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Anecdotes of Spain.

97 wcommonly beautiful lady, who had view of doubling and tripling the bequests married a Swiss officer in the Spanish fer- they are in the habit of receiving on these vice, and was, most unfortunately, a vic- occasions, or to pay their court to the tim to this system of precipitation, being relatives of the deceased. For this purburied alive, and left to perish in her cof- pole, grave-diggers are engaged to diskn, deserves to be particularly noticed. inter the corpse during the night, and The corpse was afterwards, at the desire convey it into the church. This evasion of her friends, conveyed to her native of the law is tolerated in a country, where country, and interred in a town in the the clergy may be said to have usurped canton of Berne. All travellers who pass all power and rule into their own hands, near the place make a point of visiting The ancient custom of burning the boher tomb; and numbers go considerably dies of the deceased is long since totally out of their way for this express purpose; abrogated. There are many persons who I, among others, have contemplated it regret this circumstance, and to their with peculiar admiration and satisfaction. number I must honestly avow myself to The monument, which appears to open, belong. Death, in itself, has little or no represents Madame Langhans, who died terrors. It is the concomitant ideas of in child bed, after being delivered of a putrefačtion, a coffin, worms, &c. which dead infant, in the act of raising the dismay. These are the magic spells which broken tomb, disencumbering herself from appal the heart ; all these would be efher grave clothes, and whilst the fondly fectually done away, by readopting the presses her reanimated child to her paren- practice of cremation. Add to this, the tal bosom, soaring from her late prison unspeakable consolation it must afford to to the glorious manfions of eternal bliss. the survivors, to preserve, not only the

All this, and more than this, is de- remembrance, but the relics of their depictured in this beautiful mausoleum. parted relatives and friends ; to be in pof

The figures seem to move, to breathe ; session of their sacred ashes; to have every gesture is faithfully portrayed, their remains continually before their every motion strongly characterized. The eyes. enraptured look of astonishment with Gladly would I give a hundred Louis which the risen faint eyes the near prof. d'ors, with my ring and watch, to boot, pect of opening heaven, is marked with in exchange for a box filled with the ashes

strength of expression, which nothing of. my deceased mother. Her picture, but the inspiration of native genius could however striking, however animated the dictate. It is a genuine emblem of the resemblance, is but her picture; it is not refurrection, or rather, it is the resurrec- herself, it is not the smallest particle of tion itself personified.

her; it is an assemblage of colours, a This original and spirited effufion of proportion of oil and canvas. elevated genius, this lively conception, In Spain, the domestics wait at table this ode in marble, if I may be allowed in their jackets, and with their hair in the expression, is the production of a papers. They are so filthy, that one has young Swedish artist, who, after having not the stomach to call for drink at their travelled all Europe, and, in the course of hands; fo horribly hideous, that they his peregrinations, animated, as it were, strike terror into the beholders, and so with his chizzel, stone and bronze, in va- deformed and stinted in their growth, that rious shapes, was left at laft i perish in one might be tempted to conclude nature a London prison, where he was confined had only half finished her work in their for debt.

formation. The abuses of luxury appear in all their A long retinue of valets constitutes native absurdity, in the funeral pomp and the highelt_luxury and ambition of a parade which characterizes the Spaniards. Spaniard. But no masters under heaven Upwards of a hundred carriages, five or are so badly served by their domestics, lix hundred priests and monks, with at who are constitutionally aukward, and least 2000 flambeaús, form the ordinary flow to a proverb in their motions. They appendage of a common funeral. are sure to break whatever they lay their

By virtue of a late edict, which a due hands upon; they have not the smallest regard to the health of the living cerilea of dressing hair ; and will scarcely cainly renders necessary, it is enacted, make a bed in a couple of hours. Even that no burials shall be permitted within then, the job is so wretchedly performed, the gates of Madrid. In open defiance, that it is necessary to make it over again. however, of this falutary law, the clergy If you send them with a letter, or a mefcontinue to bury in the churches, in the sage, you must never hope to see them MONTHLY MAG. No, XXVI.



Defence of R. M. C. again, without fending other messengers table to our circumscribed vision, He in quest of them; and as to an answer, governs his heaven by his own laws, and they have either never solicited one, have can call into his presence whomsoever he forgotten to wait for it, or have dropt it pleales. But the Mussulman, who con, on the road.

tracts a hoarseness by vociferating Alla ! Every person is indiscriminately buried Alla !---the Talapoin, who infixes neein a religious habit. The men are equip- dles in his own flesh---and the Marabou, ped in the uniform of Capuchins; the who conscientiously walks but upon one women are dressed like Pilgrims, and leg, appear, in my judgment, to be young girls like nuns of the crder of equally deserving of a place in the celefSeurs Grises. Exclusive of the habit, the tial mansions, with the bigotted Spanidefunct is loaded with a preposterous ard, who heats himself with passion, and freight of roiaries, Agnus Deis, beads, deals out blows to fight his way to the &c. &c. which are fastened to the neck, confessional, to obtain absolution," the arms, the feet, &c. and with which London, Jan. 1798.

A. D. the cap, the fleeves, and pockets of the deceased are completely stuffed. Without these precious relics, a Spa

To the Editor of tbe Monthly Magazine, niard would never be able to die in peace. SIR, But to obtain this desirable objeci, relics


[T is observed, by the ingenious author alone are not sufficient. More efficacious of the Spectator, that “ A man who means must be employed; proper lega- has a good nose at an inuendo, smells cies and bequests must be devised to the treason and fedition in the most inno, church, and for pious purposes. Hence cent words that can be put together," the moment the life of a rich Spaniard is This observation will, in many inpronounced to be in danger, two or three Itances, apply to the Editors of « The battalions of monks quit their cells, and British Critic"---and particularly to their march immediately to keep guard round Review of a small pamphlet by R.M.C. his bed. Nothing now is to be heard, in their Number for November, (p. 566.) but the terrible sounds of hell, fire, brim- where the author is represented as a man ftone, eternal torments, purgatory, &c. &c. of dangerous principles, and his designs whilst the wretched patient, to escape so insidiously concealed, as to deceive from the flames which threaten to devour many readers. him, and to keep his tormentor, the de In order to vindicate the author from vil, at arms' length; wastes his whole this charge, I must request the insertion fortune in daily, weekly, monthly, and of the following Remarks in your next annual obits, and, at length, dies stupified month's Magazine, wherein I shall enand distracted, amidst an inundation of deavour to prove, that R. M. C. was a holy water, prayers, and menaces.

man who neither entertained nor expreflFew scenes can afford a richer sund of ed any lly infinuations againtt govern. merriment, than to witness the supersti- ment; but, on the contrary, that loytious eagerness, with which the Spaniards alty and the love of his country were besiege the churches and confessionals on sentiments which he always (particularly the eve of any grand festival. It would in his pamphlet) openly and manfully weary calculation, to enumerate tiie kicks, expressed. The essay more particularly and boxes on the ear, which are exchang- noticed by wie Reviewers is, On Preed among the warring devotees in leis judice and the Spirit of Party;” to the than a quarter of an hour. What coin- leading observation in which, they do pletes the abfurdity and ludicrous whim- not pretend to object; but can hy no sicality of this diverting scene, is the ar means assent to the plan “ of estimating rival of some grandee, or hidalgo, wlio, all actions by an arithmetical calculation escorted by a lacquey, carrying a cuthion of the happiness or misery which they profor his master's accominodation, forces duce;" because, they say, it leads directly his way through the crowd, and, whilst to the pernicious maxim“ of doing evil the combatants are engaged in fierce con- that good may come.To fhew that this test, darts before them into the confef- is not the leading maxim insisted on by fional, throws himself upon his knees, the author, it will be necessary to give wisely taking care, however, not to wear such of your readers, as have not seen them out for vrant of a cushion, and in the pamphlet, a more extensive and less this condition, repents at his ea e the fins garbled extract, than the Reviewers and enormities he has committed. thought proper to give. The ways of God are dark, inscru: " One effential requifite (R. M. c.:



Revival of Literature.

99 obferves) towards impartiality, is that peror; and that crimes are no crimes, faculty of the imagination, by which a provided they are committed under the man places himself in any rank of life, auspices of government: but, if a set of in the midst of any nation, any circum- low-born demagogues quarrel among stances, or any age; and fairly and equi- themselves, and butcher some thousands, tably appreciates the miseries that each' and confiscate property, according as may be supposed to feel, and the advan- one faction or the other happens to pretages that each may enjoy.

vail, an outcry is immediately raised.” « Such a man always estimates, as A very flight perusal of the above fena much as possible, (cateris paribus) accord- tence mult convince an unprejudiced reaing to the intrinsic nature of the thing, der, that this is not the doctrine inculnot according to the party, the rank, the cated by the author, but condemned by nation, or the age it is connected with. him, as natural to the mind of those He thinks that the welfare and happiness who are under the influence of prejudice. of the majority (without respect to rank R.M.C.'s obfervation on the injufor title) is to be the ultimate aim of all tice of charging the defects of governour actions : that as the welfare of the ment upon the individual who happens -prince and the peasant are of equal im- to be born to the administration of it is portance in the eyes of the Creator of certainly just; for, as he fáys, “ if the both, they ought to be equally so in the government were not an arbitrary one, eyes of men.---Hence, he estimates all the person who administers it would not actions by an arithmetical calculation of have the temptation, nor the power, to the quantity of happiness or misery commit so many crimes.".--He brings which they produce; and he considers incontrovertible arguments to prove, that that law, or that constitution, as indefen- a king must almost inevitably be corfible which, without any advantage to rupted by the very nature of his fitua. the community, lacrifices the welfare tion: and, although he is charged with and happiness of two peasants to the un- profound filence, on the transcendant reasonable gratification of any one man, praise of thote who have resisted that cora however high his rank may be."--- Is ruption; it is certainly unjust to attribute this to, enforce the pernicious maxim of that filence to any insidious designs adoing evil that good may come ?---But, gainst regal government. It is no more what is still more extraordinary, they than a just tribute to the memory of the cannot easily discern the connection of author, to inform the public, that in these assertions, unless they refer them zeal for peace, order, and obedience to to the French Revolution, whereas, the the laws of his country, few (if any) author's meaning is fully explained in a could surpass him. note at the end of the chapter, which is Carlisle, Feb. 5, 1798. CANDIDUS. designedly pased cvei, without notice ; besides, had the author's preface been attended to (but the preface is, perhaps,

To the Editor of the Morihly Magazine, feldom noticed by Reviewers) they would SIR, there have been informed, that " lis HOUGH history has been cultivated observations have no view to the situation of public affairs, more immedi- middle of the present century, particuá ately present.” “It is evident, (con- larly in this country; and though many tinues he,) that his arguments do not at obicure periods have been illustrated by all apply to the present circumstances, the labours of a ROBERTSON, a Gibbut to lituations in which we have been, BON, and others, there is one subject yet and in which some of us may live to be untouched, or at least touched very imagain."

perfectly, which might afford a fine field In the next remark, the author is to genius and industry. I here aliude to. charged with countenancing - low-born "* A History of the Revival of Literature," demagogues; when they quarrel among from its firf dawn in Italy, in the time themselves and confiscate property;" but of Petrarch, till its complete triumph this surely is a gross and willul misre- over ignorance and superstition. This presentation.---The author, arguing would comprehend a period of no great Itrongly against prejudice, says, that the length ; but the execution of such a work man whole mind is under its infuence would be attended with difficulties that: " believes that murder is no murder, could be furmounted only by great talents because it is commanded by a person and perseverence. Some of the works begring the title of a prince, or an em- wbici.contain materials for it are exceed-..


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Account of John of Ravenna. ingly scarce: the materials also are, in and treated him as if he had been his overige general, so scattered, many of them in fon. In a letter to John de Certaldo books now almost forgotten, and buried Petrarch highly extols him, not only for under the dust of libraries, that it would his genius and talents, but also for his require a considerable share of time and prudent and virtuous conduct.

" He patience to collect them. Should ever a poffeffes," says he, “ what is very rare in history of this kind, however, be at our times, a great turn for poetry, and a tempted, no one would deserve a more noble desire to become acquainted with conspicuous place in it than John de Ra- every useful and ornamental part of venna, the scholar of Petrarch, who, knowledge. He is favoured by the though he left no works behind him to Muses, and already attempts verses of attest his merit, may be justly considered his own; from which one can foretel, as one of the first revivers of the Greek that, if his life be spared, and if he goes and Latin languages in the fourteenth on as hitherto, something great may be and fifteenth centuries. This learned expected from him.” man taught with as much success as his Not long, however, after this panegymalter, Petrarch, wrote; and, by the ric was written, young Malpaghino conoral inttruction which he gave in the ceived an insuperable defire to see the principal cities of Europe, contributed world; and, notwithstanding all Pegreatly to the support of that revolition trarch's remonstrances, persisted in his rein the arts of teaching and learning, solution of quitting him. Petrarch's which Petrarch, by his example and paternal care and regard for his pupil apwritings, began. Without him, the pear, on this occalion, in the most falight which Petrarch had kindled would, vourable light, as may be seen in his in all probability, have been either ex- letters to Donatus; and his whole bea tinguished, or at least obscured: and had haviour, though the young man infifted he not excited in Italy a desire of being on leaving him, without alligning a sufacquainted with the treasures of Roman ficient reaton for his precipitate and unliterature, Manuel Chrysoloras would grateful conduct, does as much honour pot have been invited to that country, to his head as to his heart. and the Greek language would not have The precipitation with which John de been cultivated so early, and with so much Ravenna carried his plan into execution ardour.---As little, in general, is known was not likely to make it answer his exrespecting the life and character of this pectations. He departed without taking friend to letters, the following account with him letters of recommendation which of him may, perhaps, not be unaccepta- Petrarch offered him to his friends. He, ble to thote fond of historical researches --- however, pursued his journey over the

John Malpaghino, commonly called Appenines, amidst continual rain, giv. Jolin de Ravenna, from the place of his ing out that he had been disiniffed by birth, was born in the year 1352, of a Petrarch ; but, though he experienced family distinguished neither by riches nor from many a compassion to which he was nobility. His father, however, committed not entitled by his conduct, he now bebim to the care of Donatus, the grain- gan to awaken from his dream. He promarian, an intimate friend of Petrarch, ceeded, therefore, to Pifa, in order to who at that time taught the Latin with procure a vessel to carry him back togreat applause at Venice. Donatus wards Pavia; but being disappointed, thought he discovered such happy dilpo- while his money wasted as much as his fitions in young Malpaghino, that he re- patience decreased, he suddenly resolved commended him to Petrarch, not only as to travel back across the Appenines, an excellent assistant to facilitate his la- When he descended into the Ligurian bours, by reading or transcribing for plains, he attempted to wade through a him, but as a youth of the molt promil- river in the district of Parma, which was ing talents, and worthy of being tormed much swelled by the rains, and being carunder the inspection of the greatest nian ried by the force of the stream into a of the fourteenth century.

whirlpool, he would have lost his life, had It appears from some of Petrarck's 'he not been faved by some people who letters, for it is froin i'iefe.chietly we can were accidentally passing that way. After obtain information respecting John de escaping this danger, he arrived, pennyRavenna, that he fully answered the expectations formed of him; and that he Better known under the name of Boc. even gained the farcur and affection of caccio or Boecace. Certaldo was the place of his patron so much, that he loved him his birth.


Account of John of Ravenna,

HOT less and familhed, at the house of his men well skilled in the Greek language, former patron, who happened then not particularly a monk, Barlaam,and one Lec, to be at home; but he was received and or Leontius, with whom I was intimately kindly entertained by his servants, till acquainted, and of whom the first had their master returned.

been some time my scholar. In consePetrarch, by his entreaties and pater- quence of this proposal, he begged me to gal admonitions, retained the young man give him a recommendatory letter to you, at his house for about a year, and pre- as you have considerable influence in that vented him from engaging in any more part of the country. This request romantic adventures ; but, at the end of granted, in hopes that the young man, by that period, his desire for rambling again his genius and talents, will afford you returned ; and as Petrarch found that all satisfaction eqıral to the service which attempts to check him would be fruitless, you may render to him.” In his letter he gave him letters of recommendation to to Brunus, Petrarch expreffes hijnself a two of his friends, Hugo de St. Severino follows: 6. He is a young man who and Franciscus Brunus, at Rome. To wilhes to see the world as I formerly did, the former of these, Petrarch says, “ This but I never reflect on it without horror. youth of rare talents, but still a youth, He is desirous of seeing Rome; and this after proposing to himself various plans, defire I cannot condemn, as I myself has at length embraced the noblest; and have so often visited that city, and could as he once travelled, he is now desirous of ftill revilit it with pleasure. I suspect, doing so again, in order to gratify his however, that he will venture on thirit of knowledge. He has, in parti- more extensive ocean, and imagines to cular, a strong inclination for the Greek find a fortune where he will, perhaps, language; and entertains a with which meet with a shipwreck. At any rate, hc Cato first conceived in his old age. This is desirous, he says, of putting his for: with I have endeavoured for some years tune to a trial. I wish it may be favourto subdue; sometimes by entreaties, at able ;, fhould it be adverse, he is still other times by admonition; sometimes at liberty to return to my peaceful, by representing how much he is still de- though small, haven; for I hang out a

ficient in the Roman language ; and fome- light, during the day as well as the night, times by laying before him the difficulties to guide those who quit me througla which must attend him in his journey, youthful folly; and to enable them to especially as he once before left me, and find their way back. The ardour by by want was obliged to return. As long which he is impelled must not be ascribed as that unfortunate excursion was freth in so much to him as to his age, and is in his memory he remained quiet, and gave itself commendable. If I am not much me hopes that his restless spirit could be deceived, the young man loves me and overcome and restrained. But now, since virtue in general. He is unsteady, but the remembrance of his misfortunes is modeft; and deferves that all good inep almost obliterated, he again fighs after should contribute to his prosperity as far the world; and can be retained neither by as they can.'' force nor persuasion. Excited by a de From the letters of Petrarch, there is fire which betrays more ardour than pru- reason to believe, that John de Ravenna dence, he is resolved to leave his country, lived with him only about three years friends, and relations, his aged father, in all; and that he had not attained to and me whom he loved as a father, and the full age of manhood when he left hiir. whole company he preferred to a residence It appears also, for this circumftance is at home, and to haften to you whom he very obscure, that after he quitted him, - knows only by name. This precipita- he wandered about a considerable time tion even has an appearance of prudence. before he was to fortunate as to meet The young man first wished to visit Con- with a protector and patron, at whole Atantinople ; but when I told him that house, as he wrote to Petrarch, he at last Greece, at present, is as poor as it was found a pern.anent asylum.. How long formerly rich in learning, he gave credit he remained with his patron, whom some to my assertion, and at any rate altered believe to have been Cardinal Philip, and his plan, which he could not carry into what happened to him till the death of execution. He is now desirous of traverf- Petrarch in 1374, and "for some years ing Calabria, and the whole coast of after, is unknown. The literary monuItaly, distinguished formerly by the name ments of the fourteenth and fifteenth cens of Magna Græcia, because I once told turies fay nothing farcher of him till his him that there were in that quarter (sveral appearance at Padua; where, according

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