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BIOGRAPHY.

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Vol. V.] Retrospect of German Literature.--Biography, &c. 515 ^ fential circumstance, which exclusively " existence;" things, therefore, which " and peremptorily condemns every law can be considered as objects of luxury, " imposing restrictions on the press; and carry along with them a certain des « this circumstance is indisputable, name-, gree of inucility, of scarcity, and of re“ ly, that such a law cannot be main “ finement; yet always in a relative sense

tained, or, in other words, that it may only, never absolutely." " be easily evaded. The facility of cir“ culating ideas among the public is so Although the Germans possess, per.

great, that restrictions of this kind are haps, a greater number of individual deso turned into ridicule. And though scriptions of the lives of eminent men ; of such laws be ineffectual, they are, ne, yet in collections and biographical dic“ vertheless, calculated to produce ani- tionaries the Englilh have obviously the « mofities; and this is the most mischieve advantage. Among the few publications

of them, that they are apt to of the latter kind, we take notice of a “ irritate the very class of men, against “ Collection of Pictures, representing “ whom they are directed, and to stimulace learned Men and Artists (of Germany), “ them to a resistance, which frequently is together with short Accounts of their “ not only successful, but is likewise con- Lives.” Of this publication the nineteenth şi fidered as meritorious. The most wretch- and twentieth 'numbers have lately ap« ed productions, which, on account of peared: the plates are well executed ; “ their intrinsic merit, could not expect and the biographies, though rather too

to live two hours, make their way concise, are well and impartially writ. “ with the public, because à fort of rage, ten. Among the variety of other ” or fatality, seems to be connected with “ Lives" poured furth by the German of their origin. The only antidotes, the press, we thall mention only that of John

productions of better writers, lose their Henry Tischbein, formerly couniellor " effect, because the ignorant are but ard aulic painter to the landgrave of « too prone to confound him who speaks Helle Caffèl. His life, which is here to of limitation, with him who approves described by Prof. ENGELSCHALL, of “ of what is unjust; hence, fire, let the Marpurg, is uncommonly instructive and liberty of the press be the unalterable important, in as much as it exhibits the “ principle of your government! Never fubject in his double capacity, as a man will this system foster dangers in a and an artist. There is further annexed “ well-regulated state , never bas this to this life, a “ Lecture in Commemora“ system proved dangerous to such a tion of Tischbein, read in the Society of !! ftare : for, in those countries where it Antiquaries at Cassel, in April, 1790, “ has become destructive, destruction had by Counsellor and Professor Casparson." " already preceded, and the voracious In this, the merits of the deceased are “ insects were generated only beneath duly appreciated; and we met with " the mouldering ruins.”-Dr. Dorn's many valuable remarks, which may be fmall, but classical, work, intitled, Re. read, with equal satisfaction, by every Aetions on Luxury, the Taxations of lover of the arts, as well as by future Luxury, and their Objects, principally in bịographers. a Political and Statistical View," deferves GEOGRAPHY AND TOPOGRAPHY. to be read by every financier, particularly In these branches the accuracy and in, in those countries, where the onjets of dustry of the Germans is universally actaxation must be occasionally forfred, as knowledged. Since the days of Bü. they become nearly exhausted; or, per. SCHING, the names of FORSTER, FABRI, ha:is, from the lamentable circumstance, Klügel, ZAJH, and EBELING, stand that the premiers of such devoted coun. foremost among modern geographers. ļries are equally obstinare in their ruinous As an elementary book there has appear. plans, and unacquainted with real life. ed lately, “ An Introduction to MatheThe author has taken a comprehensive matical and Physical Geography, Parr I, view of this subject, and premises his with two Maps by SrotzMĄNN, and profound and just observations with the two Plates, 145 pp. large quarto, Berfollowing definition of luxury: “ It con- lin, 1797" (without the author's name). “ Gifts,' says he,“ in the consumption of This elegant and accurate work is chiefly " things, which aim at such a degree of designed for the use of young people, and o con eniency and enjoyment of life, as females in particular, who are not in a

may be dispensed with in our indi. fituarion, in which they can acquire a pro“ vidual fituation, without detriment found kaowledze in phyfies and inathe. " to our physical, çivil, and intellectual 'matics. We mult only regret, that the

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Retrospect of German Literature. Natural History: [Sup anonymous author has copied the physical with accuracy all the genera of plants, description of the globe, verbatim, from at the end of every class, and has pro. Profeffor K LÜGEL's valuable Encyclopedia, vided the whole work with an useful, without acknowledging the source from systematic, and an alphabetical index which he has taken it. PLESMANN'S JACOB STURM's Flora Germanica, ex. “ Manual of a general Physical Geo. hibited in Pictures drawn from Nature, graphy, for the Use of Schools and Aca- with Descriptions : 11. Part. Numb. 1. demies," is likewise, upon the whole, a contains the Class Cryptogamia, in sixgood compilation, though we meet with teen coloured Plates, Octavo, and an several inaccuracies, particularly in the equal Number of Leaves of Letter-press.” geognoftical part of it. “The New Fidelity in the description, accuracy in Picture of Vienna," lately published by the delineation, and neatness in the exean anonymous author, affords the best cution of coloured plants, have, perhaps, and most correct view of this metropolis, never before been united in so eminent since the “ Sketches," by Pezzi, ap. a degree as we find them in this elegant peared, in the reign of Joseph II. The publication. A. W. Roth's “Remarks most interesting, as well as the most com on the Study of the aquatic Plants of the prehensive, of all geographical works Class Cryptogamia," also deserves to be now carried on in Ěurope, however, is mentioned with praise, as it contains the “General Geographical Epheme. many ingenious and original hints. One rides,” composed by a fociety of men of of the most accurate, as well as most inletters, and edited by F. von ZACH, trucive, publications on botany is CHRISmajor in the service of the duke of Saxe- TIAN SCHKUHR's “ Botanical Manual," Gotha, and director of the ducal obser- of which we have seen the 20th number, vatory at Seeberg, near Gotha. The containing from the 253d to the 28th professed aim of this work is, " to serve plates octavo, concluding the third voas a repository for the astronomical obser- fume, that begins with the genera of the vations and discoveries made in all coun 18th class, Polyadelphia, and extends as tries, and thus to form a point of union be- far as the Polygamia necesaria. The twren all the astronomers and observatories author is one of the most celebrated artin Europe.Of these • Ephemerides' a ists in Germany,and holds a high rank like. number has appeared every month, since wise as a botanical observer. We are indebte the ist of January, 1798, illustrated occa ed to him for many sound critical sefiona ly with maps : and as Mr. v. Z. is marks, with which he has greatly énone of the first astronomers of the age, a

hanced the value of this extensive publiman of profound skill and indefatigable cation. Another work, equally useful, industry, a man who is already connected though of less magnitude, is « The Botas with the most distinguished geographers nical Dictionary, or an Attempt to exof Europe, the public may reasonably ex- plain the principal Ideas and technical peet to find, in this publication, one of Terms in Botany,” by Dr. M. B. BORKthe grearest defiderata happily accom HAUSEN, in two volumes octavo. The plished*

short history of botany given in the sea NATURAL HISTORY

cond volume, is well calculrated to ini: has lately received many valuable acces- riate the young cyro in the study of that sions from the German press. T. M. science ; and throughout the whole BECHSTEIN'S " concise and popular work, the author thews, by his origina! Natural History of foreign and native remarks on the physiology of plants, that Plants, in two large Volumes Octavo, he has not merely compiled, but well di. forming together 1316 pages,'' is an ex gested his materials. The Annals of cellent work, and well'adapted to. serve Botany,” by Dr. PAULUS USTEPI, of as a school-book and for private study, and which the 21st and 22d numbers (or the to facilitate the acquisition of other sciences. 15th and 16th numbers of the new leThe author has introduced whatever ries) have lately appeared, and are en: is impor ant and remarkable in the ve riched with several fine plates.

In this gerabic kingdom; he has enumerated collection of botanical eflays the author

communicates his own observations, as * The readers of the Monthly Magazine well as those of his friends, with a view will be carefully presented with every new and of improving the Linnæan system. Ma. interesting fact contained in Mr. ZACH's valu- ny of the late discoveries in that science, able journal. The letters respecting the Afri- particularly fome made by HAYNE; can traveller, Hornemann, contained in our last SAVI, Roth, HosE, WILDENOW; number, were derived from this fource.

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Vol. Y.] Retrospeet of German Literature, --Natural Philosophy. 517 TAINES, MASSON, LAPEYROUSE,

ASTRONOMY SCHRADER, and others, are highly in: has been cultivated among the Germanis teresting. Before we conclude this artis with uncommon indultry and success. cle, we must notice a work lately pub- Since the days of COPERNICUS and lished in Latin, at Nürenberg, and which GALILÆO, this has been one of the most contains a selection of some very valuable fashionable pursuits on the continent; and and partly scarce botanical essays, rela- particularly in Germany, where, at a very tive to Spanish plants ; it is entitled early period it affumed a fyftematic form.

Scriptores de Plantis Hispanicis, Lusita. It is with pleasure we find the indefanicis,Brasiliensibus, adornavit & recudi cura- tigable BJDE, astronomer to the king of vit 7.7. Römeş,M.D.cum tab. æn.yiii.” Prussia, continuing his “ Collection of asNATURAL PHILOSOPHY.

tronomical Efsays, Observations, and This is one of the favorite pursuits of Accounts, being the third lupplementary the Germans, and it is uniformly al. Volume to his Astronomical Annals.“ lowed that, in physics, they are second This volume is chiefly indebted for its to none : we shall mention a few of their rich materials to the learned major v. latest publications." The Outlines of Zacy, who has furnished the editor with Natural Philofophy,” by Dr. D. L. the greater number of the facts here BOURGUET, prof. of chemistry, in the stated; for among the twenty-five arroval Medico-chirurgical College, at ticles contained in this continuation, Berlin, 326 pp. octavo, with two plates twenty of them are communicated by (1798), is a very excellent compendium that gentlemm.. We must further an. for students. And though the author nounce the appearance of Mr. BODE's does not throughout claim the merit ** Aftronomical Annals for the Year 1800; of originality, as he has chiefly fol. together with a Collection of th: latest lowed the principles of GREN and Trearises, Observations, and Accounts, KLÜGEL, two naturalists of the first relative to the astronomical Sciences." rank; yet, upon the whole, his book is As the merits of this author, and espeone of the best and concise it on that sub. cially his incomparable accuracy, are fulject. Another work of a similar nature, ly eftablished and acknowledged by all is, " The Elements of experimental Phi- the literati of the age, it is needless to lofophy, sketched in its chemical Departo enlarge upon them in this place. We, ment, according to the modern Theory, however, think it our duty to remark, and designed for a Guide to academical that Mr. B. would be not a little puz. Lectures, as well as for the Use of zled at the questions lately agitated in cer. Schools,” by J. G. F. SCHRADER, Dr. tain literary circles in this country, reand Prof. of Philosophy at Kiel, 18 specting the beginning of the nineteenth Theets, with 66 cuts printed on the pa. century!!! To those curious gentle. per with the letter-prefs. In this useful men, therefore, who are in good earnest, compilation, too, the editor has chosen respecting this frivolous problem, we GREN and Lichtenberg as his guides; must refer Mr. B.'s Aftronomical Almabut, with respect to the external form, nack, which, it is to be hoped, will dife and the internal arrangement of the tinctly explain to them, that the ninework, Dr. S. appears to have adopted teenth century cannot begin before the ACHARD's elementary book on the fame eighteenth is actually expired, i.'e. after subject, as his model. Although we cannot the last hour of the 31st of December, pronounce this small book altogether free 1800; or with the first hour of the ift from errors and inaccuracies, it still remains of January, 1801. Another work of one of the most instructive, and unques- original merit, or at least a new edition ţionably the cheapest book of the kind of it, is IMMANUEL KANT's “ General * The Pocket-böck for the Use of Che- History of Nature, and Theory of the mnists and Apothecaries, 'for the Year Heavens; or, an Ely on the Constitu. 1798, p.p. 212. with a plate,” continues tion and mechanical Origin of the Fato 'furnith a select variety of chemical bric of the World, according to the and pharmaceutical treatises, as well as Principles of Newton." The first edithe latest discoveries made in these sci- tion of this profound work appeared at ences. It may, perhaps, not be known Königsberg, in 1755; but as it has of to every English reader, that the present late years become scarce, the author was already is the 19th continuation of this prevailed upon to revise the work him.

Pocket-book, which is edited by the self, and to present the public with a celebrated Mr. GÖTTLING, prof. of corrected edition. The rank which K. chemistry at Iena.

holds among the philosophers of the pre

fent

518

Retrospect of German Literaturl.-Arts, &c, (Sup. fent day, and his mode of reasoning on Apparatus belonging thereto, by J. C. fubjects of the first importance, are al. Gürle." It is well calcular d to afford ready known in this country, by two amusement, and to stimulate beginners different publications, which have lately to the farther prosecution of the study appeared on the elements of the critical of mechanics. “ The new Miscellany philosophy

on Subjects of the Arts, &c. being a Con, ARTS AND MANUFACTURES. tinuation of the new Mufeum for Artists, : It cannot be said with justice, that the by J. G, Meusel."? The eight numGermans excel either the French or the bers, which have appeared of the new English, in this profitable department; series, are no lels interesting to the inan but if they are deficient in the practical of letters, than they are instructive to part of technology. their method of writ. the practical artist. • The Corresponing on subjects of the arts and manufac- dence relative to the Arts, between C. tures certainly is' more systematic than L. v. HAGEDOR'N and his friends, pubin other countries, where human inge- lithed by T. BADEN, Prof. in Kiel, &c." nuity tends to perfectionate the practice, contain valuable strictures on painting, and rather than the theory, of the arts The an impartial examination of many pictures latest and most important work in this belonging to the gallery of the late Mr. branch of knowledge is “The Commer. H. His letters are replete with sound recial Encyclopedia, or a complete Manual marks on every species of painting; and of Trade and Commerce, reduced to a his style evinces the passionate lover of Systematic Order," by G, H. Buse. The the arts. The characters here exhibited, firft part of this work, which only ap- of several painters of eminence, deferve peared in May last, contains a systematic to be read and studied by every friend of arrangement of all articles of merchan- the arts, particularly those of Both, dife, accompanied with their chemical Beich, l’ORIENT, QUERFURT, Nich. tests or criteria, which are pointed out BERCHEM, MIERIS, F. MILET, OESER, and described in the plainest manner and CARREE. “ The Directory (Adby one of the first German cheniils, dress-Lexicon) of the Manufactories of Prof. TROMMSDORF. We wish for a Germany, and some neighbouring coun. ipeedy continuation of this valuable work, tries; or a List of the Manufacturers in which, on account of its general, utility, those Countries, their Productions, and Lystematic arrangement, and conciseness, the Fairs which they frequent,” is a furpasses every work of the kind hither- work of general utility, and the first atto published. Another work, not unlike tempt of the kind in Germany. As the the English Repertory of the Arts and goods and articles of trade are alphabe, Manufactures, but on a more extensive tically arranged, and accompanied with plan, is “ J. G. Geisler's Description concise explanations relative to the value and History of the principal Inftruments and quality of merchandise, this · Direcand Machines of the most recent Inven- tory' is peculiarly calculated to instruct tion, and their mechanical Application ex the young beginner, as well as the expe. plained upon fcientific Principles; forrienced merchant. the Use of Artists and Amateurs." In

MATHEMATICS. Part VIII. we find, besides many

orher Mathematical learning is by no means curious articles, a description of Wie- neglected in Germany, the names of SENMANN's failing windinill, and a Wulf, Leibnitz, and Bernouilli, have well written view of the labours of been honoured among modern Mellrs. BLAKE, COOKE, FRANÇOIS, thematicians. As a proof of our allerThomson, MAURA, and FITZGE- tion, we will quote G. Vega's “Loya. RALD, on the subjcet of steam and feam- rithmical and Trigonometrical Tables, engines. The editor concludes this together with other Tables and Exemvolume with an acc unt of a new invent- plifications, adapted to Practical Mathe. ed ree', by Mr. PRASSEN, and an in- matics,” two volumes quarto. terefing examination of stironomical cannot enter into particulars, fuffice it to sings, by COUNT DE BRÜHL. A work say that there is no publication extant, in chiefly designed for the ule of fchools, any lançuage or country, which contains and the amulemen of dilettan'ı, is The such a treasure of mathematical know. Conj'ıror's Mechanism. or a Description ledge as he present, particularly in the of mechanical Amusements, with the article of Integration' We are happy

to <bserve that the pious wish of linui. * We refer to the works of Mr. NITSCH TJE', for a concentrated view of this and Dr. WILLICH,

subjcct (see his " Princip. Calc. Diff,

etc,

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As we

MEDICINE

Vol V.]
Retrospeel of German Literature.--Medicine.

519 etc. page 42), has been, in great mea excellent treatise Dr. G. not only exhi. fure, fulfilled by this careful collection, bits the spirit of the positive law, accordthough it is far from being so complete ing to the German constitution, but he as to require no further improvements; allo unfolds in a complete and perspicubut, upon the whole, Mr. Vi's industry ous manner the whole system of law, by and accuracy cannot be disputed by in- reducing it to the clear and tenable partial judges. Another demonstration principles of the law of punishment in of the pe. uliar diligence of the Germans, general. In in this department, is “ The Archiv (Magazine) for Pure and Practical Ma we find the 'Germans more busily emthematics;" edited by G. F. HINDEN- ployed than in any other department. , BERG, at Leipzig. Of this we have seen Every branch of medicine is cultivated the fixth number, which is filled with among them with uncommon ardour; Several valuable essays, written by the and anatomy, in particular, has of late following eminent mathematicians, name years been successfully studied. There ly, HENNERT, KLÜGEL, BUZENGLI. is, perhaps, no medical man in this coun. GER, Kästner, Fischer, Rothe, try, who is unacquainted with the works and LüDICKE. We cannot conclude and merits of WALTER, SÖMMERING, this article without pointing out a work LEBER, MECKEL, LODER, METTwnich promises to afford great satisfac- GER, and many other celebrated anato. tion to every lover of literature; viz. mists of the present day in Germany, "The literary History of the mathematical One of the latest publications is “Sam. Sciences; Vol. I. containing the Litera. Thom. SÖMMERING Tubula Sieleti feo ture of Mathematics in general, of A- minini, juncta Descriptione ; fol. roy.” By rithmetic, and Geometry :" or, with a this table the learned professor has enLatin title, “ Bibliotbeca Mathematica, deavoured to fill up a chasm in anatomy, auctore F. Gu. A. MURHARD, Vol. I. that has exifted ever Gince the appearance continens Scripta generalia de Mathes, of the masterly plates of ALBINUS, which de Arithmetica, & Geometria." 'Be- exhibit the male keleton. And though. fides the systematic catalogue of books, the female keleton by Sömmering be not, chronologically arranged in every branch in every respect, equal to that by Albic of mathematics, the editor has carefully nus, it is nevertheleis á valuable acceflion abridged the criticisms, that have from to the latter work. In phyfiology and time to time appeared in the German as pathology several excellent works have well as in the foreign reviews.

lately been published, of which we must JURISPRUDENCE.

notice Prof. SPRENGEL'S “ General PaIn this department we find but a few thology,” in three volumes, octavo,' and books which can interest the English Prof. REIL's book, “ On the Knowledge reader. Thit Germany has produced and Cure of Fevers;" the first part of great lawyers, such as PUFFENDORF, which contains the general doctrine of WOLFIUS, Pütter, and many others fevers, in 580 pages, octavo. The for. cannot be denied; but the public and mer work renders that of GAUBIUS, OR private law of that country being na the same subject, obsolete : the latter is tional in spirit and form, it would be an the production of a man who neither in. unprofitable task to introduce any other volves himself in theories, or subtle hy. than such works as treat upon general po heses, nor wishes to explain every principles. Of this nature is “ The Lic thing by explaining nothing; but it is the brary of Criminal Jurisprudence, and the work of a physician, who, through many Knowledge of Law in general,” by Dr. new and fertile ideas, discovers a genuine C. GROLMAN. No science has a great philosophic fpirit, who, after a long exer influence on the welfare or destruction perience, only wishes to theorize, wha of society, than that of criminal law; confesses, with modesty, that much re• and yet it is perhaps the most unsettled mains to be explained, and whose acin theory, as well as the most wavering knowledged merits, in medical science, in practice. With the benevolent inten- receive additional luftre from this valuable tion of removing these obstacles, and of publication. The same author continues advancing a step farther than his predc- to publish the “ Physiological Magazine," ceffors have done, the same author has begun in 1996, of which two volumes yery lately published " The Principles of have been completed. Of this publica. Criminal Law, together with a systematic tion we can only say, that the firit media View of the Criminal Law of Ger- cal characters in Germany support it by many;" 1798, pp. 500, octavo. In this their correspondence; and that it is ch.efly

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