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[Jan.

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Literary News-Spain....Sweden, &c. impossible these objects should be fully ob- the important question, whether the cultained, whilst women, the guardians of tivation of this grain ought to be totally our childhood, were excluded, suggested profcribed in Spain, on account of the to the before-mentioned gentlemen, the fatal consequences attending it. To deplan of a new course, accommodated to a termine this point, he takes a review of female audience. Many ladies, with a the maladies occasioned by its cultivation, becoming zeal for useful information, which requires a livampy soil, and at the have been forward in promoting this de- same time a sultry climate. He gives a sign, and there is no question of its ulti- table of the births and deaths, from the year mate success.

1730 to 1787, in the different places in Dr. Beddoes intends to deliver a course which the cultivation of rice has been of chemical lectures at Bristol; exhibito practised. The result is, that during the ing on an extensive apparatus, the gene- space of fifty-eight years, there have been ral principles of chemistry, with the im- born 42,022 children in the places where provements which have been made at rice was not cultivated, and only 36,248 different periods in this valuable branch where the cultivation of rice was carried of study. The proposal was made at the on. On the other hand, during the same .earneft folicitation of a few friends. period of fifty-eight years, 39,595 persons Doctor B. proposed a course of chemical have died in the places where rice was lectures at three guineas the course, to grown, and only 29.630, in the places consist of about thirty ; but as he wished where it was not cultivated. the point to be speedily decided, he men Among the branches of fiience most sucsioned in his advertisement that unless cessfully culrivated in Sweden, appear one hundred names were given in the first to be political history, geography, phyfic, fortnight, he should altogether relinquith natural history, and rural economy. The the design. More, however, than that Swedes are rich in geographical and manumber were given in the first week! rine charts. The first voluine of the

Among the books recently published at Marine Atlas, published in 1795, by the Madrid, the following are the most de- vice-admiral NORDEN ANKER, is justly ferving of notice :

entitled to particular commendation. In Origin of Castillian Poetry, in one volume, the theological department, a new tran. quarto. This work is divided into four parts, flation of the Bible, patronized by the the first of which examines the sources from late Swedish imonarch, and undertaken at whence the Castillian poetry has been drawn; his particular instance, is preparing for the namely, the poetry of the primitive Spaniards, prefs, and now actually in a Itate of and the Latin, Arabic, Provençal or Limofin, forwardness. Of this translation, an Ejay,

great Portuguese, and other poets.

The Origin, Progress, and Stages of Castillian by ay of prospectus, appeared in 1772. Poetry.

The * new version of the Pfalms of An Examination of whatever belongs to the David, by the learned Dr. TINGSTAOrigin of Spanish poetry, in each of its principal dius, may likewise be considered as a Kinds in particular.

fpecimen and appendage to this grand Collections of Castillian Poetry, the com- undertaking. In the same year (1772) ments and notes by which it has been illustrated, WARMHOLZ published the seventh yoand the translations in the Castillian tongue from lume of his Bibliotbeau Hiftorito-Sreo-Gothi.. the poets of other nations. , The whole terminated by a complete list of the Cattillian poets. Itructive work. GANANDER publihed

ca, which completes that learned and inIndex to the work, entiiled “. I.iterary Me. moirs." This work is published in numbers,

at Abo, in 1789; a Mythologia Finnica; making three volumes yearly. It made its first and there has appeared very recently the appearance at the commencement of 1791.

first part of the new edition of PAUL The World, a Dream. This is a satire on the JUSTEN's Chronicle of the Bithops of manners of the present age. It describes men as

Finland. As translators, the Swedes they are, and points out to them what they translate a great number of German books, ought to be. The culzivation of rice is still continu. French and Engliíh languages. The first

but comparatively very few from the ed in many paris of the kingdom of Van Literary Journal, which made its appear. lencia, in Spain, not withstanding repeat ance in Sweden, was published by Doctor ed prohibitions. Don ANTONIO JO. OLAUS CELSIUS, in 1742. Since that SEPH CAVANILLES, in his valuable work on the Natural History, Geography, * An English translation of Tingstadius's Agriculture, Population and Vegetable Pro- Version appeared in London about four years duets of the Kingdom of Valencia, has en. ago. Though little known, it contains many tered into a very interesting discuffion of valuable and important'aovelties.

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1798.] Scientific News.--Rufa.... Araneology.

53 period the number of works of this def ARANEOLOGY. It is well known, cription has amazingly increased. Swe- that many animals are influenced by natuden boasts two academies of sciences, the ral electricity, and extremely susceptible, one establisaed at Stockholm, the other at of every variation of the atmosphere. Upfal. There is, likewise, a patriotic Of these, none are more affected than the Siciety of Agriculture ; another society Pro garden-spider. To M. Quatremer d'Il

Fidé et Chriflianismo ; another for Phyfic gonval, aid-de-camp general of the French and Natural History, at Lund; a fociety and Batavian army, the world are inof Fine Arts and Sciences at Gothenburg ; debted for the important discovery of another society bears the denomination being able to rely on garden-fpiders, with of Urile Dulci; and lastly, there is the Swe. as much, if not more confidence, than on dith Royal Academy, founded in 1786. the catgut or mercurial barometers. The The principal object of this latter fociety garden-spider, according to his observais to purify and perfect the Swedish lan- tions, have two ways of working, accordguage. It likewise causes a medal to be ing to prevailing, or rather future, weatruck regularly every year for some illus- ther. If the weather is to be rainy, or trious Swede. Of all these various fo.

even windy, they attach sparingly their cieties, the two first named are the only principal threads, which fulpends their ones which publ:ih periodical Memoirs whole fabric, and thus they wait for of their transactions.

the effect of a temperature, which is Russia, with respect to the sciences and about to be very mutable. Spiders, like polire arts, has made aftonining progress barometers, possess not only future, but a within thefe few years. Catharine II created more distant presentiment than there, cona particular commillion to superintend and cerning what is about to take place in the direct the schools, settle the method of the atmosphere. A good barometer will tuition, and to take particular care to form foretel the weather until the next day; but good intructions. Since this arrange- when the spiders work with long threads, ment, three different schools are established there is a certainty of having fine weather in each government; an inferior school, fur twelve days, or a fortnight, at least ! in which reading, writing, and arithme. When they are idle, it denoces rain or tic, are taught; an upper school, or col- wind; when they work - Iparingly, ic lege, in which written exercises are com- prognosticates changeable weather ; buc posed, geography, national history, &c. when they work abundantly, it may be taught; an university, where all species of regarded as a fure forerunner' of 'fine knowledge may be acquired. There are weather. As soon as the spider is perat present universities at St. Petersburg, ceived incessantly renovating the web, deMoscow, and Kiov; and the most cele- ftroyed by the continual effusions of rain, brated colleges are at St. Petersburg, it not only is a criterion of their being of Moscow, Kassan, Riga, and Revel. The short duration, but also denotes a speedy college of Mitraw is about to be changed return of a greater permanence of fine into an university. Several academies, weather. We find, at the end of the and assemblies of learned men, arduously Arancological Calendar, of M. Quatreco-operate in disseminating scientific in- er d'lgonval, a declaration, figned by relligence. These are attached to the the staff of the French and Batavian Imperial Academy of Sciences at Peters. army, by which these officers certify, that burg, the Academy of the Russiao Lari- in the month of November, 1795, M. guage, the Academy of Arts, the Econo- d'Isgonval announced to general Pichegru, mical Society at Petersburgh, &c. Ca- upon the faith of his new discoveries, that tharine I sent to the German universi. the ensuing summer would supply him ries such young perfons as manifested with all the means of terminating the bappy dispositions for learning. She also campaign, and that this bold prediction, invited to Russia foreigners who were in a season abounding with snow and eminent for their erudition. She has, in hail-ftones, was realized in the commencefact, fo judiciously disposed of things, ment of December, on account of the thát all branches of the sciences are cul- mildnets of the weather. M. Quatremer tivated by the Ruffians. The whole d'Ilgouval has just citablished araneories number of Rullian publications, including in Paris. fome translations, did not, however, four The inunicipality of Mantua have given years ago, amount to more than 4000 vo a general invitation to artists to furnith. lumes; the fifth part of these works treate the design of a monument intended to be ing of politics, economics, morals, history, ercêted in honour of Virgil, ac Petiolum, and geography.

the place where, according to tradition,

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54
Foreign Scientific Intelligence.

[Jan. that excellent poet was born. The sides of From thefe experiments it hould seem' the monument are to bear the follow ing that the only circulation of the sap in four infcriptions. Firft infcription : trees is effected by the parts which border Primus ego in patriam mecum (modo vita fuo on this centrical medullary canal, by means perfit)

of the infinite number of horizontal radii, Aonio rediens deducam vertice musas:

at the extremities, of which the buds Primus Idumeas referam tibi, Manius, palmas. are formed, which establish a succeffive Second inscription :

communication with the centrical canal. Olim

This communication, of course, augments Nec fpes libertatis erat, nec cura peculi. in exact proportion to the growth of the Third inscription :

bud eill it becomes a branch. Nunc O Melibæe, Deus nobis hæc otia fecit. Hamburgh fociety, having remarked, that

Dr. Reimsiarus, correspondent of the Fourth inscription : Natali Pab. Virgilii Maronis factum.

a few drops of belladonna dissolved in

water, and applied to the eyes, cause the The Theophilanthropists have founded pupil to dilate in so extraordinary : a school under the cirle of Ecore Tbés. manner, that the iris is nearly reduced philanı bropique, in which the young pu to nothing, was led from this circumpils receive instructions in writing, arith itance to suggest the propriety of having metiç, the elements of the Latin tongue, recourse to this expedient, preparatory to French grammar, history, geography, &c. the operation of couching the eye for a They are likewise taught the relative duties carara£t. Ofthis intimation Dr. Gralmeyer, which they owe to God, to their parents, who practises this operation with great to their country, to all their fellow creatures, skill at Hamburgh, has made a very luc. to themseives. No 'elementary books on cessful experiment. The effect produced religion will be put into their hands by the solution in question on the eye, but fuch as have or shall receive the sanc- continues about half an hour, affording, tion of, and be adopted by, the society. by the dilatation of the pupil, an excel

Citizen Coulomb, some time since, lent opportunity of performing the opecaufed several large poplars to be cut ration, without danger of hurting the iris; down on his cftare. It was in the spring and the palsy, if it may be so termed, season, and the rap had begun to mount which invades the rctina, prevents the baneinto the branches, which were covered ful consequences which otherwise might with new leaves. As he was inspecte accrue from too sudden accession of light. ing the workmen, he noticed that one. Bothe, of Magdeburg, is engaged upon of the trees, on being cut vearly through a new critical and exegetical edition of the to the centre, emitted a sound similar to works of Plautus. A specimen, which he that produced by air bubbling from the has already published, of his undertaking, surface of water. He perceived that this proves him completely qualified for the noise, as well as the discharge of a limpid task, and possessed of great critical knowand tasteless liquid, did not take place ledge. will the trees were nearly cut through Gerard Vrolick, professor of physic and o the centre, This led him to surmise, botany, at Amsterdam, has published a that the sap in large trees was only differtation, at Leyden, on the annual deimparted to the branches by the mes foliation of trees and vegetables; in which dullary canal in the centre, with which he maintains, that the leaves of trees have the branches have a direct conimunica. a diftin&t vegetable life, characterized by tion. To ascertain this point, he caused different periods, though connected with several large popłars to be pierced with the life of the parent tree, and in some a borer, when it appeared, that, within a meafure dependant thereon. On the ancertain distance of the centre, the inftrunual return of the period of defoliation, ment remained nearly dry; but no sooner the leaves drop off and perith with age, did it penetrate to the middle, than a, but the life of the ftock fubfifts. He watery substance was emitted in great maintains that the dead leaves detach abundance, accompanied with the bub- themselves from the branches by the bling noise before mentioned. This effc&t faine laws which cause any mortified part was regularly produced on every repeared of an organized body to separate itself by experiment during the summer, the found, the absorption of the live particles immeas well as the liquid emitted, bearing a diately connecting the decayed and healthy due proportion to the precise degree of members. To prove this affertion, he beat, and consequent tram;piration of cites. examples from organized animals, the foliage. At night, and during cold, which, as well as vegetables, possess many damp days, very little effect was discerned. pares endowed with a diftinct and separate

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1798.] Varieties....Dr. Beddoes on the Nitrous Acid.

55 life. Thus, for instance, the fætus of post; 2d, two other porticoes, also fullfrogs are furnished on the sides of the arched, of six feet overture each, over head with organs of respiration, analogous which is a semi-circular niche, covered to the gills of filhes. These organs in a by great stones decorated with mouldings, short time become indurated, die, and drop which answer to the architrave. The off, before the individuum has attained to form of this edifice, to judge of it by what the perfect developement of its existence; remains, ir.dicates a fortrets, which the The horns of ftags, which fall off and Romans had ornamented with all the elerenovare every spring, complete in the gance of architecture. Some of the conspace of a year all the succelfive periods noiffeurs imagine it to have been a capitol. of their distinct life; but a series of years More than 300 medals of the latter is necessary to achieve the different periods æra of the Roman empire, in high preof the existence of the animal.

servation, have been lately dug up in the Some remains of a Roman antiquity neighbourhood of Is-sur-TiNe; among have been lately discovered at Nimes, in which are the following: France, in consequence of an order given A.D! by the municipality to demolila a parapet 117. Two medals of Lucila, wife of Ælius to a convent of Dominicans. Under the

Cæfar. parapet was found a Corinthian entabla. 138. Two ditto of Faustina, wife of Antoninus. ture, the cornice of which was much im. 138. Two ditro of Antoninus, emperor; on the

reverse a figure seated on a globe. paired. On the frieze, which was in to.

There are four more medals of the lerable preservation, was this infcription, engraved in the stone, with holes to retain fame emperor, but not with this device. the metal which had been melted into it : 161. One model of Marcus Aurelius Antoninus

Pius ; on the reverse three figures.' IMP. CÆSAR. IVL. F. AVGVSTVS.

161. Two medals of Fauftina, wife of Marcus COS. XI. IRIB. TEST. VIII.

Aurelius, and daughter of Antoninus. PORTAS. M.'. ROS. DA.

180. One medal of Crifpina, wife of the em. In the third year of the republic, the

peror Commodus. director of the military hospital, of his The discoverers of this new historical own authority, overturned the inscription, treasure have been invited to bestow them so that many parts of it were dashed to towards the enrichment of the cabinet of pieces. It was not then suspected that medals belonging to the central school at under the entablature there existed an Paris. antique edifice, which was the reason that almost all the architrave was taken [The following Letter, by foine accident rcachod away at first; but the municipality having

us too late, to appear in its proper place. ) perceived, by the demolition of a small To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. part of the modern wall, which served as

SIR, lining to the ancient one, the appeara. IN the collection of observations on ance of Corinthian capitals, they ordered nitrnus acid, now in the press, and of all the modern wall to be demolished, the which the first (and perhaps the second) architrave to be repaired with as much century will appear in March next, 1 shall care as possible, and the frieze on which have the satisfaélion of producing eviwas the infcription to be replaced. They dence from very various and distant quaralso caused the earth to be raised again up I shall give a second letter from to the anciept pavement, and a wall to be Mr. Scott of Bombay. The positive built at the distance of lix feet from the evidence is such as appears to be incapable monument, in order to secure it from of being invalidated by negative ; espeinjury. The ancient edifice is twenty- cially as the facts to be brought forward five feet leven inches in height, and fixty- will account to a certain extent for the one feet fix inches in length, frontwise general failures that are said to have been (en façade) not including two round experienced in some places. towers, nineteen feet in diameter, at each

Some correspondents, who are advan end, and forming an avant-corps of nine tageously fituated, have been obliging feet. Four pilasters, twenty-eight inches enough to vary their trials considerably i wide by twelve inches in projection (de and even to extend them to gonorrhea. luillie) with a column in the wall, the

fir, yours, whole of the Corinthian order, divide Clifton, Jan. 1, 1798.

T. BEDDOES. the overtures of the monument, in which

P.S. I have seen great service from the are yet founded, ilt, two large porticoes, nitrous acid in hepatic and dyf-eptic cases

. full arched, in the centre, having twelve Several facts of the same nature have been feet overture, and separated from the im. gencrally mentioned to me. If particulars poft to the architrave by a column which were transmitted to me, I would print them refts upon a cupola, level with the in as an appendix to the Siphylitic Collection.

DESCRIP

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MERCIER

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India Houfe....French National Institute.

[Jan. DESCRIPTION OF THE NEW INDIA-HOUSE IN LEADENHALL-STREET.

(With an Engraved Elevation.) THIS "HIS handsome edilice, constructed un- Asia; on the west Europe. On, the key.

der the able direction of R. Jupp, stones of the windows of the principal Esq. is from east to west 190 feet in length. story within the portico are to be heads in The principal story is plain funk rustic, relief, emblematical of the greatest rivers with five circular-headed windows in each in India. The story over the principal wing. The portico, from a Grecian ex story is neat, and occupied in the old ample (the temple of Minerva Polias at building the height of two stories.

The Priere. Upon the centre of the pedi- whole is to be covered with hand some ment of the portico will be an emblema: balustrades, tical figure of Britannia ; on the east side PROCEEDINGS OF THE NATIONAL INSTITUTE

OF FRANCE. Notices of tbe Memoirs presenleil to the Institute, during the last Quarter, communicated

in the Public Sitting of 08. 16th, 1797. CLASS OF MORAL AND POLITICAL The titles of men of genius have been SCIENCE. BY DAUNOU.

given to those in whom it has been be. read

fome obfer- lieved that thought, more exerted, more vations upon the contents of the strong, or more happy, had suddenly enPetits Auguftins, or Museum of French riched the arts and the sciences with Monuments. CREUZE LA Touche useful and illustrious creations. But has read a discourse upon pbilosophical Into- there truly exifted a man of genius ? lesance as well as one upon religious In- MERCIER has put it in doube; and tolerance : TOULONGEON, mes in two memoirs which he read moir, intitled, The Infuence of a Na- the class, he expatiated on the sense, and tional Observance of a dietetic Rezimen upon explained the motives, of his opinion. tbe political Condition of such Nation : and He admits among the mental caRÆDERER a dialogue upon the fol- pacities, sensible in qualitics, very disJowing question : Is it possible to unite men cernible shades: he further acqnowledges jo perfectly in society, that they bave no that the sciences and the arts in their accafion fór Chiefs to control tbem, nor courfe from age to age are enlarged and for coercive Laws ?

perfected. Discoveries are made, inLEVESQUE in an ideological me ventions are proclaimed ; but, according moir upon some acceptations on the to MERCIER, they are word Nature, did away the abuses sudden, and therefore, of consequence, no which are made of this word, in the three one ought to be considered as the work ways it is usually expressed : The Man of an individual. It is to the human of Nature, the Religion of Nature, and understanding he is willing we should natural Law

Man, according to Le- render homage, and not to ihe undervesque, never ceases to be the man of standing of an individual. That which we Båture. It is true, that paliing through call invention is (lays the author) only the different periods of the social state, a succession of trials and attempts which he fucceflively acquires the ideas they follow each other, more or less eafily or fuppofe, or inspire ; but the progretions laboriously, in the course of many ages; which he makes therein, are only thofc and the man to whose name is which nature permits, or even which wont to attach all the glory, would find the commands him to make at the pe. it difficult to recognize all the attributes riods which she herself has fixed. The of the work imputed to him, or even to intellectual faculties, which the pro- comprehend the lessons of those who begrefs proportions to itself, ar the dif- lieve themselves, and above all, call ferent ages of each society, were made themselves, his disciples. the object of another memoir, wherein Among the causes which are wont to TOULONGEON defcanted in the way of exert an influence upon the progress of an ancılysis, upon sensations and ideas. He the human understanding, public in-. compared the faculties' purely incl. itruction is, without doubt, the most le Elual with those of the fenfitive, distri- powerful. This has been the object buted over the surface of the human of a work in

which MENTELLE body; and he has entered largely into has reconciled the various conhderations those relations, which are found to exist upon primary schools, with those of the between the one and the other.

central schools. The law and the in

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