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Volney's Statistical Queries. regretted, that a more active conduct has 14. What are the qualities of each not long ago produced some effects; but wind ? are they dry or rainy ; warm or unhappily our wastes are still in their cold; violent or moderate ? defolate condition. Upon cultivation de 15. In what month does moft rain pends (in my opinion, in a very high de- fall? gree) power, wealth, and national influ 16. How many inches fall in a year? ence---I hope that something will be ef 17. Are there any fogs ? and at what fected. Some degrees of wildness and season? imprudence had better far be the conse 18. Are there any dews ? where and quence, than to continue for another cen- when, and at what time are they greatest ? tury fleeping, and dully lluggardized in 19. Do the showers fall gently, or are that dismal torpor which can never pro- they severe? duce ought that is yaluable. In a weal 20. Are there any snows, and how thy, refined, and polished age, ałtivity long do they endure ? ought to be the characteristic of the na 21. Are there any hail-ftorms, and tion.--- Animated endeavours are an ho- at what season ? nour to any age---Sleep, therefore, no 22. What winds bring snow and hail more over your moors, your downs, and along with them? forests ; but exert the same spirit of im 23. Is there any thunder ? when, and provement, oh, ye great! which every what wind reigns at that period ? other branch of political economny enjoys 24. In what direction is it usually in so distinguished a degree.---This is the dissipated ? hearty with of a man, who remains, dear 25. Are there any hurricanes ? what fir, Your sincere well-wisher, wind prevails antecedently? Jan. 30, 1798. A LIVERPOOLIAN. 26. Any earthquakes ? at what sea.

fon? what are the presages ? do they For the Monthly Magazine.

fucceed rains ? STATISTICAL PAPER. 27. Are there any tides ? what height Translation of Economical and Political do they reach? what winds accompany Questions, by the Citizen VOLNEY.

them? SECT. I.

28. Are there any pbenomena peculiar Physical State of a Country.

to the country?

29. Has the climate experienced any ART. 1. GEOGRAPHICAL SITUATION. 1. What is the latitude of the country? known changes ? and what? --- longitude ?

30. Has the sea risen or fallen ? to 3. What are its limits ?

what extent ? and when ? 4. How many square miles does its ART. III. STATE of the soil. surface contain ?

31. Does the country consist of plains ART. II. CLIMATE, or the state of the or mountains ? and what is their eleva

tion above the level of the sea ? 5. What is the state of the mercury forests, or is it naked and uncloathed ?

32. Is the land covered with trees and in "Reaumur's thermometer during each month ?

33. What are the marshes, lakes, and

rivers ? 6.

variation in the same day, at morning and noon?

34. Is it possible to calculate the num7. What is the height of the quick- ber of fquare leagues in mountains, filver in the barometer during each

marshes, lakes, and rivers? month?

35. Are there any volcanoes ? and are 8. What are the greatest variations ?

they burning or extinguished 9. What are the prevailing winds

36. Are there any coal-mines ? during each month?

ART. IV. NATURAL PRODUCTS. 10. Are they general or variable ? 37. What is the quality of the foil ?

11. Are there fixed periods for their is it argillaceous, calcareous, stoney, duration and return?

sandy, &c. ? 12. Are there periodical land and fea, filled are those nearest the shore, -or in other winds ? and what is their tract?

words, neareft the winds. It would seem 13. In what direction are the winds then that the fame law ought to prevail in first felt---on the quarter whence they the sea breezes (la bife de mer) but it is other: come, or in that to which they blow *? wife, for the former rule takes place there

also. It would be desirable to know, what * It has been remarked, that in land winds, particular winds produce these different ef(les vents de terre) the fails which are firft fe&ts.

38. What

2.

HEAVENS.

93

Volney's Statistical Queries. 38. What are the mines and metals ? 59. What are their measures of length

39. What are the falts and talt-pits and capacity, compared with ours ? (falines)?

60. What is the price of necessaries, 40. What is the disposition and incli- compared with that of labour? nation of the different strata found in 61. Are they labourers, proprietors, or wells and caverns ?

farmers? dò they pay in money or kind? 41. What are the most common vege 62. How long do their leases run, and tables, trees, shrubs, plants, grains, &c. what are the principal clauses in them?

42. What are the most common ani 63. How many farms are there, demals, quadrupeds, birds, fishes, insects, pendent on each village ? and reptiles ?

64. What is the proportion between 43. Which of these are peculiar to the the good and bad land ? country?

65. Which are the best cultivated, 44. What are the weights and sizes of large or small farms ? these, compared with ours?

66. Do the farms consist of home or SECT. II. Political State. outlying grounds ?

67. Are the fields enclosed ? and in ART. I. POPULATION.

what manner ? 45: What is the physical constitution of the inhabitants of the country? their what do they produce ?

68. Are there any commons ? and usual height? are they fat or lean ? 46. What complexion are they of? through private property?

69. Is there any right of passage and what is the colour of their hair? 47. What is their food, and how tails of a farm, you are to enquire,,

Having determined respecting the demuch do they eat daily? 48. What is their beverage ? are they mode in which they are lodged, the quan

70. The number of labourers, the given to intoxication?

tity of land and animals ? 49. What are their occupations are 21. What is the rotation of crops ? they labourers, or vine-dressers, or shepherds, or seamen,or do they inhabit towns ? the lands cultivated, and what fallow

72. How many years in succession are 50 What are their accidental or ha.

are they allowed ? bitual maladies ?

73. What grains are fown yearly? 51. What are their characteristic moral qualities ? are they lively or dull, and what quantity is allowed to an acre

74. What are the periods for sowing witty or phlegmatic ? filent or garrulous? and reaping? 52. What is the total mass of popula

75: What is the difference between tion?

the produce and the expences of every 53. What is that of the towns, compared with that of the country?

76. What is the quantity of land in 54. Do the inhabitants of the country natural and artificial grasses? live in villages, or are they dispersed in

'77. What quantity of land is requiseparate farms?

site for the feeding a cow, ox, mule, horse, 55. What is the state of the roads in sheep, &c.? How much does each consummer and winter?

sume in a day? ART. II. AGRICULTURE.

78. What are the animals used in N. B. The methods of agriculture agriculture? how are they harnessed ? being different, according to the differ 79. What are the instruments of tilent distries, the best way of becoming lage ? acquainted with this subject, is to ana 80. What is the rent of the farm, lyze two or three villages of different compared with its estimated produce ? kinds; for example, a village in a plain, 81. What is the interest of money? another on a mountain ; one where the 82. How are the husbandmen fed? the vine is cultivated, and another where amount per annum ? and the value of farming alone is practised. In each of the stock? these villages a farm should be completely 83. What is the weight of a fleece, and analyzed.

of the meat under it? só. In any given village, what may 84. What profit is supposed to accrue be the amount of the inhabitants, men, from a sheep and also from an ewe ? women, old men, and children?

85. What kind of manure is used ? 57. What are their respective occupa 86. How does the family employ itself tions?

in the evenings ? and what species of in58. What quantity of land is culti- dustry does it practise ? vated by the village ?

87. What

year?

NISTRATION.

94

Volney's Statistical Queries. 87. What is the difference observable ART. V. GOVERNMENT AND ADMIbetween the manners and the improvement of a village where vines are culti

110. What is the form of the governvated, and one that produces corn? be

ment? tween a mountain village, and one feated

111. What is the distribution of in a plain ?

pow

ers, administrative, civil, and judicial ? 88. In what manner is the vine culti

112. What are the impofts vated ? 89. What are the different kinds of and received ?

113. How are they laid on, assessed, wines ? how are they kept ? what the

114. What is the expence of the requality? the fpecies of grape? the pro- ceipt? duce of an acre? the price of any given 115. What is the proportion between quantity?

the taxes and the revenue of the contri. 90. What are the trees cultivated ? butors? olives, mulberries, elms, chesnut, &c. ?

116. What is the amount of the imWhat are the particular modes of rear- posts of a village, in comparison with its

revenue ? of each ? and of an acre ? 91. What are the other products of of civil laws, or only of customs and

117. Is there a clear and precise code the country, either in cotton, indigo, usages ? coffee, lugar, tobacco, &c. and the ine

118. Are there many lawsuits ? thods uted in cultivating them? 92. What new and useful article can contention in the towns and country?

119. What is the principal cause of be introduced ?

120. How is the right of property veART. III. INDUSTRY.

rified? are the title-deeds in the verna. 93. What are the arts most practised

cular tongue, and are they easily read ? in the country?

121. Are there many lawyers ? 94. Which of these are the most lu

122. Do the suitors plead in perfon? crative?

123. By whom are the judges nomi. 95. What is remarkable in each, on

nated and paid ? are they appointed for

life? the score either of economy or effect? 96. What arts and manufactures are

124. What is the order observed in most cultivated ?

respect to successions and inheritances ? 97. Can any others be introduced ?

125. Is the claim of primogeniture al. and which ?

lowed? are there any lubftitutions and

testaments ? 98. Are there any mines ? of what kind? how are they worked, especially

126. Do the children all inherit alike those of iron ?

any kind of property whatever? what is the result in the country?

127. Is there any property in inort. 99. What are the articles imported main ; any legacies left to the church ; and exported ?

any foundations? 100. What is the balance of trade? 128. What authority do the parents

101. What kind of carriages are used exercise over their children? and hur. for the tranfit of goods? are there any bands over their wives? waggons ? of what kind are they? how 129. Are the women very luxurious ? much do they carry?

in what does their luxury consist? 102. What weight can a horse, mule, 130. What is the education bestowed als, or camel carry?

on the children? what books do they ,103. What is the rate of carriage? learn?

104. Of what kind is the internal and 131. Are there any printing-offices, external navigation ?

newspapers, libraries ? 105. What are the navigable rivers ? 132. Do the citizens assemble for con. are there any canals ? can any be cut ? versation and reading?

106. What is the state of the coast in 133. Is there a great circulation of general ? is it high or low? does the fea persons and commodities in the country? encroach on, or leave it?

134. Are there any post-houses and 107. What are the ports, havens, and post-horses? bays?

135. What, in short, are the establish108. Is the exportation of grain per- ments, no matter of what kind, peculiar mitted or denied ?

to the country, which meris obfervation 109. What is the interest of money on account of their utility ? among comn.ercial men?

Та

ART. IV. COMMERCE.

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Charge of Plagiarism againsi Mr. Leslie Confidered. 95 To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. Mr. LESLIE as an inventor. What Mr..

SIR, B----d, 16th Jan. 1798. PLAYFAIR has stated about putting M.

[AVING confidered the artless charge EULER's Algebra at firit into Mr. Les. Newcastle, against Mr. John Leslie, Upon Mr. LESLIE's leaving St. Ana and the attempt of defence of Mr. Leslie drew's, in 1782 or 1783, he carried with by the ingenious Mr. JOHN PLAYFAIR,

him some examples of indeterminate Professor of Mathematics in the College equations, &c. as there resolved, and of Edinburgh, I must beof opinion, that shewed the same to Mr. PLAYFAIR; and the charge has not been removed by Mr. it was then, and then only, that Mr. PLAYFAIR: and, I believe, few of your

PLAYFAIR first put into his hands the readers will entertain a different opinion algebra of the celebrated Euler, and on the subject, though it should turn out, the first copy, probably, of that work im. perhaps, that the plagiarism originated ported into Scotland; a point of time not from the celebrated M. EULER, but this, long prior to that of drawing up the from Mr. Vilant, Professor of Mathe- paper in the Edinburgh Philosophical matics in the University of St. Andrews'. Transactions," fo justly animadverted on And Mr. Leslie's fame would not fure- by your correspondent Mr. W. A. of ly have suffered any diminution, by a

Newcastle. candid and honest acknowledgement of

And though the method in the Analy. the fource of his first lights on the subject, fis be general for every species of indeter

According to information, at different minate equations, &c. and for all equa- , times, from students at the College of tions that may by substitutions be brought Edinburgh, Mr. PLAYFAIR recommend or reduced to the form prescribed; as ng ed always Mr. VILANT's Analylis to his examples of indeterminate equations in students, when on algebra. Mr. PLAY volving rational squares, cubes, &c. are PAIR, therefore, cannot be supposed to

there given, this small treatise being buc be unacquainted with the 19th proposition an abridgement of part of a comprehenand corollaries of the Analysis, where five System of the Elements of Mathemathe very method seized on by Mr. Leslie,

tical Analysis, some merit, it may be is given and applied to many examples of said, is due to Mr. Leslie, for giving indeterminate equations, and of commen- examples of those indeterminate equasurate affected equations of different de- tions; and this would be granted, as here grees, &c. Mr. PLAYpair may not, stated, if the celebrated EULER, by preperhaps, know that the resolution of in- occuping the ground, bad not, as already determinate and affe&ted equations, &c. mentioned, cut off Mr. Leslie from according to this proposition and corolla- every pretence to originality, even in this ries, had always been given very fully of adding to the examples. from the year 1765, in the second ma But too much, perhaps, has been said thematical class, St. Andrews; as I learn- on a luhject, so ealy and obvious in it's ed from notes I took in this class in the principles and application, as can attach year 1779, when I attended the same, but little merit to the discussion thereof. along with Mr. JOHN LESLIE, whore And if vir. PLAYFAIR had not been inattention I called in a particular manner duced to come forward rather incautiously, to indeterminate equations, when the fame and with more appearance of oftentation, was entered upon: and which notes I co

&c. than is natural to his character and pied from a inemorandum book in Mr. dispositions"; and, if gratitude to an old VILANT's writing, containing rules and master, who, with too much art and too examples for all equations, approxima- little candour, has been kept entirely out tions, logarithms, &c. and dated at the of view by Mr. Leslie, had not roused beginning with the year 1765.

my feelings, &c. your correspondent Mr. if, therefore, Mr. Leslie had pre- have been left to substantiate his charge

W. A. of Newcastle, as fully able, would tended only to fome little attempt at improvement in point of form, he would not completely on the part of Mr. EULER, have exposed himself lo plainly to a charge

without any interference, from, of plagiarism: and if Mr. PLAYFAIR'S

Sir, memory had not failed him fo completely,

Your very

humble servant, -and if he had not been imposed on by his

BENONI. more artful newly acquired difciple, coin P.S. It should be obferved, that at St. mon candour would not have allowed hiin Andrew's, indeterninate equations were to eoiminit himself so far, as to speak of resolved two ways. (1.) By converting

the

96

a

Anecdotes relative to Spain, the equations into analogies. (2.) By ex- mises; the witness of all his transactions: preffing both sides as fractions, as in the It is in the name of the holy Blessed Virgin, Analytis: and that, as easy and plain ex that the ladies intrigue with their galamples were given, so, for complex cales, lants, write billets-doux, send their porparticular reference was made to De traits, and appoint nocturnal assignations. Moivre and Dodson, and perhaps to other The Spanish wool is universally acauthors. It should also have been stated, knowledged to be incomparably superior when Mr. Leslie announced to Mr. to any in Europe. But this wool is not PLAYFAIR the discovery of his method of equal quality in every province of the of resolving indeterminate equations, that kingdom; there are various forts, which reference was immediately made by are distinguished by the names of the difgentleman present, to the Analysis, 19th ferent manufactories. The first in repute proposition; True, that's true, says Mr. is that known by the denomination of the PLAYFAIR, recollecting himself; but Segovies Léonèses; to this class belongs the Mr Leslie rejoining, he never saw the wool which bears the name of l'Infantado book! nothing more was then said on de l'Asturie, that of the Trois Convents de', the Analyfis.

'B. l'Escurial, of Don Bernardin Sanchez, and

of Don Jofeph de Vittoria. On an average, To the Editor of the Monthly Magazine. the Spaniards vend annually about 4000

arobes of wool, each arobe weighing 25 SIR, NDERSTANDING from

your

pounds.

that Next to the Léonèse, the Segovian, stands it is your intention to present your readers in highest repute. This is not quite so with periodical accounts of the State of fine as the former, and bears a variety of Literature, &c. in Spain; and conceiving names, according to the districts and mathat any communication relative to the nufactories where it is prepared. The finest manners of that country, cannot fail of of this fort is called les Cavelieres. The proving interesting and acceptable, I am provinces which produce the best and suinduced to transmit you the following ex- perior sort of wool are, Arragon and Vatracts from “ Langle's Travels in Spain*, " lencia, Upper and Lower Andalusia, Caf. of which a fifth edition has very lately tile and Navarre. It is a common prejuappeared in Paris, in 270 pages octavo, dice, that the fineness and incomparable embellished with several engravings, &c. whiteness of the Spanish wool are the re

Speaking of the profound homage and sult of the climate ; but this is an abso. veneration which the Spaniards are accuf- lute error ; thc true cause of the perfection tomed to pay to the Virgin Mary, the in- of the Spanish wool is to be found in the genious author observes :

manner in which the Spaniards rear their - Not a fingle street or house is to be sheep. The other nations of Europe have found in all Madrid, which is not deco- cultivated all the arts and sciences with rated with a portrait or bust of the Blessed success, except the art of rearing Theep--Virgin. Incredible is the annual con the Spaniards, on the contrary, have negfumption of Aowers made use of in Spain lected almost every branch of science exfor crowning the Virgin's image; incre- cept this art. In Spain are still to be dible the number of hands which are con found vestiges of that fimple, pastoral ftantly employed from morning till night life, which, in the earlier ages of the in dressing her caps, turning her petti- world, was deemed so honourable, and coats, and embroidering her ruffies. Every which rendered those who devoted themSpaniard regards the Virgin in the light felves to the rearing of sheep, fo fuperlaof his friend, his confidante, his mistress, tively happy: whole whole attention is directed to him The Spaniards pay little or no regard self, and who is perpetually watching to the wife precept of Moses, to refrain over his happiness. Hence the name of from burying their dead for the space of Mary hangs inceffantly upon his lips, three days. In Madrid, Valladolid, Samixes in all his compliments, and forms lamanca, and, indeed, in almost every a part of all his wishes. In speaking, in part of Spain, it is dangerous to indulge writing, his appeal is always to the Vir- too much a natural propensity to long gin, who is the guarantee of all his pro- fleep; a person, who overileeps his cui

tomary hour, incurs the risque of being * The first edition of this work, published interred alive. Among other instances of in 1785, was, in pursuance of a parliamentary culpable precipitation in this respect, indecree, publickly burnt in Paris by the hands deed it juitly deserves the name of homiof the common hangman.

cide, the fate of a young, amiable, and

uncommonly

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