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Retrospect of French Literature.Poetry, [Sup. English, Scandinavian, Icelandic, &c.; family papers. One of the chief is a the latter the Celtic, of which the Irish, chapter belonging to the work, On the Welch, Armoric, are daughters. For Grandeur and Decline of the Roman ample illustrations on this subject, we Power; it is intituled, “On the Politics must refer them to Bishop Percy's preface of the Romans with regard to Religion,”. to the “ Northern Antiquities,” London, and was too bold to be printed under the 1770, 2 vols. 8vo. and to Pinkerton's old government. Montesquieu thews, Dissertation on the Scythians, London, that the Egyptians and Jews were the 1787, 8vo. An Engbili reader cannot only ancient nations, among whom the help being impressed with the idea of priests were a separate and peculiar body profound ignorance, when he sees the of men : and he evinces the great

advan. Edda quoted as a Celtic monument, and tages of the Roman policy, in blending the Gothic languages denominated Celtic, the facerdotal with the civil character and which is just the lame as to say, that the duties; others are an culogy on the duke people of London speak Welsh!!! de la Ferer, and fome memoirs on lite

La France Litteraire, &c. Only the rature, read in the academy at Bourdeaux. first volume of this work is published : it At the end are thoughts on different subis an alphabetic account of all the French jects, among which are the following: authors, who wrote between 1771 and “Timidity has always been the scourge 1796. The author, M. Ersch, is a of my life : it seems even to obscure my learned German.

organs, tie my tongue, cloud my thoughts, Oeuvres, &c. The complete Works derange my expreilions. I was less subject of Du Maroces, 7 vols. ' 8vo. The to these lownesses before people of wit, works of this philosophical grammarian than in the company of fuols, because I had not been before collected.

hoped that people of wit would find some Choix de Costumes, &c. . A Collection in me: this gave me confidence.” of the Costume, civil and military, of an I have a singular diseate, that of cient Nations ; with their Furniture, and making books, and being alhamed of the interior Decorations of their Houses; them afterwards." taken from ancient Monuments, and accompanied with a Description derived Le Docteur Pancrace, &c. Dr. Panc, from ancient Authors, drawn, engraved, race, a satire by Chenier, 8vo. This and illustrated by N. X. Willemin, small poet is esteemed one of ihe best modern folio. This useful work is commenced, satirists, but is sometimes too personal, and will contain 150 plates. A work of and has more of the spirit of Pope and the same kind, for the middle ages, would Voltaire, than of Horace and Juvenal. be of great use, our artilis erring daily in Epitre aux Femmes, &c. An Epiftle to the costume, in spite of the publications the Women, by the female citizen Pipe, of Mintfaucon and Strutt.

let, 8vo. The cause of the ladies is here Mémoires, ou Eljais sur le Musique, &c.' defended in very tolerable verse. The Memoirs, or Esays, on Music, by the authoress infers an absolute equality bem Çit. Geotry, Member of the National tween the sexes; if fo, it is surprising that Institute of France, 3 vols. 8vo. This is the equality remains to be proved. The a most interesting work, displaying the ancient Amazons, how unhappily, left be. gradual reform of French music, which hind them no monument of science, or now presents an union of German and art, or even conquest. Italian harmony. Gluek was the master, Les Francs, &c. · The Franks, an he. who, with an Herculean club, broke the roic poem, in ten cantos, by the Citizen old bærbarous idol. Geotry succeeded. LESUR, 8vo. This is a history, in verse, What mighty genius Thall teach the of the conquests of the French in this French the eharms of blank verse, so war, closing with the taking of Mantua. fuperlative in epic and dramatic poetry, In the spirit of freedom it rivals Lucan; and familiar to all the other nations of but is far inferior in point of poetry, Europe ? How much is it to be regretted, Elais, en vers, &c. Essays, in verse and that the modern universal language profe, by Joseph Rouget Delide ; Paris, should be deficient in most important ad printed by Didot, 8vo. This author is

at once, poet, musician, and friend of Oeuvres Pofbumes de Montesquicu, &c. freedom, The Cbart des Combats; or The Posthumous Works of Montes- Marcellois Hymn; the song of Roland at quieu, to serve as a Supplement to former Roncevaux, &c. are known, all over Éditions, 12mo. These pieces, undoubt- Europe. edly genuine, were found among the Epine fur l'Italie, &C. An Epistle on


vantages !

Vol. V.)

Retrospect of French Literature.--Novels, &c.


Italy, with fome other poems relative to Alexandrine de Bannay, &c. Alexana that country, by Theodore Desarguro, drina de Bannay, or Innocence and Wic8vo. The author, who has travelled in kedness, an historical Anecdote by Le I caly, and writes the Fralian language, Brun, Tasso, 12mo. The heroine of this here pays a poetical tribute to that fair novel; daughter of a country gentleman, country, and the great men it has lately and educated in the country by e-devont produced.

mother, is feduced; or rather violated, by La Religion vengés, Szc. Religion a curate, her confeffir; becoming preg, avenged, a Poem in ten cantos, 8vo. The nant, her feducer, to preserve his characfirst edition of this posthumous work of 'ter of holiness, accused her own brother, Cardinal de Borius was printed at Parma &c. The profligacy of the French clergy by Bodau ; the subject is the triumph of was sufficiently notorious, without adding religion over idolarry, atheism, &c. In invented crimes. the opinion of the French critics, it is in Marie de Sinclair, &c. Marie de Sin. ferior to the similar poem of Louis Racine, clair, 12ino. This novel is of the senci.

The celebrated poet Delille has publish- mental cast, and seems to have no partied a new work at Balle, his Georgiques cular claim to recommendation. Françoiles. From the extracts we have

MISCELLANIES. seen, it is worthy of the translator of Virgil's Georgic, and of the author of Les Efai kur la Propreté de Paris, &c. An Jardins. France pofTefles an excellent Eray on cleansing Paris, by Cit. CHA!'lyric poet, Lebrun, whose productions in ver, 8vo. This pamphlet deserves the French journals breathe the real fpirit great praise. The author begins with of the ode.

fhewing the advantages of cleanliness in NOVELS.

general, in a moral and falutary way. In Peregrinus Protes, &c. Peregrine Pro a more particular considerati n of his fubteus, translated from Wieland, 2 vols. ject, he points out the defects in the ca18mo.

pital, the dirtiness occafioned by the want Gerard de Velfen, &c. Gerard de of drains and fewers, the height of the Velsen, or the Origin of Amsterdam, an houtes, the narrowness of the streets, the historical novel, in seven books, by Mer- filthy red with which the outside of the cier de Campiogne, 18mo.

Shops is daubed, by way of ornament, ftalls La Religicufa, &c. The Nun, by Di- permitted even in narrow places, horses derot; a new edition, 3 vols. 18mo. This lhoed in the street, carriages and casks left has a portrait of the author, and other standing, clothes fcowering, and, of late, prints.

even butchers kiiling and cleansing, skins Les Bataves, &c. The Batavians, by suspended by tanners, and linen by watherBiraubé, 12mo.

This is a kind of histo.' women. The author justly observes, that rical romance, founded on the deliverance it is in vain to ornament a city with magof the United Provinces from the power nificent edifices, if the avenues be suffered of Spain. The historical romance is an to remain thus obnoxious. " It is,” says unpleafing 1pecies of composicion to reada he, “like hanging of fine paintings in a ers of genuine talte, who would with to

room spread with spider-webs.” keep truth and fiction in thcir peculiar Esai

sur la Pb siog norlie, &c. An Exay spheres.

on the Physiognomy of living Bodies, Alpbonse d'Armencourt, &c. Alfonso from Man down to Planrs, &c. by J. J. d'Armencourt, or the Fair Widow, by Sue, &c. 8vo. The absurdities of Law Madame de Sancy, 18mo. This novel, vater foon fell in England, but seem to far inferior to those of Madame Ricco- thrive in France. Fielding says, “we boni, has nothing to recommend it either may look in a man's face, to see if he have in plan, characters, or situations.

had the small-pox, but for nothing else.

These Retrofpets will, in future Supplements, be extended to the State of Literature in the NoRTH OF EUROPE, ITALY, and AMERICA,


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Mr. Dyer on Coins.

[Sup. -To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. vered corn; Bacchus, the vine ; Pallas,

the olive; and Triptolemus, the plough, SIR,

Liber & alma Ceres, veftro fi munere tellus "HE kudy of medals is by many con

Chaoniam pingui glandem mutavit ariftâ, :: fidered a frivolous and unprofitable Poculaq. inventis Acheloia miscuit uvis. parfuit ; and by many made the subject Bacchus, and foll’ring Ceres, pow'r divine, of farire. But satire may strike what is who gives us cora for meat, for water wine. not vulnerable, and the blow may recoil

Virgil Georgic : lib. i. on the assailant. Trifters, I confess, are proper objects of ridicule, and triflers -Oloæq. Minerva are found among the colleétor's of coins : Inventrix, uncia. Puer monftrator aratri. but on what subjects may not men trifle ? Inventor, Pallas of the fatt'ning oil, Are not painters, poets, philosophers Thou founder of the plough and plowman's and divines frequently triflers, insuffera

toil, ble triflers ? Dulce eft defpere in locomto Some have, in like manner, attributed tride in feason is fwect-is unquestiona- the discovery of medals to Janus or Sably an excellent maxim, but is liable to

Be this, as it may, the ancients misinterpretation, and may be carried carried their religious ideas to their coins, beyond reasonable bounds, particularly and to treat disrespectfully a coin Gamped if that rule of philosophy, laid down by with the head of their princes, was conan ancient writer, be admitted,“ to fidered an impiety. They were fond of perform nothing merely for the sake of adorning the reverse of their medals with pleasure, but with the profitable always to the heads of their deities, with their apmix the agreeable.”-Being convinced propriate characters, and offices, or with that the abuse alone of the medallic art is the more striking circumstances and difentitled to ridicule, I beg leave, agreca- tinctions of their religious ceremonies. , bly to my former notice; to submit to the Thus we have Caftor and Pollux on confideration of your readers the follow- horseback ; Apollo with his lyre: Cupid ing reinarks : :

Tharpening his darts, and with a quiver 1. The study of coins may be rendered of arrows : Mercury with his caduceus, fubfervient to literary pursuits : I more and Pegasus; and the like. The anciens particularly refer to ancient literature. Hebrews, in like manner, shewed particuIt is not necessary to inquire, at present, lar attention to their religious ceremonies concerning the period when medals were on their coins, examples of which may be first invented: this would be a question seen in the writers on Hebrew antiquiq rather curious, than useful; and though ties*. The religion of the Greeks is lupagitated with plausibility, could not be poled by some to be nothing but an uniform fatisfactorily settled. Suffice it to ob- and impressive species of personification. Its ferve, that the original method of cam-' peculiarities may be illustrated by medals. merce was, to exchange one commodity with respect to this view of the subject, for another; and that when medals were then, a good collection of coins may be first employed as substitutes, they were conlidered not only as a kind of MEMOmade use of in rough bars. Thele bars RIA TECHNICA, but as so many expowere valued according to weight and fitions - (laid immediately before the bulk: hence the SHEKEL, the principal eyes) of the religious rites of remote coin an ong the ancient Hebrews is de- periods. rived from Shakel to weigh; to which 2. The knowledge of HISTORY, and SUTNCE,

to weigh, answers inquiries connected with history, may be ainong the Greeks.

In like manner expedited by an acquaintance with me, pinderi, to weigh, among the Latins, dals. is the origin of the words impendere, ex Many of the designs on modern coins pendere, and other similar words, for pay are as trifling and impertinent as the exing and spending money.

ecution of the artist is mean and homely,' An acquaintance with antiént medals This observation, however, is not inmay be ferviceable to men of letters in tended as an insinuation, that antient art

is entirely blameless. Some of the Ro1. The ReliGION or MYTHOLOGY

man coins, stamped under their emperors, of a country may be illustrated by them. speak the language of adulation : but On considering the usefulness and import- even in those few instances, it was the ance of any discovery, the ancients were ambitious of ascribing the invention to * Vid. Villalpandus de Pond. & Numismate their gods. Ceres, we are told, disco. lib. ii. Dir. iv, cap. 22,


from 15 araba

various ways.

Vol. V.]
Mr. Dyer on Coins....

$43 language of government, not the lan. divine art, was advanced to great parfecguage of private individuals, confound; tion by the Greeks. But where are the ing the customs of remote periods, and immediate proofs of its-excellence? They of different nations, or trumpeting are perilhed. . The very few remains of io forth their own praises, and presenting the Grecian painters rather create surroute. you with representations of their own and regret, than pleasure and satisfacer persons. Mint-malters were appointed tion. Even Apelles only lives in repuby the government, and the devices, tation. The. Venus, that obtained fo more particularly in the purer days of many admirers; the Alexander, with the republic, were fignificant and in- his thunder, that struck horror into be. structive. Every event of national im- holders; those prodigies of skill, the proportance is recorded on them, and many ductions of Parrhalius, Žeuxis, and are noticed, that are left unrecorded by Protogenès, are now no more: fo perish the historian : so that ancient coins may able are the most exquisite exhibitions of be considered as monuments thrown over the art of painting! The beautiful simile the devastation of ages, or perhaps, of Cicero comparing the republic of his more properly as cabinets, in which are time to a picture perishing through agey preserved the arcana of ancient history. and losing its genuine colours and lines,

Baron Spanheim, who, with some conveys a serious and affecting truth, that diffuseness, has written on the use of one of the most fascinating arts is the medals, establishes their importance from most fleeting, and indebted for its re. these long considerations : first from the membrance to foreign assistance. injury of barbarous times, which trans The importance of medals, with reä mitted the history of the first ages in an gard to painting, consists not-merely in imperfect form : secondly, from the con- their exhibiting patterns or exemplars, tradictions of the Greek and Roman executed with taste and ingenuity, but in historians: thirdly, from the character their being, in some instances, the only of historians, who, through hatred, par- means of preserving the designs of the tiality, or negligence, have mistated facts: most perfect matters of painting. Nor fourthly, from the conduct of historians, need it supprife us, that painters have so in many respects of great authority, but much contributed to promote the study of who have omitted circumstances of the medals. Pisani, Bolderi, and other paint: utmolt consequence to the perfection ers, first revived it in the 15th century: and integrity of history*.

Raphael had thoroughly studied the tub. The medal, faithful to its charge of fame,

ject, as well as Le Brun, and Rubens had Through climes and ages bears each form and a fine collection in his own poffèffion.

It has been frequently observed, that In one short view subjected to our eye, painters, statuaries, and medallists worked Gods, ensp’rors, heroes, sages, beauties lie. from the faine designs. The inolt beau.

tiful statues extant, all of them, mak: In like manner, the dates of remarka

their ble events have been fixed, which, but appearance on ancient coins, though for the light derived from ancient medals, conceived to be copies of ståtues, tipi the

the figures that represent them were never would have been unknown ; so that the copies themselves were discovered. This ftudy of coins may alli ft chronology: the is true of the Hercules in the Farnese Panames of various cities have been restored, lace; the Venus de Medicis; the Apollo and light has been thrown on ancient in the Belvidera; and the celebrated geography; the remembrance of remarka

Marcus Aurelius on horseback t. ble customs has been preserved; the form

4. The fourth use, that I Mall men. not only of the Greek and Roman letters, but of the Phoenician, the Hebrew, tion, to which the study of ancient medals and other particulars, throwing light on "When it is recollected that the mint, and Samaritan have been ascertained; may be rendered fubfervient, is, to illuhistory, have been elucidated, confirming

as before observed, was, in ancient times, dubious facts, or disproving erroneous

entirely under the direction of govern. ftatements.

3. The medals of antiquity have been ment; that the medallist and the poet beneficial in the art of painting. This lived at the same period, and were habi,

frequently worked froin the same models,

tuated to the same customs; it is a natural * Ezechielis Spanheim Differtatio de præ&antia es ufu numismatum antiquorum, + See Addison's Dialogues on the useful. P. 97

ness of Ancient Medals, diàl. i.



Mr. Dyer on Coins.

confequence, that the reverse of a medal exposed to the imputation of useless in-
should often explain some verses of a poet, genuity or of personal vanity.
and that the verfes of a poet should unfold Instead of writing a differtation on the
the design or the inscription on a medal. subject, I send a medal by way of illustra-
One of our English artists has availed tion, together with a short account of
himself of this parallelism of design, and its origin and object.
given an elegant edition of one of the

June 3, 1796, was a memorable day Latin poets : Elegant, I mean, in refer to the freeholders of Herefordfhire; feveence to engravings, accompanied with ral consider it as the æra of their indecopper-plate coins, illustrative of the pendence. The character of that county, poet I.

beyond many other counties in England, On this subject it would be very easy naturally inclines to independence, in. to multiply quotations : but I should un- consequence of the number of small freeavoidably exceed my limits, and be in holds, into which it is divided, and the danger of merely repeating obfervations productive quality of the land. already made fo well by Mr. Addison, Notwithstanding this, through the inand therefore familiar to your readers. tereit of great families, the county had I shall fatisfy myself from a survey of the been long represented in parliament by " Three Series of Medals," brought for- persons who had not espoused the interests ward by Mr. Addison, to deduce one. of the people, and one (Sir G. Cornwall) general observation, which is, that as had recently exposed himself to suspicions the medallic art, and the art of poetry, detrimental to his popularity; These as practised by the ancients, reflect light circumstances, together with the critical on each other, so modern poetry, by a situation of public affairs, and the imcomparative view of their qualities, may patience of the people on account of the derive to itself considerable embellishment, high price of corn, which they supposed provided it indulge not in unnatural to proceed from the war, agitated the imitations, and incongruous imagery, and minds of the yeomanry, and they detercontent itself with imitating the manner, mined to do themselves justice. rather than the matter of the ancients, Accordingly, a few days before the otherwise it will lie exposed to the cen: last general election, the people of the sure,

county rose, as it were, by one general · Humano capiti cervicem pictor equinam impulse. Till the Wednesday previous Jungere fi velit, &c.

to the election, they had done nothing 11. I proceed to the second object of actively. The day of election, however, this essay, which is to consider the me

being fixed for Friday the 3d of June, a dallic art in reference to modern times.

meeting of highly respectable and patri.

otic freeholders assembled, who finally Among persons acquainted with ancient and modern coins, I run no hazard afford the people an opportunity of ex

determined to nominate candidates, to of being contradicted, or charged with bigotry, when affirming, that the medals pressing their sentiments to the old memof antiquity are very superior to the mo

bers. The persons in contemplation dern. At present we seen rather ambi.

were, Colonel John SCUDAMORE, Capt. tious of making new coins, than of col- SYMMONDS, and ROBERT BIDDULPH, leeting old ones. To give this propensity racter of friends to liberty, and only pre

Esq. all equally entitled to the cha then a useful direction, and with respect ferable one to the other as accidental cirto antiquity, to carry the imitative art To far only' as consists with propriety, the objects of public confidence.

cumstances might render them inore or less would deferve commendation. To keep alive the remembrance of important

Considerations of long and acknowevents, whether they regard the cause of ledged services rendered every preference

in favour of the name of SCUDAMORE literature and humanity, of public liberty, and of public happiness, or to describe natural; and the recent injustice heaped useful institutions, public buildings; of

on Mr. BIDDULPH, at his late contest

for Leominster, excited a general indignational customs, some way or other connected with the intention of ftriking the nation in the breasts of the people. It medal, would be no less honourable to

was, therefore, determined to put these the present times, than useful to posterity: fent exclusion of Capt. SYMMONDS, the

two gentlemen in nomination, to the preand the parties concerned would not be object of their equal attachment, and of

| Horatii Opera, Londini Æneis Tabulis their future hopes. incidit Johannes Pine, 1733.

The yeomanry of Herefordshire con


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