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E shades, where sacred truth is fought;

Groves, where immortal Sages taught;
Where heav'nly visions Plato fir'd,
And Epicurus lay inspir'd!
In vain your guiltless laurels stood

Unspotted long with human blood,
War, horrid war, your thoughtful Walks invades,
And steel now glitters in the Muses shades.

NOTES, · Altered from Shakespear by the Duke of Buckingham, at whofe defire these two Chorus's were composed to supply as many, wanting in his play. They were set many years afterward by the famous Bononcini, and perforried at Buckingham-houfe. P.

VER. 3. Where heav'nly vifons Plato fir'd, And Epicurus lay infpir'd!) The propriety of these lines arises from hence, that Brutus, one of the Heroes of this play, was of the Old Academy; and Caffius, the other, was an Epicurean.

W. I cannot be persuaded that Pope thought of Brutus and Caffius, as being followers of different fects of philosophy.



Oh heav'n-born fisters! fource of art!
Who charm the sense, or mend the heart;
Who lead fair Virtue's train along,
Moral Truth, and mystic Song !
To what new clime, what distant sky,
Forsaken, friendless, shall ye fly?


bless the bleak Atlantic shore? Or bid the furious Gaul be rude no more?

Say, will




When Athens sinks by fates unjust,
When wild Barbarians spurn her dust;
Perhaps ev'n Britain's utmost shore
Shall cease to blush with stranger's gore,
See Arts her favage fons controul,

And Athens rising near the pole!
Till some new Tyrant lifts his purple hand,
And civil madness tears them from the land.

NOTES. Ver. 12. Moral Truth, and mystic Song !] The construction is dubious. Does the poet address Moral Truth and Mystic Song, as being the Heaven-born Sisters ; or does he address himself to the Mufes, mentioned in the preceding line, and so make Moral Truth and Myftic Song to be a part of Virtue's train? As Hesiod begins his poem.

Dr. Warburton's proposed correction is not consistent with either construction, when he says, the poet had expressed himself better had he said Moral Truth in Mystic Song. Moral Truth, a single person, can neither be the Heaven-born Sisters, nor yet, alone, the train of Virtue. If it could, the emendation might have been pared, because this is no uncommon figure in poetry.

The metre is unskilfully broken by the want of a fyllable in this line.

Ye 25

Ye Gods! what justice rules the ball ?
Freedom and Arts together fall;
Fools grant whate'er Ambition craves,
And men, once ignorant, are haves.
Oh curs'd effects of civil hate,

In ev'ry age, in ev'ry staté !
Still, when the luft of tyrant pow'r lucceeds,
Some Athens perishes, fome Tully bleeds.

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Ver.26. Freedom and Arts) A fentiment worthy of Alcæus !
Throughout all his works oùr author constantly thews himself a
true lover of true liberty.
VER. 32. Some Athens)

- Where the muses haunt,
The marble porch where wisdom wont to talk
With Socrates or Tully, hears no more,
Save the hoarse jargon of contentious monks;
Or female fuperitition's midnight prayer;

When brutal force
Usurps the throne of justice, turns the pomp
Of guardian power, the majesty of rule,
The sword, the laurel, and the purple robe,
To poor dishoneft pageants !

Pleasures of Imagination, B. ii. p. 663. This ode is of the kind which M. D'Alembert, judging like a mathematician, prefers to odes that abound with imagery and figures, namely, what he calls the Didactic ode; and then proceeds to give reasons for preferring Horace to Pindar as à lyric poet. Marmontel in his Poetic opposes him.

These choruses are elegant and harmonious; but are they not chargeable with the fault, which Aristotle imputes to many of Euripides, that they are foreign and adventitious to the subject,


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and contribute nothing towards the advancement of the main action? Whereas the chorus ought,

Μοριον ειναι τα όλα, και συναγωνίζεσθαι, to be a part or member of the one whole, co-operate with, and help to accelerate the intended event; as is conftantly, adds the philofopher, the practice of Sophocles. Whereas these reflections of Pope on the baneful influences of war, on the arts and learning, and on the universal power of love, seem to be too general, are not sufficiently appropriated, do not rise from the subject and occafion, and might be inserted with equal propriety in twenty other tragedies. This remark of Aristotle, though he does not himself produce any examples, may be verified from the following, among many others. In the Phænicians of Euripides, they fing a long and very beautiful, but ill placed, hymn to Mars ; I speak of that which begins fo nobly, ver. 793,

« Ω πολυμοχθος Αρης.” “ O direful Mars! why art thou still delighted with blood and with death, and why an enemy to the feasts of Bacchus?” And a ftill more glaring instance may be brought from the end of the third act of the Troades, in which the story of Ganymede is introduced not very artificially. To these may be added that exquisite ode in praise of Apollo, defcriptive of his birth and victories, which we find in the Iphigenia in Tauris.

On the other hand, the choruses of Sophocles, never desert the subject of each particular drama, and all their sentiments and reflections are drawn from the fituation of the principal personage of the fable. Nay Sophocles hath artfully found a method of making those poetical descriptions, with which the choruses of the ancients abound, carry on the chief design of the piece; and has by these means accomplished what is a great difficulty in writing tragedy, united poetry with propriety.

In the Philoctetes the chorus takes a natural occasion, at verse 694, to give a minute and moving picture of the solitary life of that unfortunate hero ; and when afterwards, at verse 855, pain has totally exhaufted the strength and spirits of Philoctetes, and it is necessary for the plot of the tragedy that he should fall asleep, it is then, that the chorus breaks out into an exquisite ode to Neep. As in the Antigone, with equal beauty and decorum in an address to the God of Love, at verfe 791 of that play. And thus lastly, when the birth of Edipus is doubtful, and his parents unknown, the chorus suddenly exclaims,

« Τις σε, τεκνον, “ From which, O my son, of the immortal gods, didft thou {pring? Was it some nymph, a favourite of Pan, that haunts the



mountains; or some daughter of Apollo; for this god loves the remote rocks and caverns, who bore you? Or was it Mercury who reigns in Cyllene, or did Bacchus, ο Θεος ναιων επ' ακρων ορέων,

1118. a god who dwells on the tops of the mountains, beget you, on any of the nymphs, that poffefs Helicon, with whom he frequently sports?”

But what shall we say to the ftrong objections lately made by fome very

able and learned critics to the use of the chorus at all ?' The critics I have in view, are Metaftafio, Twining, Pye, Colman, and Johnson; who have brought forward fuch powerful arguments against this so important a part of the ancient drama, as to shake our conviction of its utility and propriety, founded on what Hurd, Mason, and Brumoy, have fo earnestly and elegantly urged on the subject.

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