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422 Zimmermann.- Amsterdam House of Correction. that one every other was included. When ment as a fequestration from society dure happiness is Aled, what remains but that ing a limited term of years. The buildlife which will foon cease to be a burden ? ing is situated in a part of the suburbs to Such, fir, are the reflections I have fie the north east of the city. The exterior quently had occasion to make; and these has nothing remarkable, neither with have now arisen from reading, in an ac- respect to form or extent. It is detached count of the literary writings of the cele from the street by a spacious court, brated Zimmermann, an extract from an which contains the keeper's lodge, togeElay on Solitude, exhibited, no doubt, ther with apartments for the different for the purpofe of producing a very dif- fervants belonging to the establishment. ferent effect. Speaking of a beloved Over the gate, which opens from this daughter, who died within two years court into the prison, are placed two after his removal to Hanover, the Doctor statues, as large as life, representing two says, “ Diffident of her own powers, the men in the act of fawing a piece of loglistened to the precepts of a fond parent.-- wood. She had been the submissive victim of ill The inner court is in the form of a health from her earliest infancy; her ap- square, round which are arranged the petite was almost

gone when we left Swit- apartments of the prisoners, together zerland, a residence which the quitted with the necessary warehouses. One part with her usual fweetness of temper, and of the ground story is divided into differwithout discovering the smallest regret, ent chambers; the other serves as a depot although a young man, as handsone in for the logwood, and the implements emhis perion as he was amiable in the qua- ployed in its preparation. lities of his mind, the objc&t of her first, The keeper, whole countenance, conof her only affection, a few weeks after- trary to the general custom of persons of wards put an end to his existence in de his profession, was strongly indicative of spair." It is unnecessary fo fay in what urbanity and gentleness, introduced M. light this struck me.

THOUIN into an apartment where two That Zimmermann was a man of fine prisoners were at work in fawing a large feeling and poignant sensibility, and that log of Campeachy wood. The faw is he tenderly loved his daughter, cannot be composed of four blades, joined together, doubted; but it is known to all Europe, with very strong, large and sharp teeth, that he was also vain and ambitious; and which make a fciffure in the wood of except, Mr. Editor, some of your cor- nearly two inches in breadth. The operespondents, whose information may ration is repeated, till the pieces become enable them, will take the trouble to in too small to undergo the law, when they struct me better, I fhall continue to be are ground in mills peculiarly constructed lieve that this beloved daughter and amin for this purpose. able young man, were sacrificed to the

This employment requires an extraorvanity and ambition of Ziminermann. dinary exertion of itrength, and is, at firti, May 8th, 1797.

0. a severe penance even to robust perfons :

but babit, address, and practice, foon To the Editor of the Monthly Mogazine. render it easy; and the prisoners, in a' SIR,

fort time, become competent to furnish, EEING in your last half-yearly Sup without painful exertion, their weekly

plement, a description of the Marine contingent of 200lb. weight of fawed School at Amsterdam, extracted from the pieces. After completing this talk, they MS. journal of the travels of M. even find time to fabricate a variety of THovin, into Belgium and Holland, I little articles in wood and ftraw, which am induced to hope that the following they fell to those who visit the prison, or account of the house of correction at dispose of, by means of agents, in the Amsterdam, drawn from the same source, town. will prove equally acceptable to your M. THOUIN next inspected three readers.

apartments of different dimensions, which The Amsterdam house of correction is, opened into the inner court.

The one from the employment of the prisoners con was inhabited by four, the fecond by fix, fined in it, called the Rapshuys (Rasping- and the third by ten prisoners. The House), and is destined to the reception furniture of the rooms confifted in hamof such malefactors, chiefly thieves, mocks, with a matraís, a blanket, and a whose crimes do not amount to a capital coverlid to each, iables, chairs, and tools, offence. Their punishment cannot so glass, &c. earthen vessels, and various properly be denominated fulitary confine other articles of convenience,

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Amsterdam House of Correction.

423 thing in these apartments was distin- the magistracy, who, from this report, guished by neatness and propriety, and abridge or prolong the term of confinea notwithstanding the number of inhabit. ment, according to the degree of indulg.ants allotted to each, was fully adequate ence which each prisoner appears to to the dimensions of the rooms; the senses merit. Cafes frequently happen where were not offended with any disagreeable a malefactor, condemned to an imprison, sceni, and the air was in every respect as ment of eight years, by his good behapure and wholesome as the surrounding viour procures' his enlargement at the atmosphere.

expiration of four; and lo, in proportion, In an obscure part of the building are for a shorter term. But great attention a number of cells, in which, formerly, is paid to discriminate between actual those prisoners who revolted against the reform and hypocritical artifice. proper subordination of the place, or ill. The reward of good behaviour is not, treated their comrades, were confined for however, confined to, or withheld till, the a few days. But the keeper assured M. period of actual liberation. Their restorThouin, that these cells had not been ation to society is preceded by a progresmade use of for upwards of 10 years. five amelioration of their lot.

Their They are dark, gloomy dungeons, with work is gradually rendered less laborious, only a small aperture for the admiffion of they are accommodated with sepalight and air. The suppression of this rate apartments, and employed in the .barbarous and coercive punishment does services of domestic æconomy. The honour to the humanity of government. keeper even entrusts them with commife/

The store rooms are filled with various fions beyond the precincts of the prison, kinds of wood for the purposes of dying; and scarce a single instance has occurred as the Haematoxylum Campechianum, the of their abusing this indulgence. By Morus Tinctoria, the Caefalpinia Sappan, this prudent management,; a considerable &c. They are all exotics, with the ex- saving is effected in the expence of the ception of the Evonymus Europæus. The establishment, at the fame time that it warehouses were not of sufficient extent tends to wear away prejudice, and to inia to contain the quantity of wood, which tiate the prisoners by gradual advances was deposited in piles in different parts of into the reciprocal duties of social life. the court.

M. THOUIN made particular inquiries The prisoners, amounting to 76 in whether it was customary for persons number, were uniformly habited in coarse after their discharge, to be confined a woollens; wear very good stockings, second and third time, as is but too often large leather shoes, white Thirts, and caps the case in many countries, for a repetior hats. They are, by the rules of the tion of their offence. He was informed, house, obliged to frequent ablutions, that such inftarices very rarely occur ; which greatly contribute to the preserva- but the cafe is not without precedent, as tion of their health. There was only one he observed in the person of a young Jew, fick person amongst them: and, what is who was then in the Rafphuys for the not a little remarkable, almost all the pri- third time. The case of this man is soners had formerly lived in large com fomewhat extraordinary. During the mercial towns ; very few villagers were pericd of his detention, he always conamongst them. They had all been sen- forms, with the most scrupulous observ. tenced to imprisonment for theft ; , but it ance, to the rules of the place, and gives depends upon themselves, by reformation general satisfaction by his exemplary and good behaviour, to shorten the term conduct. But fuch, as he himself avows of their confinement, which inany of them ed to our traveller, is his constitutional frequently do.

propensity to thieving, that no sooner is The keeper, whose humanity towards the term of his imprisonment elapled, the unfortunate persons committed to his than he returns with redoubled ardcur to care, entitles him rather to the title of his lawless courses. It is not so much their protector than their gaoler (and for the sake of plunder, as to gratify his M. Thouin informs us, that the pri- irresistible impulse, that he follows this foners generally called him by no other vicious life ; and M. THOUIN adds, name than father), iuffifts them with his that he recounted his different exploits çounsels and friendly admonitions. He with as much exultation and triumph, as regitters, every week, in a book appro a veteran displays when rehearsing his priated to this purpoie, both the instances warlike atchievements. of good and bad behaviour, which is Another falutary regulation in this inannually submitted to the examination of stitution, from which the best conse. MONTHLY MAG. No, XXXII,

31

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424

Mistake of Mr. Coxe correted. quences result, is the indulgence granted This inscription is, by Mr. Coxe, to the prisoners of receiving the visits of thus translated : their wives and mistresses twice every " To the affectionate memory of John week. Proper care, however, is taken Hartvic Ernest, Count of Bernstorff, who, to guard against the introduction of dif- in 1767, rendered free his hereditary eftates, ease ; and the ladies, in one sense, pur- and thereby imparted industry, wealth, chase their admission, by giving a trifling every blefling, as an example to pofterity." sum of money at the gate, which becomes From the context, it appears, that Mr. the perquisite of the aged prisoners, Coxe understands the peasants on the whose wants are of a different nature Bernstorff estates to have been, till the from their youthful comrades. Thus the year 1767, in that abject itate of feudal pleasures of one class contribute to the villainage, in which the peasantry of comforts of the other; and the entrance Britain remained from the æra of the money, trifling as it is, keeps away a Norman conquest, nearly till that of the crowd of idle vagabonds, who have no reformation of religion. acquaintance with the prisoners. The But, the state of the peasantry in Denladies, at their visits, are permitted to mark never was such as Mr. Coxe coneat and drink with their lovers, and ceives it to have been. The peasants of when the conversation becomes too ani- Denmark, Sweden, and Norway, have mated for a third person to be present, ever been in a condition resembling rather the rest of the company obligingly take that of the Anglo-Saxon Ceorles, than the hint, and leave them to enjoy a tete- that of the villains of France, and of a-tete.--By this prudent regulation, Britain, after the Norman conquest. many hurtful consequences attendant on They were, from times the most remote, a total seclusion from female society, are accounted one of the legislative estates of guarded against.

the kingdom-pofiefling peculiar priM. THOUIN. concludes his account vileges. Any one who takes the trouble with obferving, that the Rasphuys at Am- of looking into “ Molesworth's Account fterdam bears a greater resemblance to a of Denmark,” will at once perceive the well ordered manufactory, than to a pri- Danish peasantry to have been, even befon. It were to be wished, that all fore the great change which was accomfimilar inftitutions were conducted upon plished in their government about the a similar plan.

year 1660, in a situation much more re

spectable than that of mere feudal vil. To the Editor of the Monthly Megazine. lainage. From that æra they obtained

new immunities and new honours, the SIR,

rewards of their fervices to the crown in HE books of travels, &c. published crushing the aristocracy: The very tenor much amusing and useful information; confirms what is here stated; while it I was, therefore, not a little vexed and contradicts what he himfelf seems, in disappointed, the other day, to find, in other instances, to insinuate; and thews, the fifth volume of his travels, one of the I fear, that he has not very well undermost egregious blunders in historical and food the compilation which he has raked classical knowledge, which have ever together concerning Denmark and the fallen under my notice. Since the blun- other northern governments. der is fo remarkable, and the book to The sense of the above inscription, popular, you will, perhaps, deem my when truly interpreted, accords with this torrection not unworthy of a place in your general statement: Arva discreta, immuexcellent Magazine, which has the de- nie, hereditaria largiendo. What man ferved good tortune to be, at present, in of common understanding, who possessed the most eminent degree, the publica cura any linall knowledge of the Latin lana of all persons of literary or scientific cu- guage, would ever think, of translating riosity.

these words, as Mr. Coxe has done, The following inscription is copied by " rendered free his hereditary estates?" Mr. Coxe from a monumental obelisk In truth, Count Bernstorff only “ abowhich was erected in honour of Count lished, on his estates, the practice of ac.. Bernstorff of Denmark, after his deceale, cepting the personal services of the peaby the peasantry upon his estates : sants as a part of the rents for their farms

Piis maribus fcb. Hartrici Ernefti, qui --- gave perpetual leafes to tenants who arva, discreta, bereditaria, largiendo, induftriam, had, before, held their possessions withopes, omnia, impertiit. In excomplum, foftcritati.” out lease, and had been removeable at

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Anfwer to S. M. on Orthography. the landlord's pleasure-divided into would be too much to expect. Nothing separate farms, tracts of ground which human has ever yet been perfect. But had been, before, possessed as commons. that it is full as likely to inislead as to -This is the obvious import of the assist, I can by no means allow. Alprincipal clause of the inscription. Thus though, in some words, the meaning is understood, what the inscription relates, not strictly that which might have been is perfectly consistent with the truth of expected from the signification of the root, history. According to Mr. Coxe's yet there are very few, that do not bear translation and commentary, it has no fome analogy to the original theme*. But meaning that is not false.

says S. M. “ The new mode of spelling It is enough for me to have thus cor will not destroy etymology." And to rected the principal error in our instruc- prove this, he affirms, that although in tive traveller's account of that particular many languages, the spelling has been in the Danish history. Every reader will considerably altered, in none has the etyperceive, that there is yet more to be mology been destroyed. Now, it does not corrected in the translated infcription. appear, that the alteration which he menI am, fir, yours, &c.

tions to have taken place in other lanElgin, March 15, 1798. Arcticus. guages, was with a view of making the

orthography agree with the pronunciaa To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

tion. But it was the result of fashion and SIR,

caprice; and therefore it is probable, A

LTHOUGH you seldoin permit that many have been altered fo as to be

your instructive and agreeable pages come more like the words from which to be the vehicles of controversy, yet, I they are derived. The effects, therefore, have persuaded myself, that you will not of such a change, which is partial in its refuse a place to the following remarks, extent, and uncertain in its influence, do, in support of my former letter on the sub- by no means, resemble the consequences ject of spelling. The importance of or of the systematic correction, which is novo thography to the cause of literature in proposed. Because a few words, in a general, is a sufficient excuse for the pre- long course of time, and from various lent discussion. Perhaps I may not throw causes, have been altered in their spelling, much new light on the subject, but I shall and no destruction of etymology has enbe fully satisfied, if I am the means of sued, does it thence follow, that a whole drawing forth the thoughts of those who language can have its orthography achave considered it with more attention and commodated to the prevailing mode of ingenuity. I confess I itill persevere in pronunciation, with no more consequences my former opinion, “ that an alteration than in the former instance ? Certainly in our mode of spelling would be preju- not. The two cases are widely different. dicial to the English language.” S. M. In the latter, the operation would be (vol. 4. p. 89.) afferts, that " etymo- much more extensive and violent, and, I logy, though an amusing, is by no means am afraid, fatal to etymology: which is a necessary itudy;” and that it is full as not a bugbear (as represented by S. M.), likely to mislead, as to allist, in the dif- but a just and powerful objection. Your covery of the meaning of words." Now correspondent thinks, that if by a new I cannot allow either of these positions to syfteni of orthography, we should be debe true. To say that etymology is not a prived of the means of tracing tlie derivanecessary ttudy, is tantainount to denying the necessity of studying grammar. For * Your correspondent has been unlucky in etymology is of as much value and use as his choice of instances; for of those which any other part of grammatical knowledge. he produces, only the two laft are in point. Indeed the clearness of their derivations The meaning of the first does not widely difis the chief beauty in the language of the fer from that of its root; for, ought not a Greeks. Without the clue of etymology, physician to be a natural philosopher ? In language would resemble a vast labyrinth, the second example, although patient in in which we should be perpetually con

French, does not mean precisely the same as fused and bewildered. But S. M. afferts so much of the theme, as to denote a sufferer.

patient in English, yet they both preserve that “it is full as likely to mislead as to affift

, in the discovery of words.” Since Journey is related to journée, since it origiall words are liable, from time and ca

nally signified, “ as much as could be tra

velled in one day.” Plate, from plat, a dish, price, to be changed in their significa- varies only fo får in its fignification, that by tion, it must happen, that etymology will " dish,” we mean the same kind of utensil not always be an infallible guide. This as a plate, but somewhat larger.

tion

3 I 2

426 Character of a Tradesman defended against Mr. Godwin.
tion of words, yet the old books would plied; because confidence, from which it
preserve all necessary information on that is suspended, when once broken, continues
fubject. But, is it not to be feared that fo for ever.
they would soon become obsolete, and be Such being my sentiments, it was with
unintelligible without great labour and much regret I observed the tendency of a
application ? Who would not oppole any modern essay, in which trades and pro-
plan for a mode of spelling, 'that would fessions are represented in the most dil-
be the means of conligning to oblivion gusting light. Some remarks seem ne-
the works of our best authors ? Who, cessary to counteract the injury of such
that has the least regard for literature, ideas, which I think are unjust and inju-,
would not struggle with all his strength dicious.
against him, who, with raih and bar To Mr. Godwin, the author of that
barous hand, would plunge into darkness essay (feeInquirer," Essay v.), I am sure
and difficulty, Dryden and Pope, Addi- I have no personal dislike.' I consider his
fon and Bolingbroke? S. M. Tays, “ If attempt as dangerous; and no other apo-
we are not agreed upon our pronuncia- logy for opposing him, in this instance, is
tion, the fixing of it by an exact ortho- necessary. If I were of his opinion, I
graphy is a delirable object." Be it fo. should 'no longer desire to live in this
But let us consider the price we are to world. Existence for me would have no
to pay for this desirable object. We are charm; life would have no enjoyment.
to give up no less than the means of dif. Who would defire to act in a scene
covering the derivation of words. This " where all is blank, repulsive, odious ;
would be too much, if the design should where every business and employment is
succeed in its fullest extent. Who then found contagious and fatal to all the best
would pay this price, when it is manifeft characteristics of man, and proves the fruit-
that it can succeed only in part ?-I am ful parcnt of a thousand hateful vices *."
afraid, fir, that I have exceeded the limits The ground upon which this accusa-
which ought to confine me: I will, there- tion is made, appears to be this : that
fore, say a word on S. M.'s last observa- selfishness is a hateful vice; that trades,
tion, and conclude. I did not urge as at present conducted, engender selfish-
« That we understand each other suffici- ness; ergo, no liberal man can follow a
ently for all the purposes of common trade. Such hafty conclusions are surely
life," as absolutely conclusive. What I very inconsistent with the caution of a
meant, is this: that the inequality be- philosophical “ Inquirer." They impeach
tween the necessity of alteration, and the his liberality equally with his knowledge.
facrifices that must be made, if it take They bring inquiry itself into disrepute.
place, is so great, that comparatively That avarice is a vice, and that its in-
Tpeaking) there is no neceility at all. fluence is to eradicate every generous and

Your's, V. O. V. humane sentiment, is readily adınitted.
March 15, 1798.

That mankind are too often insensible to

the duties of hur.anity, is generally juft, No reasonable man will feel bimself indifferent to

That the acquirement of wealth by no the čkaraéter he bears. To be in want of the

means confers generosity, the experience Janetian derived from the good opinion of others, But it would have been consistent with

of

every day too clearly demonstrates. is an evil greatly to be deprecated. Vide GODWIN'S Inquirer, Efiay vii. sect. 1. the usual practice of Mr. GODWIN's inTo the Editor of the Monthly Magazine.

vestigation, to have entered more 'fully

upon the subject. He has quoted, but I :

your readers who will dispute the just. “ De Carthagine fatius est filere quam parness of that sentiment which is contained cius dicere,” If trades and profeffions be in the motto to my letter. We all of us injurious to the moral character and in, know the value of a good reputation. To telle&tual acquirements of those who fol. entertain any doubt on that subject, would low them, why did he not furnish us with betray the indecision of an idiot. It has the contrast of those who do not follow hithertó been considered as an act illibe- them? We should then have had an opral, if not base, to atteinpt to destroy, by portunity of comparison ; but the comunfounded surmiles, the advantages to be parison, I am sure, would not have been derived from so ineitimable a bkulling. favourable to his opinion. Other losses may be repaired by induitry, I consider a tradesman as a respectable and other misfortunes alleviated by time; but the loss of character can never be iup

Esay v.

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