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POLITICAL ECONOMY : BIBLIOGRAPHY, METHODS OF STUDY,

AND WORKS OF REFERENCE.

Cossa's Guide is the best bibliography and historical sketch. His historical parı, p. 73-227, ch. 2, summarizes ancient writers treating political economy (as Plato, Xenophon, Aristotle, Cicero, Seneca, Pliny, Cato), and those of the middle ages (as Magnus, Duns Scotus, Thomas Aquinas), and the other chapters (in the English edition) come up to 1880. For brief views of the literature and history of political economy, see introductions to or chapters in Laughlin's edition of Mill, exceptionably valuable for its biographical and bibliographical notes, Bowker's Economics, Perry's Elements, Ely's Introduction, McCul. loch's edition of Adam Smith, Courcelle-Seneuil and Rau. Bibliographical notes are appended to most articles in Lalor's Cyclopedia. For full contents of works, see department Political Economy (p. 911-25), in Brookiyn Library Catalogue, to be found in most large libraries. For analytic references to specific chapters in general works, see the valuable section headings of Andrews' “ Institutes." G. P. Putnam's Sons, N. Y., R. Clarke & Co., Cincinnati, and other booksellers issue priced catalogues of economic books. The Political Science Quarterly (Columbia Coll.), New York, and Quarterly Journal of Economics (Harvard Univ.), Boston, register current bibliography. See also numerous articles in periodicals (consult Poole's Index, etc., and Brooklyn Lib. Cat., p. 911-25), especially Rossi's “ Introduction à l'histoire des doctrines économiques" (preface to his historical lectures at the Collège de France), in

Journal des Economistes, v. 2, 1842; Baudrillari's “De l'histoire de l'économie politique" in same, v. 5 (new series), 1867; W. Newmark’s“ Progress of Economic Science during the Last 30 Years,” in Jour. Statis. Soc. of London, v. 24; 1861; T. E. Cliffe-Leslie's Political Economy in Germany,” in Fortnightly Rev., July, 1875; C. F. Dunbar's “ Economic Science in America, 1786-1876," in North Amer. Review, Jan., 1876; H. S. Foxwell's " The Economic Movement in England,” in Quar. Journal of Economics, Oct., 1887; and C. Gide's “Political Economy in France," Political Science Quarterly, Dec., 1890. Prof. Boehm-Bawerk's “ Capital and Interest,” 1890, is a critical history of economical theory, valuable and suggestive.

Adams, H:C. Outlines of Lectures on Political Economy. Ann Arbor, Mich., Sheehan & Co., 1886. 8°, 85 p. 50 C.

Prepared for the use of students at Michigan and Cornell Universities, where the author lectures on political economy and finance. The author shows that political economy should seek not merely to explain the individual actions of men, but also to discover a scientific basis for the formation and government of industrial society.

Colange, Leo de, ed. Dictionary of Commerce, Manufacture, etc. Boston, Estes & Lauriat, 1880-1. 2 v. 89, $13.50.

Includes also commercial law, banking, exchange, insurance, patents, canals, commercial geography of the world, customs regulations, docks, interest and annuities, licenses, maritime law, measures and weights, money, railroads, revenue regulations, shipping, tariff duties, taxation, etc.

Foster, W: E. References to Political and Economic Topics ; to accompany a series of lectures delivered in Providence, 1884-5. Providence, R. I., Providence Press Co., 1885. 27 p. D. pap., gratis.

Lalor, J: J., ed. Cyclopædia of Political Science, Political Economy, and the Political History of the United States, by the best American and European writers. Chicago, Melbert B. Cary & Co., 1883-4. 3 v., 847, 1055, 1136 p. 0. $18.

An invaluable work of reference, well up to date, articles in alphabetical arrangement, from a few lines to elaborate special treatises. The foreign portion is mostly translated from Block's Dict, de la Politique, Coquelin and Guillaumin's Dict. de l'Economie Politique, Bluntschli's Staatswörterbuch, or original articles by Cliffe Leslie. U.S. political history, etc., are by Prof. Alex. Johnson. Nearly thirty leading American authorities are among the contributors in special subjects.

Laughlin, J. LAURENCE. Study of Political Economy. N. Y., Appleton, 1885. 153p. Š. $1.

Brings out the value of economics in discipline. Gives important hints to the teacher, minister, journalist, and lawyer. The ordinary student will find this manual of much directive service. It contains a brief bibliography.

Questions for debate in politics and economics, with subjects for essays and terms for definition. (Economic tract, no. 28.) N. Y., Society for Political Education, 1889. 40 p. O. pap., 25 C.

An enlarged and revised reissue of Economic tract, no. III.

Sumner, W:GRAHAM. Problems in Political Economy. N. Y., Holt, 1884. 125 p. S. flex. cl., $1.25.

A series of questions for students.

Bohn's Political Cyclopedia. Lond., Bohn, 1848. N. Y., Scribner & W. 4 v. D. $5.60.

“ A dictionary of political, constitutional, statistical and forensic knowledge, covering civil administration, political economy, finance, commerce, laws and social relations." Not brought up to date.

Cumming, A. N. Value of Political Economy to Mankind. Glasgow, Maclehose.

The Oxford Cobden Club prize essay for 1886.

McCulloch, J: R. Dictionary of Commerce and Commercial Navigation. New ed., rev. by A. J. Wilson. Lond. and N. Y., Longmans, 1882. il. 8°, $21.

McCulloch, J:R. The Literature of Political Economy. Lond., 1845. 8o. Contains a list of the most important works on the subject, published before 1845.

Macleod, H: D. Dictionary of Political Economy. V. 1. Lond., 1863. 0. $12.

A work of great research, but colored by the author's peculiar views. A second edition of v. 1 is preparing,"and v. 2, completing this work, is “in progress."

Palgrave, R. H. INGLIS, ed. Dictionary of Political Economy. [In prep.] Lond. and N. Y., Macmillan.

In this work it is proposed to state the position of political economy at the present time, with references to history, law, and commerce. Short notices of deceased economists will be included, with mention of their principal writings. A list of leading living writers will be given. An eminent staff of contributors is engaged for this work, which is to be published in 12 to 14 parts of 128 p. each. Part I. ready January, 1891, others at intervals of about three months.

Sidgwick, H: Scope and Method of Economic Science. Lond. and N. Y., Macmillan, 1885. D. 60 C.

Cossa, LUIGI. Guide to the Study of Political Economy, with preface by W. S. Jevons ; tr. from 2d Italian ed. (1877). Lond. and N. Y., Macmillan, 1880. 237 p. S. $1.25.

The best manual of the kind. It sketches the history of economic theory, explains its leading methods, and gives sound criticisms of economic writers, with bibliography.

Coquelin, C:, and Guillaumin, U. G., eds. Dictionnaire de l'économie politique. Paris, 1851-3. 3d ed., 1864. 2 v., 970, 883 p. 8°.

A standard of great merit, its articles being written by the best French writers on economic science. An alphabetic cyclopedia of economic science-"a scientific monument, says Cossa, “such as no other nation can boast of.” Needs re-writing to date. There is no English translation.

Say, LEON, and Chailley, Jos., eds. Nouveau Dictionnaire de l'économie politique. Livraisons 1-3. Paris, Guillaumin, 1890. 384 p. 8o.

A new work on the lines of the Coquelin dictionary. Excellent, but chiefly treats of French questions and refers but little to other than French authors.

Conrad, J., Elster, L., Lexis, W., Loening, Edgar, eds. Handwörterbuch der Staatswissenschaft. V. 1, pts. 1-6, 1046 p. V. 2, pts. 7-9, 446 p. 8o. Jena, Fischer, 1890.

To be completed in 35. pts. by 1892. The most comprehensive dictionary of political economy ever published, with collaborators from all countries.

Schönberg, GUSTAV, ed. Handbuch der Politischen Oekonomie. Tübingen, 1890. 3d ed. 3 v. 8°, 1888.

Written in coöperation with 21 of the most eminent German authorities, chiefly of the historical school. The most comprehensive work for those desirous of studying modern views.

On the study and methods of political economy, see also Buckle's remarkable passage in his Hist. of Civilization, v. 1, p. 150-8; Mill on Method in Political Economy, in his Essays; Leslie Stephens Hist. of English Thought, V. 2. p. 243-328, and, in present day, Science Economic Discussions, by Prof. R. M. Smith and others, and articles in the economic and general periodicals (consult Poole's Index and for latest issues, the quarterly Coöperative Index). Among them Henry George in Popular Science Monthly, v. 16, 1879.

POLITICAL ECONOMY : HISTORY. Ely, R:T. The Past and the Present of Political Economy. Baltimore, Johns Hopkins University, 1884. 64 p. O. pap., 35 C.

Wells, David A. Recent Economic Changes, and their effect on the production and distribution of wealth, and the well-being of society. N. Y., Appleton, 1889. 12+493 p. 0. $2.

A graphic recital of the economic revolution effected by the progress of invention and enterprise. Tendencies now supreme in commerce and finance are traced to their origin, with incidental light on their probable course in the future. The work is a storehouse of fact admirably digested.

Ashley, W. J. Introduction to English Economic History and Theory. Part 1: The Middle Ages; The Manor and Village Community; Merchant and Craft Guilds; Economic Theories and Legislation. N. Y., Putnam, 1889. 8°,$1.50.

Bagehot, WALTER. Economic Studies. Lond. and N. Y., Longmans, 1880. 8°, $3.50.

Contains some fresh and vigorous essays on the early economic condition of nations.

Ingram, J: K. History of Political Economy. Lond. and N. Y., Macmillan, 1888. 250 p. 0. $1.50.

A history of economic theory, reprinted with additions from the ninth edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica, with a preface by Prof. E. J. James. "The best outline in the English language,'' says Ely.

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