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2. Post the same transactions from the Journal (or books substituted

for it) into the Ledger. No index to the Ledger need be made. 3. Balance and close the Ledger. 4. Give the Journal entries that W. Short, Benj. Smith, and Edwards

and Son should make in their respective Journals for their part of

three transactions given above as on the 12th of January. 5. After a Ledger is balanced is it necessarily quite free from errors? if

not, what sort of mistakes could exist undiscovered : 6. I buy goods of A. for 501. and sell them to B. for 601., B. pays me by

a bill at 1 month, which bill A. discounts for me at 10 per cent per annum, and I then pay him for the goods. Give the Journal entries which should be made by myself, by A., and by B. for these transactions.


Subjects set chiefly in Competitive Examinations. On the beneficial results of Commerce in Ancient and in Modern Times.

Set to Candidates for the Office of the Committee of Council

for Education.

(Time allowed, 2 hours.) Suppose that you are clerk or secretary to the Chairman of the East India

Company : That he has received a letter from the President of the Board of Control

asking, (1) Whether the Company have any information as to the origin of the mutinies? (2) What are the latest accounts they have

received of the state of India ? That he has given you the following rough notes of a reply, directing you to write a letter from them, (1) No positive information; doubtful whether they originate with

Mahomedans or Hindus. (2) By latest accounts Delhi had not fallen. Troops in good

spirits, hoping to take it on arrival of reinforcements. No more mutinies recently. Telegraph expected immediately;

on its arrival will communicate again. You are at liberty to expand the substance here given to any length you

please, or to add anything which occurs to you. N.B. This Exercise is intended to test the power of writing correctly in

good grammatical English.

Another paper :

(Time allowed, 3 hours.) A comparison between the English national character and that of any

other people, ancient or modern.

Subjects set chiefly in ordinary Examinations.

(Time allowed, 2 hours.) Not less than two folio pages should be written. These exercises are designed to test the power of writing correct and

grammatical English. A short Sketch of the life and character of any one of the Kings of England.

Another paper:

(Time allowed, 2 hours.) Write an account of any part of Great Britain or Ireland, with which you

are acquainted, with special reference to the agriculture (or commerce) there carried on, and the social state and manners of the population.

Other papers :-
Write a description of any foreign town or country.

(Time allowed, 2 hours.) A short notice of the life and writings of the author of any well-known

and standard work.

(Time allowed, 11 hour.)" A short sketch of the life and character of any of the former Queens of England.

Not less than two folio pages should be wrillen.

(Time allowed, 2 hours.) Supposing that a friend in Australia has asked you to describe either the

Crystal Palace or the Manchester Exhibition, write a letter in answer to his requesto

(Time allowed, 2 hours.) Supposing that a friend in Australia has asked you to give him an account

of the present state of commerce in Great Britain, write a letter in answer to his request.

(Time allowed, 2 hours.) Supposing that a friend in America has written to you asking for some

account of the “ Leviathan” steam-ship, write a letter in reply.


A description of any place in Great Britain or Ireland, which is remarkable

either for beautiful scenery or for historical associations.

(Time allowed, 2 hours.) A short sketch of the life and character of one of the following persons :

Robert Bruce, Oliver Cromwell, Duke of Marlborough, Sir Walter

Not less than two folio pages should be written.

Set to Candidates for the War Office.

(Time allowed, 11 hour.) Write a letter as to a friend, describing the nature of the duties and occu

pations you expect to perform in the War Office; stating whether any, and what, differences are occasioned by the Peace, and mention your own motives for seeking such employment.

The letter should occupy not less than two folio pages.

Set to Candidates for the Constabulary in Ireland.

(Time allowed, 24 hours.) A comparison between any two of the provinces of Ireland, specifying the

most important points in which they differ geographically and statistically.

Another paper :The advantages which have resulted from any of the inventions or im

provements of modern times; as for example, the Electric Telegraph, Railways, the Steam Engine, &c.


Note. - In writing from Dictation, Candidates are cautioned by a notice, printed at the top of the paper on which they write, that “ attention should be paid to clear and legible handwriting, to correct spelling, and to proper punctuation.”

The following extract from a memorandum sent to examiners in the country will show the method pursued in dictating :

“The examiner is requested to read the printed paper headed “ Dictation,” at first-so that the Candidate may gather its general purport : a second time, slowly—that he may have ample time to write it down: a third time—that he may have an opportunity of correcting and punctuating what he has written. Ruled lines should not be allowed.




LETTER-CARRIERS,* &c. The art of printing was brought into England about the middle of the fifteenth century. The honour of introducing it is generally given to an honest citizen of London, who, while following the business of his trade in a foreign country, had heard and seen much of this new discovery. Being very desirous to make so valuable an art known in England, he went for some time to a town in which it was practised, for the purpose of learning it: and applied himself so diligently to his new undertaking that in a short time he was able to print a book. He then came to his native country, and set up a printing-press, with which he printed before his death nearly fifty different books. He says of himself that he was a rude and simple man: I am sure that he was a most industrious and useful one.

Another paper:There are no persons who enjoy life so little, and are such burdens to themselves, as those who have nothing to do. Many think that an idle person must lead a pleasant life. Those who are obliged to work all day for their daily bread enjoy their short period of rest so much that they are

* The passages now used in the examination of Letter-carriers are restricted to three or four lines in length.

apt to think that if their whole lives were spent in such rest and recreation it would be the most pleasant mode of living in the world. But this is quite a mistake, as they would soon find if they made a trial of the life which they think so agreeable. One who is never busy can never enjoy rest: for rest implies a relief from previous labour; and if our whole time were spent in amusing ourselves, we should find it more wearisome than the hardest day's work.


Each party was now willing to throw on its antagonist the odium of commencing the civil war ; but both of them prepared for an event which they deemed inevitable. To gain the people's favour and good opinion was the chief object on both sides. Never was there a people less corrupted by vice and more actuated by principle than the English during that period: never were there individuals who possessed more capacity, more courage, more public spirit, more disinterested zeal. But the infusion of one ingredient in too large a proportion had corrupted all these noble principles, and converted them into the most virulent poison. To determine his choice in the approaching contests, every man hearkened with avidity to the reasons proposed on both sides. The war of the pen preceded the war of the sword, and daily sharpened the humours of the opposite parties. The King and Parliament themselves carried on the controversy by messages, remonstrances, and declarations : while the nation was really the party to whom all arguments were addressed.

Another paper: Thus far the Prince's enterprise had prospered beyond the expectations of the most sanguine. And now, according to the general law which governs human affairs, prosperity began to produce disunion. The Englishmen assembled at Salisbury were divided into two parties. One party consisted of Whigs, who had always regarded the doctrines of passive obedience and indefeasible hereditary right as slavish superstitions. Many of them had passed years in exile. All had been long shut out from participation in the favours of the Crown. They now exulted in the near prospect of greatness and of vengeance. Burning with resentment, flushed with victory and hope, they would hear of no compromise. Nothing less than the deposition of their enemy would content them. Nor can it be disputed that herein they were perfectly consistent. They had exerted themselves nine years earlier to exclude James from the throne, because they thought it probable that he would be a bad king. It could therefore scarcely be expected that they would willingly leave him on the throne, now that he had turned out a far worse king than any reasonable man could have anticipated.

Another paper :The house occupied by Gibbon, and in which he wrote the last half of his immortal work, is still in good preservation, and is the grand object of attraction to all travellers. “It was here ”- to quote the beautiful passage in which Gibbon has perpetuated the memory of the event-"it was here,

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