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Character of a Tradesman defended against Mr. Godwin. 427 character. I do not quarrel with him, But without the search of gain in the because “ has the audacity to call himself a present itate of things, how should we man.He has a right to that honour ; exist? It is the duty of many frequently and often a much better right than many to think of it; it is the duty of all to of those who refuse it to him. The act keep it in subjection, never to suffer it of supplying others with what is useful, to influence the delicacy of their feelings, and at the same time providing for his never to bias the impartiality of their own comfort, deserves neither cenfure nor judgments, never to destroy the kindness disgrace. It may be done, I know it fre- of their nature. quently is done, with uprightness and ho Tradesmen are charged with employing nour, Mr. GODWIN's habits may have insidious artifices of pretended politeness prevented him from having' much ac to invite custom to their shops. No exquaintance with the mercantile world; cuse can be offered for so contemptible but I may assure him, that it frequently a practice. Only let it be remembered, abounds with instances of disinterested that if such a practice be found, the devirtue. If I had to select the best half of fect belongs more to those who buy, than mankind in a civilized state, I should not to those who fell. The fawning driveller hesitate a moment to prefer the trading would soon alter his habits, if he found part. In general, I can safely affirn, they operated to his disadvantage. Tradesthat the greater number of avaricious and men, therefore, have no more thare in this contracted persons, is certainly to be found charge than the rest of mankind. amongst those who live independent of To finish the black catalogue comes a trade. This

may appear a paradox: to more formidable accusation : that they me it is not fo. The habits of commerce indulge towards each other the moft in. have a tendency to open the mind; they veterate hatred ; and that nothing can occasion reflection; they prevent inac- exceed the animosity they bear to a rival. tivity, and stagnation ; they frequently This, if confined to particular cafes, compel their votary to be generous; and is certainly true. When it is applied as convince him that it is his interest to be a general maxim, it is flatly contradicted fo. But here is the love of gain. I grant by general experience. The readiness it; but even the love of gain is often so with which they accommodate one anregulated by the God of nature, as to pro- other, and the civility that exists amongst duce effects the most beneficial. It may, them, are well known to those in merperhaps, be affirmed, that this has more cantile situations. Mr. Godwin's afThare than any other motive in advancing sertion, as it now ftands, is very much the work of improvement, in carrying to like those indictments in law, where abthe highest pitch every art and science, in surdity vies with falsehood; where John extending the intellect of man, and pro- Doe is charged with breaking the head of moting the happiness of his species. Richard Roe, &c. &c. To be fond of gain is natural to man.

He has considered all those as equall, The chief distinction here is, that the dangerous, and all equally dishoneft. Here tradelinan chearfully spends what he has we agree no better than before. I willz ealily obtained. Exceptions certainly are the llave-trade, and one or two more, not numerous; they always must be fo on a to be confidered as belonging to my argeneral assumption; but its strongest bear- gumentthey are not trades, they are sifa ing I conceive to be favourable to my ar- tematic robberies. Yet these cannot be laid gument.

to have injured the morals of those who But a tradesman is an enemy to im- conduct them, because they must, first of provement. How is this newn? Let me all, take the previous step of diveiting alk Mr. Godwin who have contributed themselves intirely of morality or virtue. most to the improvement of our nature ? Mr. Godwin, if not professionally, is, Do not their very, employments instigate at least, practically, AN AUTHOR. I conthem to improvements every day? Con- sider fuch a vocation every way as objecsider what the whole worth of England tionable as those he has condemned. Since was twenty years ago, and what it is he has ftigmatized every other existing

A little wood, a little fire, and a line of business, it is but fair to call upon little water, have been converted by men, him to thew the peculiar advantages of whom Mr. GODWIN condemns as ene that which he has chosen. mies of improvements, into the means of To excite distrust, to banish confidence, providing comfort for thousands of his and to destroy the advantages derived fellow-creatures.

from the good opinion of one another, is The search of gain corrupts the mind, evidently the tendency of that sentiment

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Mr. Housman's Tour continued. which I now condemn. I hope, Mr. Edi. miles. The strong clayey foil continues; tor, that you will insert this; though I part of the country is in open fields, and am conscious of having trespaseel upon part of it inclosed; the latter is mostly the extent of your work, it may


pro in grass, and some of the pastures seem to per for your own justification; for, as have lain so long, that much of the furyou have always fhéwn a decided partia face is covered with ant-hills, and, conlity for the interests of commerce, you sequently, the produce must be diminishmust be anxious to prove, that, by to do. ed. The produce of the arable lands are ing, you have not Tupported a system of middling crops of wheat, beans, barley, fraud, robbery, and peculation.

and oats. The surface is rather irreguFeb. 12, 1798.

MERCATOR. lar, but the aspect of the country is

pleasing enough; and, towards Leighton, TOUR OF ENGLAND. the beautiful fields, surrounded with (Continued from page 277-)

stately timber trees, and fine verdant

meadows, are truly delightful. The peoJournal of a Tour through almost every county ple busy in getting in their wheat and

in England, and part of Wales, by Mr.JOHN barley, and mowing beans. Small sheep Housman, of Corby, near Carlisle; who was engaged to make the Tour by a gentle are herded in flocks upon the stubbles and man of distinction, for the purpose of col- in the lanes. Leighton Buzzard is a pretty lecting authentic' information relative to market-town, brick built, but the treets the state of the poor. The Journal com are mostly unpaved: it is surrounded prises an account of the general appearance with a pleasant country, and several open of the country, of the soil, surface, build- fields. The manufacture of lace contiings, &c. with observations agricultural, nues. commercial, &c.

Buckinghamshire is a small county: it TOW, the seat of the Marquis of seems in general to have a strong loamy

Buckingham, is about three miles foil, very suitable either for corn or grass, from this place: the house, the very fine, but very injudiciously managed. The

extensive park, gardens; pleasure- great quantity of common field indeed grounds, &c. are far beyond my powers produces wheat, beans, barley, and oats, of description, nor do such descriptions in as large quantities as could be excome immediately under the concise plan pected from perpetual tillage ; but, were or nature of my notes; these places have the whole country inclosed, and a regular been fully and repeatedly described by system of husbandry to take place, by the able writers, who scarcely condescended old pastures being brought into a proper to notice the humble subjects of my prin- succession of grals and corn, and the now cipal attention. Respecting Stow, fuffice fields


in the same rotation, I am it to say, that, taken altogether, it is confident the produce would be very congenerally allowed to be one of the finest siderably more. feats in the kingdom.

September 10, Went from Leighton September 8. I left Buckingham and Buzzard to Dunstable, in Bedfordíhire, went to Winslow, in Buckinghamshire, fix miles. A hye-road, which leads over fix miles. The soil strong, and produces common, or open fields, almost all the much wheat, oats, and beans. In this way, in which beans are a principal crop. district I passed several parishes where the Part of this district is quite level, very fields are open, and the farmers mowing fertile and beautiful; a chalk foil com.beans and 'oats. Where the land is in mences here, and is, in some places, with closed, it is mostly in pasturage. Roads in the reach of the plough. The hills are made with whitish freettone, mixed about Donitable are fecn at a great difwith finty gravel; the country is open, tance; they are high protuberances of though enclosures contain a great number chalk, and courroad with a green (ward of of trees, principally elm; the turface ge- poor grats. Ahout two or three miles nerally level. Wintlow is a small plea- trom Dinita!le the great north road apfantly situated market-town, containing pear's riting up a hill towards the town, 1100 inhabitants; many of the lower which is cnt pretty deep, to make the classes of women are lace-makers. The ascent more easy: the substance excaadjacent country is level, and abounds vated, is pure chalk, as white as snow, with game, particularly hares, which, it and thrown up in a long, high, irregular is faid, the lord of the major protects ridge. This seemingly wonderful ob. with an iron hand.

ject, whicli, had it been in winter, I September 9. Went from Winlow to thould have taken for a large wreath of Leighton Buzzard, in Bedfordfase, nine incw, - cited my curiosity tor tone nuiles,



round me,

Mr. Housman's Tour continued.

429 Dor could I conjecture what it really was, manufacture straw-hats, &c. and the till I had nearly reached the place. Chalk houses are moderately built. Bedfordis here burned for lime, in the calcination fhire, or, at least, so much as I saw of it, of which, the people use furze instead of is an open country, the air seemingly coals. Folding feep on fallows, is much pure, the soil tolerably dry, and mixed practised here: they are of a small white with chalk and flint, which are generally, faced bệeed, and have horns. After paff- if not always, companions. On account ing an extensive and very fine common, of the great quantity of common field, upon which all the cows in the neigh- this country furnihes uncommon fupplies bouring village are depaftured in fum of all sorts: the sheep are more suited to mer, the road leads me to a high ground, the folding system of husbandry, than from which I have a distant profpect on yielding mutton and wool. Farms are every side. Few hedges obstruct the view: middle-sized in general; a few are large, almost the whole country, for miles but far more finall ones of from 301. to

are open fields, and immense sol. a year. Rent of land, in farming quantities of grain appear, some cut parishes, from 1os. to 30s. per acre. The down, fome standing, but the greatest principal manufacture is straw-work, but part the farmers are busy carting home. which is confined to about six or eight The foil here is rather light, and gene- miles round Dunstable. rally pretty good corn land, but least

September 14. Market-street to Redprodučtive where the chalk abounds most, bourn in Hertfordshire, four miles—The which, in some places, even forms a great roads excellent; fields small; soil loamy; part of the upper stratum. One mile produces wheat, barley, oats, turnips and from Dunstable, I passed a piece of an clover; surface level ; fine hedges, great tiquity, on the brink of a hill; it is a numbers of trees thereon. The hazel large circular mound of earth, inclosing buih supplies the place of thorn in geneabout ten acres of ground, and has for- ral, and nuts are growing thereon in the merly, I suppose, been an encampment. greatest abundance, particularly about I asked some labourers, who were mowing Redbourn. This seems to be a fertile oats near the place, what they had heard and fine country, and the farmers good about it; who said the country people agriculturists. Farms are worth from called it the Castle, and that they had isl. to about 2001. a year; rent of fingular traditions about the cause of its ploughed land 155. and of meadow 31. formation; particularly the vague story per acre. Redbourn is a very pleasant, that a queen, in consequence of a wager clean, well-built, but small® market with the king, that she could encamp, an towa, on the north road. army, of a certain number of men, with September 15. Went from Redbourn in a bull's hide, ordered a buil's hide to to St. Albans, in Hertfordihire, four be cut into strings, and the greatest por-, miles. This district much like the last fible circle to be circumscribed therewith, described; the road extremely fine; the which was done at this place, and the inclosures seem old; elm trees abound; encampment made accordingly. Dun a few of oak and ash appear at intervals ; ftable is a small town, containing near and here I was pleased with a view of 1000 inhabitants : it is a great thorough some pretty streams of clear water. Fields fare to the north, and carries on a straw and farıms are small, in general, and rents manufacture of hats, baskets, &c. to a not high. St. Albans also itands on the considerable extent, of late, which is Same great road, is a pleasant town, and chiefly done by women, who can often contains three parish churches. earn more than the men by common la September 16, St. Albans to Barnet, bour. The farmers bring a great deal of in Hertfordshire, ten miles. The surface manure from London, which is 31 miles pretty level, and woody, but the foil less diftant. This is quite an open country, fertile, in general, than in those districts

which the neighbouring hills I have lately passed. Furze, which ge. command a fine view.

nerally indicates a poor foil, while it September 15. Went from Dunstable points to come agricultural neglect, freto Market-ftreet, four miles. The country quently presents itself to the eye of the mostly inclosed; fields, small and pretty. traveller, in this district. The roads conA large quantity of the finest common in tinue excellent, being made of fine finty this district. Market.street stands on the gravel. An obelik, purporting that one north road, is a pretèy large village, con of the Earls of Warwick was īlain there diting of one long narrow street; and is in battle, stands near Barnet, at the separemarkable for being situated in two ration of the two great north roads. counties, and three parishes. The people



430 Bohan Upas.- Tour from London to Dublin, &c. Barnet is a small, but very pleasant town, ticular), as well as by a humane public. and contains a number of genteel inha- The number of women under this descripbitants. It also stands on the north road, tion relieved in this house, has been, in and is a short stage from London: the forty years, 37,615; and the number of country around it, pretty level and agree children born there in that space of time, able, and it is needless to add, furnithed 38,291 ; viz. 20,082 boys and 18,209 with a great number of country residences girls. Of these women, 667 had twins í for people in easy circumstances. 11 had 3, and 1 had 4 children at a birth. (To be continued.)

There are, besides, a great number of

other charities in the capital of the lifter To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. kingdoin; but their external appearance

does not claim the attention of travellers. SIR,

There is, however, one whose institution THE

HE extract which A TRAVELLER is very recent, but whole growth, from gave in your Magazine for May, its god-like stamina, has been gigantic

, from the letters of Mr. Von Wurb, on

as it foltered and fuccoured by the provi, the subject of the BOHAN UPAS, may, dential and merciful dew of heaven. This perhaps, be considered as fufficiently de- is the orphan-house for deftitute female cifive of the non-existence of the plant. children, a receptacle of plain and hum.

The miraculous account, however, given ble architecture, built upon the verge of of it by the Dutchman, Mr. Foersch, the circular road (a fashionable equeitrian who pretends to have been an eye-witness, promenade round Dublin). This inftiand the facts which he relates, have been tution was opened upon the first day of controverted in all their parts, in a Me. moir of Dr. Lambert Nolit, Fellow of the January 1790, in consequence of a truly Batav. Exper. Society at Rotterdam. pious and charitable woman, who, in the This memoir was procured from John for the purpose of adminiftering relief,

daily habit of seeking out wretchedness Matthew,(Rhyn, 23 years resident in the dilcovered (hocking to relate) a number Illand of Java. It is inserted in the of deftitute infants, at different times, ex“Gentleman's Magazine for May, 1794,” posed to perifh in ditches and upon dungpage 433, to which I refer fuch of your hills. With her own private purse the readers as are desirous of further informa- began to form an asylum againk fuch tion on the subject. This formidable and destructive Upas private friends; and an appeal in behalf

barbarity. It soon was allisted by her has been mof poetically described by the of this institution, was made to the pubbeautiful and fantastic pen of Dr. Dar- lic from the pulpit, by that inimitable WIN, in his " Botanic Garden;"

orator, the Rev. Doctor Kirwan, which " Where seas of glass with gay reflections succeeded admirably. Heaven called away

Imile, &c.” Part 2. Cant. iii. line 219. the foundress, and her lots was felt like

Did Dr. DARWIN really credit the ex an electrical shock among the females of istence of the Upas? or were the qualities fashion at Dublin, under whole auspices alcribed to it, to admirably calculated to this little nurtėling has increased within enrich his poem, that he finned against that short space, lo much, as to contain his better understanding, and deserted his

upon the Itrength and presumption of philosophy for the fake of his muse?

voluntary contributions, no lels than 130 The Doctor has inserted, in his " ad- children, of this deftitute class; and, to ditional notes” to the second part of the the honour of the filter kingdom be it l'e

Botanic Gurden," a tranllation from corded, that this popular preacher has the Dutch of Foersch. A, R.C. often fo successfully pleaded the cause of

inifery from the pulpit, as to draw from A Tour from LONDON 10 DUBLIN and his auditory a voluntary donation of

fome other parts of IRELAND; viz. more than 1000 guineas at a charity serthe COUNTIES of KILDARE and mon. It is now, and for the last five WICKLOW, made in the SUMMER of years has been, the custom, at the an

nual fermon for this charity, for the 1797. (Continued from page 348.)

most distinguished peereffes, and other la

dies of high rank, to collect the donaTHI

"HERE is another hospital of good

plain architecture, with a handiome tions of the congregation in the church. steeple, instituted for the relief of poor hand, preceded by a gentleman ulher,

Each of these carries a filver plate in her lying-in-women. Doctor Moss, and continues to be patron- with a white rod, which nouvelle fight ized to the present day by almost every be

never fails to produce the delwed effect. nevolent lady in Ireland (Dublin in par


Toar in Ireland.-Dublin and Vicinity.

431 The small house; where this institution chitecture, is a lawn, containing, about commenced, was, upon the removal of three acres, planted upon each side with the girls to their new building above 'flowering thrubs, and divided from the mentioned, taken for the purpose of re- newly finished square, called Merriondieving destitute orphan boys, and which, Square, of which it commands an unin. though now only in its second and third terrupted view, by a part of Merrionyear, will, we hope, meet with the en- street, which never can be built upong couragement it deserves. The Meffis. farming, upon the whole, the grandelt La Touche, the Dublin bankers, are town relidence in the city of Dublin. treasurers to these charities, who thank That which ranks next, in point of fully receive the smallest contributions situation and real taste, in this city, is from the humane and benevolent. There Charlemont House, the town residence of are, besides these which I have mentioned, Earl Charlemont. It is of plain stone fourteen other hospitals in the inetropolis architecture, embellished in front with of Ireland, chiefly supported by voluntary nothing more than a ample door case, contributions.

and architrave windows... There is a semiAs to the churches in Dublin (which circular sweep at each side of the house, has each its · parochial school), they ex with niches in the wall and balustrades hibit no external beauty to arrest the at at top; but its fituation being in the tention of the traveller, nor yet much .centre of a high ground, on the north fide internal decoration. The only two of Rutland-Square, and coinmanding an churches in Dublin, out of near thirty, entire view of a beautiful and extensive which have Iteeples with spires, are St. pleasure-ground, called the New Gardens, Patrick's cathedral, and St. Werburgh' situate at the rear of the Lying-in Hofchurch. St. Patrick's cathedral, froin pital, and terminated by that building, its antiquity, is worth investigation, but render this house delightful and cheartul it is falling rapidly into decay; and, to in the extreme. The hall is simple and mend the matter, the government of Ire- neat, yet fufficiently large. There are in land and the chapter are at this hour en- it four columns of the Corinthian order, gaged in a fuit at law, relative to the but they are of wood, which has an apright of chusing or ele&ting a dean.

pearance of poverty, and ill-accords with I shall now inention the few principal a stone fronted house. There are but houses of the nobility in that city, which three rooms upon the parlour-floor, viz. deserve attention; and first, Leinster- a breakfatt-parlour, a dining-parlour, and House, the town residence of the Duke of a drawing-room. In the breakfast-par-. Leinster. The priøcipal entrance is from lour there are some good pictures, partiKildare-street, through a very bold gate- cularly, an holy family by Vanlo, two way of rustic architecture, erected in the original Hogarths, ont, of the harlot's centre of a wall of the fame ftile, within progress, in high keeping with a Jew; fide of which is a very large circular area, the other, called the lady's last stake. and in the front ftands the house, which This lait picture was copied after Hois of stone, with three-quarter columns, garth’s death, by a person fent from Lensupporting the eze and cornice. The don to Dublin for that purpose, in order hall has a very grand appearance, rising to complete the engravings of that artist's into a part of the second floor and sup- works.' Lord Charlemont is also in polported by black · marble columns. În feflion of the original picture of the gates this hall' are several bustos and other of Calais, by Hugarth. In the drawing pieces of sculpture. The suite of rooms room are a few good pictures, particuupon this floor is well contrived, and larly a St. Matthew, and a repenting most of them are decorated with good Judas throwing down the pieces of silver, paintings. When you ascend the prin- by Rembrant, in his best ftile. The cipal staircase, you enter from the left- principal floor of this house has never hand into the gallery of paintings, in been finished, although built above thirty which are some of the best works of Van years, nor have even

the walls or cieling Dyke, Guido and Titian; and, in a light been plaistered. Ample amends is made femi-circular colonnade, upon the north for this apparent misery, by the magni. fide of the room, stands a statue of Ado- ficence of the library, which is attached nis, well sculptured in marble, four feet to the rere of this house, at a distance of high; this gallery extends the whole about one hundred and fifty feet from the depth of the house, from West to East, dwelling-houfe. This library, which and is superbly furnished. Before the rere stands unrivalled by that of any private of this house, which is of plain stone are gentleman in Europe, conlists of four MONTHLY MAG. No, XXXI,


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