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8. What special rule exists as to the evidence necessary to convict a person
of High Treason? Can you mention any celebrated case in which
a peculiar construction was put on this rule ? 9. For what alleged offences were the following persons tried :--Sache
verall, Lord George Gordon, Horne Tooke? 10. What questions of Constitutional Law were involved in the original
dispute between the American Colonies and the mother country? Are any of these still unsettled ?
INTERNATIONAL LAW.* 1. Distinguish between the legal position of an ambassador, a minister,
chargé d'affaires, and a consul. 2. What is implied in the right of equality among sovereign states, and
to what extent is this right practically modified ? 3. When a new country is discovered, does the right acquired through
the discoverer accrue to the sovereign of whom he is a subject, or to the sovereign who employs him ? Do you consider the right acquired to be inchoate or complete ? If you think it merely inchoate, what is necessary to perfect it? Illustrate your answer by historical
examples. 4. What test is usually applied to ascertain the degree of civilization
which entitles a non-Christian race to share in the privileges of international law, and to be considered sovereign over the territory
which it occupies ? 5. Define eminent domain. What description of right to the national
territory are sovereigns inter se assumed to possess, and why is the
assumption necessary ? 6. Define postliminy. What subjects of postliminy are recognised by
modern international law ? 7. What conditions must be satisfied in order that the goods of an enemy,
taken at sea, may become the absolute property of the captor? State which of these conditions are required by the strict theory of capture in war, and which have been arbitrarily added by the custom
of nations. 8. What rules of the general national law were modified or disturbed by
the permission given by the Orders in Council of 1854, " to all “ subjects of Her Majesty, and the subjects and citizens of any “ neutral or friendly state, to trade freely” during the then existing war “with all ports and places not being in a state of blockade," provided that no British vessel should enter or communicate with
an enemy's port? 9. Do you consider that treaties are annulled by the breaking out of
hostilities between the powers which were parties to them? Give authority for your answer; and if it is in the affirmative, state what assumptions it involves as to the natural relation of states
inter se. 10. Has a belligerent power the right to confiscate debts owing by its own
subjects to subjects of the other belligerent?
* This paper has also been set to Candidates for the situation of Paid Attaché.
11. What were the new rules which were attempted to be engrafted on the
general international law by the armed neutrality of the northern powers in 1780? How far were these rules identical with those
subscribed to by Great Britain at the Congress of Paris in 1856 ? 12. From what period is a treaty of peace binding—(1) on the contracting
sovereigns—(2) on their subjects ?
1. Explain and illustrate the proposition that all capital is perpetually
consumed and reproduced. What is meant by fixed, and what by
circulating capital? 2. On what conditions do the rise and fall of wages depend? What
would be the effect of fixing a legal minimum of wages. 3. State concisely Ricardo's theory of rent. What is the value of the
objection to it that there cannot be land in cultivation which pays
no rent? 4. Define value and price. Can there be a general rise of values ? 5. In what sense is it true that, in all employments, the rate of profit on
capital tends to an equality ? 6. To what extent does credit assist production ? 7. What is the nature of the operation which is effected by means of the
foreign exchanges ? What is meant by saying that the exchange is
unfavourable” to a particular country? 8. Why does a tax on some one commodity generally raise the value and
price of that commodity by more than the amount of the tax imposed ? 9. What foundation is there for the opinion that there can be a general
over-supply of commodities? 10. What, according to the old mercantile theory, was an “unfavourable
balance of trade?” Analyse the doctrine that such a balance is an evil.
MATHEMATICS AND PHYSICAL SCIENCE. Set to Candidates for the Treasury, and to Candidates for the Admiralty who selected Euclid as a subject of examination.
EUCLID.--Book I. 1. Distinguish between a " postulate” and an “axiom.” Write down
Euclid's three postulates. 2. PROP. XXI.- If from the ends of a side of a triangle there be drawn
two straight lines to a point within the triangle, these shall be less than the other two sides of the triangle, but shall contain a greater
angle. 3. Prop. XXXII.-If a side of any triangle be produced, the exterior
angle is equal to the two interior and opposite angles; and the three interior angles of every triangle are together equal to two right angles.
4. Enunciate and prove the corollaries of the last proposition. 5. Prop. XLIV.– To a given straight line to apply a parallelogram,
which shall be equal to a given triangle, and have one of its angles
equal to a given rectilineal angle. 6. The quadrilateral figure whose diameters bisect each other is a parallelogram.
Book II. 7. PROP. VI.-If a straight line be bisected and produced to any point,
the rectangle contained by the whole line thus produced, and the part of it produced, together with the square of half the line bisected, is equal to the square of the straight line which is made up of the
half and the part produced. E. PROP. XII.-In obtuse-angled triangles, if a perpendicular be drawn
from either of the acute angles to the opposite side, produced, the square of the side subtending the obtuse angle is greater than the squares of the sides containing the obtuse angle by twice the rectangle contained by the side upon which, when produced, the perpendicular falls, and the straight line intercepted without the
triangle between the perpendicular and the obtuse angle. 9. In any isosceles triangle ABC, if AD be drawn from the vertex to
any point in the base, show that the difference of the squares on AB and AD is equal to the rectangle of BD and CD.
BOOK III. 10. PROP. IX.- If a point be taken within a circle, from which there fall
more than two equal straight lines to the circumference, that point
is the centre of the circle. 11. PROP. XX. — The angle at the centre of a circle is double of the angle
at the circumference upon the same base, that is, upon the same
part of the circumference. 12. PROP. XXXI.- In a circle, the angle in a semicircle is a right angle;
but the angle in a segment greater than a semicircle is less than a right angle; and the angle in a segment less than a semicircle is
greater than a right angle. 13. ABC is a triangle of which the angle A is acute; show that the square
of B C is less than the squares of AB, AC, by twice the square of
the line drawn from A to touch the circle on BC as diameter. 14. If a quadrilateral is described about a circle, show that the angles
subtended at the centre of the circle by two opposite sides of it are together equal to two right angles.
Used in l'oluntary Examinations.
Book IV. 1. Prop. IV.- To inscribe a circle in a given triangle. 2. PROP. XII. - To describe an equilateral and equiangular pentagon
about a given circle. 3. Inscribe (1) a square, (2) a circle in a given quadrant of a circle.
BOOK VI. 4. Give Euclid's definition of proportion. 5. Prop. I. — Triangles of the same altitude are one to the other as
their bases. 6. Prop. VI. - If two triangles have one angle of the one equal to one
angle of the other, and the sides about the equal angles proportionals, the triangles shall be equiangular, and shall have those
angles equal which are opposite to the homologous sides. 7. Prop. XVIII. — Upon a given straight line to describe a rectilineal
figure similar, and similarly situated, to a given rectilineal figure. 8. PROP. XXII. - If four straight lines be proportionals, the similar
rectilineal figures similarly described upon them shall also be
proportionals. 9. If two circles touch each other externally, the part of their common
tangent between its points of contact is a mean proportional between the diameters.
BOOK XI. 10. Prop. IV. - If a straight line stand at right angles to each of two
straight lines in the point of their intersection, it shall also be at right angles to the plane which passes through them, that is, to the
plane in which they are. 11. PROP. VIII. - If two straight lines be parallel, and one of them is at
right angles to a plane, the other also shall be at right angles to
the same plane. 12. PROP. XX. - If a solid angle be contained by three plane angles, any
two of them are greater than the third. 13. Two planes being perpendicular to each other, draw a third perpen
dicular to both.
Used in Voluntary Examinations. (Time occupied, from
.) 1. Multiply
(1) 2B + 2 xy + 2 x y2 + yol by sus – 2x2y + 2 x y’ — 43
81 64 by a – 31 a3 8 73
4 ab by 26
20 (3) x yt + x y z (x y z): – yz by x + (y z)! 3. Show that the product of two quantities equals that of their greatest
common measure and least common multiple. Find the greatest common measure of
35 203 + 47 2? + 13 x + 1 and 42 x4 + 41 23 9 x? - 9 x - 1
(x+2) -4 (- ),
4. Extract the square root of
and explain how the method of extracting the square root of numbers is deduced
from the Algebraical rule. 5. Investigate a method for obtaining the cube root of an Algebraical
expression, and find the cube root of
3x + 7 2 x - 7 (1)
7. A watch gains as much as a clock loses; and 1798 hours by the clock
are equivalent to 1802 hours by the watch: Find the rates of the
clock and watch. 8. A certain number of sovereigns, shillings, and sixpences, together
amount to 81. 6s. 6d., and the amount of the shillings is a guinea less than that of the sovereigns, and a guinea and a half more than
that of the sixpences: Find the numbers of each coin., 9. Two minutes after a railway train has left a station A, where it had
stopped 7 minutes, it meets an express train which set out from a station B when the former was 28 miles on the other side of A; the express travels at double the rate of the other, and performs the journey from B to A in 24 hour: Find the rate of each train,
and the distance from A to B. 10. Investigate an expression for the sum of n terms of an Arithmetic
progression, and for the limit of the sum of an infinite Geometric
progression. In what case is the latter possible ? 11. Sum the following series :1
to n terms, 3