pleasures of life. Men finding much more valuable information. Dr. how weak and insecure they were in their Wendeborn was twenty years minister of individual capacities; and how incomthe German chapel on Ludgate-hill; and potent to their own happiness;—first his work is the result of much study, ob- formed themselves into the more natural and servation, and reflection.

J. T

obvious societies of families, bound to

gether by the varying ties of consanguiTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazino.

nity, and common interest ;-next, into

the more refined ones, of states, and poliSIR,

tical bodies. It is not, therefore, withT has frequently been observed, that out a just knowledge of our nature, I conill together as relations. If this remark down interest as the principal fpring of be true (and that it is, experience too of human actions : for, if we look into the ten teaches us), it will surely be worth causes of action, as far as they are dilwhile to investigate the cause of the com cernible by us, we shall generally find inplaint; for, upon the face of things, it teres to be the foundation on which they thould appear, as if no people ought to act. But self-interest may be of various live fo well together. Frequent inter- defcriptions; and, in some cases, fo recourse has generally been held essential to fined, and delicate, that it is no disgrace friendship; and, it may fairly be presum- for an honest man to acknowledge himself ed, that no people have such opportuni- influenced by it. There is such a thing, ties of seeing each other, as relations; as the interest which a man takes in the but frequency of interccurse, thcugh it good opinion of the world, as well as the be necessary to cement friend hip, is no

intereft he takes in his pecuniary conabsolute proof of its existence; any more And hence it may possibly arile, than strong professions are, of the exist- that the opulent, and great, who have ence of jincere regard. Similarity of fen- reached the top branches of society, and timent will naturally draw men together, have little left to wish for, may fomeand excite attachment; but there may be times be more indifferent to the ties of many crcumstances, besides similarity of relationfhip, at least in its remote parts, sentiment, which will promote the union than the dependant members of the comof men, without securing their attach- munitý, to whom the good opinion of ment. Attention to the decencies and mankind is indispensably requisite to sucproprieties of life; respect, mixed with cess in their undertakings. Among the l'everence for the opinions, and, sometimes, opulent, and luxurious, money creates a even for the prejudices of mankind, which kind of fa&titious independence. It confew are couragtous enough wholly to de- fers almost every thing that industry and fpite, wil olten bring relatio :s together talents can bestow. They who possess it in appearance, when, in reality, there is in any emirent degree, feel how little but little genuine esteem. Indeed both they want support, compared with the policy and morality should point out to rest of society: and this sensation alone thein the necessity of attaching themselves will have a tendency to produce indif




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On the Tie of Relationship.--Punctuation.

411 ference of mind, if mutual want be, as is the duties which relation's mutually owe already obfervui, the foundation of mu to one anonher. I subinit thele hints, tual accommodation. In those classes of Mr. Editor, to your judgment, upon a society where great opulence, and great subject both interesting, and practical. luxury prevail, relations, not having inany Interesting, because there is no man, but inducements to conciliate affection, will what has some share in the obligations of generally see less of each other, than in consanguinity; practical, because it rethe middle rank of life: and this circum- gards offices which require daily to be stance may reasonably be expected to ge- put in practice. Every man has fome nerate indifference of attachment, if friend- duties to pay to his relations; or some fhip arise froin frequent intercourse. For, services to receive from them. If we although an unvaried intercourse may take the advantages of society, we must sometimes produce fatiety and disguít conform to the disadvantages of it; if among friends; yet an habitual absence disadvantages they can be called. If we will be equally apt to occafion coldness expect that relations should serve us, we of esteem, tince it is only in the middle must be ready, in return, to lerve them. point of conduct, that we may justly look From these sentiments of benevolence tofor warm affections. Virtus ejt medium wards friends, and relations, arises that vitiorum, et utrinque reductum.Indivi- rational, and beautiful system of Christian duals in the middle department of life, philanthropy, subordination, and focialafare generally aware, that if they part fection, which, beginning with those who with those connexions, which nature or are more immediately connected with us choice has given them, they may find it by the ties of blood, extends itself grano easy matter to procure others: the dually to those who are more distantly opulent can perceive, that they no sooner connected with us, by the ties of country, lose one set of friends, than they find an or government; and ultimately reaches to other ready to succeed them. Great dif- all who participate in the same common parity of fortune is another principal nature. Private virtues are the best secaule of c ldness between relations. There curity for public duties. A bad man in may be disparity of fortune, where there the relations of private life, can scarcely is no abfolute want : for rich, and poor, be expected to be strictly virtuous in his are only relative terms, as we learn from public capacity: there is no separating Bishop Watson. Under these circum- the two characters. For, the apostle stances, it not unfrequently happens, that beautifully, and conclusively argues, “ If while the richer party require too much, man love not his brother whom he hath the poor concede too little. Hence jea- feen, how can he love God whom he hath loufies, and secret prejudices spring up. not seen?" If he forget the duties he Comparisons are made between relations, owes to his kindred, which are immediand strangers, unfavourable to the former. ate, and natural, how shall he remember For whilit relations are but too apt to those he owes to his country, which are receive as matter of right, what is intend- abatracted, and artificial ? But, after all, ed, and indeed cught to be considered, as let every man, with becoming gratitude matter of favour; strangers, by the affi- to his friends, learn to place his chief duity of their attentions, and the warmth hopes of success in life, on his own good of their acknowledgments, endeavour, at conduct, and his own industry.

c Faber least outrwardly, to express a just sense of quifque foriura propria,” says my Lord obligation. In short, fir, it will not, I Bacon, from Plautus ; and, I believe, fatter myself, be going too far, to affert, with great truth. Relations, or friends, that some of the greatest errors in human may afford the plan, but our own exerconduct arise from our not discriminating tions must fupply the foundation on which nicely the shades of duty which sublist to build the superstructure of our fortune. between the two extremes, of actions of I am, fir, &c. &c. absolute necessity, and, actions of ab June 2, 1798.

ARISTIPPUS. folute choice. It muft be obvious to every thinking perfon, that many duties

To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. occur in our intercourse with society, in which, though we are physically free, SIR,

S respect to which, though the municipal A different gradations by which lite

A laws of our country are filent, yet the rature tras arrived at its present height; laws of reason, and the sense of mankind, and as the epoch of the introduction of {peak plainly. Of this description, are points and stops is not the least important,

WONDERFUL tales have been told

412 Early Pointing.-- Scots and Irish early Literature. I beg leave to oppofe some facts to the To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. account which the compilers of the

SIR, Encyclop. Britannicagive under the article punctuation. Their words are as concerning the literary illuminafollow: “ In the 15th century (16th, I tion of the Scots and the Irish at a very fuppose, they mean), we observe their first remote period in the dark ages of the appearance. We find, from the books history of modern Europe. The Irish of this age, that they were not all pro- pretend that their ille was the seat of duced at the same time; those we meet learning and civility, at a time when igwith then in use, being only the comma, norance and barbarism prevailed in every the parenthesis, the interrogation, and neighbouring country. The Scots have the full point; to prove this, we need but not yet ceased to set

up similar pretensions look into Bale's Afts of English Vo- in favour of their ancient Hebudian semitaries," black letter, printed in 1550 ; nary of Jona. In Germany, in France, indeed, in the dedication of this book, even in Italy, the pretensions of both we discover a colon, but, as this is the Scots and Irish are, in part, allowed; the only one of the kind throughout the work, Germans have not been alhamed to refer it is plain this stop was not established at their first acquaintance with the princithis time, and so warily put in by the ples of christianity to the preaching of a printer.”

Scottish apostle; monasteries have been In “ Hackluyt's Voyages," printed in erected abroad, in favour of the Scots 1599, we see the first instance of a femi- and Irish, as monuments of that light colon.

which these insular regions are believed to Now, fir, I can easily suppose they have once sent forth, to enlighten the were not all introduced at the same time; world. so far we agree. But, that the colon was And yet, when historical research, quaintroduced many years before 1550, will lified to distinguish between adequate evibe proved by " Novi Testamenti poftrema dence and that which is unsatisfactory, aditio, per Érasmum," &c. anno 1527 ; reviews the records of those diftant times, which is now before me, and where it the discovers no distinct vestiges of the frequently occurs;

as also in another boasted illuinination of Ireland and the book, Pub. Ovidii Nasonis Metamor. Hebudian Illes. Works of art, treasures phoseon,anno 1543. Náy, fir, in some of learning, arrangements of science, such cafes, I hold it to be more early in use as might unequivocally demonstrate the than the comma, as I have a miliál, from existence of such an ancient illumination, its appearance printed in England, and are looked for in vain. Though a Gib. long before the books aforementioned; bon have been betrayed to adopt the but I cannot be allured as to its age, as it fables of a Boëce; though a Johnson wants a title page, and I do not perceive could not view the ruins of Jona without a single comma in it; it is prinied with having his feelings impressed with a rered and black ink, the colon is frequently ligious awe, and exalted by a fervent enused, and is made in a diamond-like form. thusiasin; though a Vallancey have not As for the semicolon, I must allow that disdained to patronize the Milesian age of in the sense it is now used, I do not find Irish history, yet must candour almost it in

any of these books, but in the Teit. concur implicitly with scepticism, in rement, and Ovid, it is used as an abbre- "jecting all those as mere vague and general viation; as in namq; neq; quicunq; &c. probabilities which are found to want in the same sense I find it used in 70- the support of close and particular eviannis Calvini Commentaria Integra in acta dence. Apostolorum,1563 ; “D. Erasmi Roto Amidst these difficulties, I am inclined rodami Opus,' &c. anno 1554, and in to flatter myself, that I have been suffici. Ovid a very free use is made of this ab- ently fortunate to discover from what breviating semicolon, in almost every line, source have arisen these too extravagant in such words as these, where the last accounts of the early learning of the Scots syllable begins with a q, as conditaq; in- and Irish, which have been so widely protybaq; summiloq; &c. but in the sense it pagated, without being perfectly just. is now used, I do not even find it in If the influence of the christianity of Fox's Afts and Monuments,” black let- the dark ages can be accounted to have ter, 1641.

been at all akin to knowledge or civility, In hopes that some of your correspond- then must we grant the Scots and the Irish ents, more competent to the task, will to have poffessed at least this one advangive some further elucidations on the sub- tage of an enlightened people, at a time ject, I remain yours, &c.

when the Anglo-Saxons of Germany and Cary-street, March 22. W. A. S.





Scots and Irish early Literature discussed.

413 Britain were utter strangers to it. Chrif- and superstition on the other. Not till tianity was diffused among the Celtic in- after knowledge had been revived throughhabitants of Britain and Ireland, while out Europe, did the tales in which it was the Romans remained masters of Britain. commemorated begin to be disputed. From the weltern shores of Britain were Historical scepticiim would reject the its preachers conveyed to Ireland, ere yet whole as fi&tion.. Candid investigation the Pictish and Scottish tribes of the north discovers that there is, indeed, a real of Scotland had been convested. The form, but one invested with false colours, Irish, at a time when, of the inhabitants and to the eye, enlarged to an unreal, giof these Illes, only they and the ancient gantic loftiness by the mists through Britons were christians, sent out apostles, which it has been seen. The following by whom the gospel was, propagated in propofition, then, may be henceforth rethe Hebudæ, and among the Scots of garded as a genuine historical truth. Argyleshire. But, it was not till after « The Scots and Irish, who were conthese events had passed, that the Norse to christianity, sooner than the men of Scandinavia, the Teutonic tribes Scandinavians, have, from these circumof the north of Germany, or the Anglo- stances alone, derived that praise of early Saxons of England, embraced the christian literary illumination, which has been faith. The Norse-men, or Danes, were, eagerly claimed by themselves, attributed in various instances, converted and bap- to them by many others, but now, at tized by the Irish and the Hebudian Scots, laft, generally denied to them, since the whom their frequent defcents, from time age of more discriminating historical reto time, harrassed and subdued. The search had its commencement. Anglo-Saxons of England are recorded St. Andrews, May 17, 1798. by Bede, to have had the gospel preached to them, by missionaries from Jona, as To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. well as by Austin, and those others who

SIR, followed him from Rome. Boniface, one "HE facility with which bank notes, of the most distinguished apostles of the northern Germans, is, by those Germans pounds value, are now paid and received, themselves, believed to have been a Scotf- has been the means of introducing into

In the court of Charlemagne in circulation a number of forged ones, of England, in different places on the conti- the above description. The confidence nent, eminent Scotsmen from Jona, and which the public has hitherto reposed in of the disciples of the famous Columba, the bank of England is likewise increased are known to have, about a thousand by an erroneous opinion, which many peryears since, flourished.

fons entertain, that all bank notes are Now, Sir, permit me to apply this de- received as such at the bank, fome thoutail of facts to the solution of that histo- sands of pounds being appropriated every rical problem which I have above stated, year by the company, to meet the loss It is from their having been christianized they sustain in consequence of forgeries. before the Saxons and the ancient Scan- As the nominal value of forged notes, dinavians, that the Scots and Irish have however, is not allowed by the bank, but derived the praise of an earlier literary the person to whom they can be traced illumination than was enjoyed by their back, is the sufferer, it is certainly a neighbours. Ignorance is often prone to matter of some consequence for each indiextravagant admiration. They to whom vidual to adopt some method which may christianity was first communicated, enable him to ascertain, with ease and through the intervention of the Scots, precision, of whom he has received any. venerated and praised their instructors, as particular bank note.

This may, in gethe most enlightened of mankind. The neral, be done by writing on the back of millionaries of Rome, while they reje&ted, each note, at the time of receiving it, the as heretical, the christianity of Ireland, name of the person from cushom it is reand of Jona, yet could not deny its ex ceived. I have always practised this istence, nor refuse to the Scots the praise method myself, writing the name of the of being nearer to the kingdom of heaven person in short-hand, which requires but than the Anglo-Saxon heathens. This little time, and takes up considerably less praise thus acquired by the early christi- fpace than common-writing, and enables anity of the Scots, was, in the course of me, at any future period, to trace every those dark ages which succeeded, conti- note back again, to the person from nually augmented by high pretensions on whom I received it. Were the above the one hand, by ignorance, gratitude, measure generally practifed, it would


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