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iron, tin, and zinc respectively; and state any facts regarding the modification of the result by the purity or the alloying of any of
these metals. 7. Define the terms temperature, specific heat, and latent heat, and the
term xolume as applied to a gas. 8. What law has been asserted connecting the specific heats of the
several elements? How far is it universal ? 9. What is meant by the theoretical density of carbon vapour ? Within
what limits is its determination true, and on what assumptions is
that determination based ? 10. Describe the oxides (1) of carbon, (2) of iron; and give a complete
account of the most important oxides of chlorine. 11. Phosphoric acid is tribasic. Give illustrations of each type of its
salts. It undergoes modifications by the action of heat. Under
what circumstances, and what types of salts result ? 12. What is meant by the empiric as distinguished from the rational
formula of a substance? Illustrate each by means of acetic acid. 13. Describe the chemical changes involved in the process called the
vinous fermentation. 14. The analyst employs sulphuretted hydrogen to separate metals from
each other. Into what groups does he thus divide them, and what
principles are involved in the separation? 15. A solution contains lead, tin, nickel, iron, zinc, magnesia, potash, with
hydrochloric and nitric acids. Give in detail the process of analys
ing (qualitatively) such a solution. 16. Give a series of illustrations, (1) from minerals, (2) from the products
of the laboratory, of isomorphism, dimorphism, allotropism, and isomerism.
Set to Candidates for the Office of the Committee of Council
IN THIS EXAMINATION NATURAL SCIENCE IS NOT PRESCRIBED, BUT MAY
BE SELECTED BY ANY CANDIDATE WHO HAS MADE IT HIS ESPECIAL STUDY," WITH THE VIEW OF DISPLAYING HIS INDUSTRY AND INTELLIGENCE
1. Enumerate the various kinds of levers, and state the general relation
between the power and weight, when balanced on a lever. 2. Explain fully the principle of the graduation in the common and in
the Danish steelyard. 3. What are the three laws of motion in dynamics, and how is their
truth established ? 4. Explain the construction and use of a common barometer and its
vernier. Show also how a self-registering thermometer may be constructed.
5. Define specific gravity, and give a method by which the specific
gravity of a body lighter than the fluid in which it is weighed
to a piece of wood which weighs 16 ounces in vacuo, and the
gravity of the wood. 6. Explain the following terms : equator, ecliptic, zenith, solstice, me
ridian, meridian line, nadir, horizon, perihelion, solstitial colure,
magnetic variation, compression of the earth. 7. Explain how it is that in sailing round the world a day is either lost
(1) The changes of the seasons.
(6) The phases of the moon. 9. State concisely the principal arguments by which it may be proved
(1) that the earth moves round its own axis; (2) that it moves round
the sun. 10. Explain fully why the clock is sometimes before and sometimes
behind the sun. How often are they together? What is this phe
nomenon called ? 11. On the 31st January, when it is 3:15 P.M. at Dublin, Lat. 53.20,
Long. 6·15, – what is the hour and season at Rio Janeiro, S.
Lat. 23°. W. Long. 43° ? 12. Describe the common astronomical telescope, and show how its mag
nifying power may be measured. 13. How is a telescope made achromatic ? 14. What are the various effects produced on bodies by heat ? What
exception is there to the law that the bulk of bodies increases with their temperature? What result would follow if this exception did
not exist ? 15. What hypotheses have been framed as to the formation of coal ?
Which do you prefer? Give your reasons.
Another paper :1. Explain the principle of the mechanical power known as the wheel
and axle. How is the principle practically employed for obtaining
large mechanical advantage ? 2. Illustrate, by reference to the inclined plane and the screw, the saying,
· What is gained in power is lost in time.” 3. What are the requisites of a good balance ? Explain popularly the
means practically employed for securing them. 4. Enunciate the first and second laws of motion, and state some con
siderations which suggest their truth. How is their truth finally
established ? 5. Explain the nature of impact between two elastic bodies. If one billiard ball moving at the rate of 4 feet per second overtakes
CIVIL ENGINEERING-VOLUNTARY EXAMINATION.
another similar ball moving at the rate of 1 foot per second, deter
mine their motions after impact, their elasticity being ). 6. Describe and explain the principle of Bramah's press, and for any
given machine calculate the mechanical advantage. 7. Explain, by a figure or otherwise, how the length of the day at a place
varies, and how it is that the sun does not always rise and set at the
same points of the horizon. 8. Give an explanation of the tides, and account for spring and neap
tides. Can you mention any local tidal peculiarities? 9. How would the present arrangement of the seasons be affected if the
(1) Were perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic?
(3) Pointed always towards the sun ? 10. Explain what is meant by the term refraction. What effect does it
(1) The apparent position of a star ?
(3) The vertical diameter ? 11. When light is incident on glass, into what portions is it divided ?
State the laws of reflection and refraction. Can you give any account of the two great hypotheses which have been framed to account for
the phenomena of light ? 12. Describe Herchel's telescope, and explain its advantages and dis
advantages. Trace the course of a pencil of rays through it from
an external point to the eye. 13. Coal has sometimes been accounted for as the result of drift by
water of masses of vegetable matter, sometimes as an accumulation of such matter by growth in situ. What hypotheses do these views
involve, and what circumstances lend probability to each view ? 14. What are the usual characteristics of a mineral vein? How far is its
wealth found to depend on the rock it traverses ? Describe the
methods adopted by the practical miner for the discovery of a lode. 15. State the law of multiple proportions, and illustrate it by means of the
oxides of (1) sulphur, (2) carbon, (3) iron. 16. Show how to test a solution for silver, soda, and arsenic.
*Used in a Voluntary Examination. 1. Describe what is meant by parallel motion in machinery. 2. Explain the principle upon which Nasmyth's steam hammer is de
signed. 3. Explain the principles upon which Bramah's hydraulic press is de
signed. 4. State what considerations limit the thickness of metal in a cylindrical
hydraulic press. 5. Explain the principles of the construction of a Cornish engine.
6. Define the term “ horse-power.” 7. What is Tredgold's rule for the dimensions of safety-valves in low
pressure engines ? 8. The diameter of the cylinder of a locomotive engine is 16 inches, the
length of stroke 21 inches, the driving-wheel is 6 feet in diameter. What would be the forcę applied at the circumference of the wheel
when worked to a pressure of 100 lbs. per square inch ? 9. State the object of the variable cut off, and of the link motion in high
pressure engines. 10. Describe a Daniel's constant battery, and a Smee's battery. 11. What is an amalgamated zinc plate, and how is it prepared ? 12. Show the general expression for the force of a voltaic current in a
circuit in terms of the “ electro-motive power of each element, the No. of elements, the resistance of the liquid, the distance between the plates, and their sectional area, the length of the connecting
wire, and its sectional area.”— - OLAM's Law. 13. Describe the principles upon which Cooke and Wheatstone's needle
instrument is founded. 14. Describe the principles upon which Morse's instrument is founded. 15. Explain the meaning of the term induced currents.
UNDER ONE AT
Set to a Candidate for the Admiralty,
66 WHO BEING REQUIRED TO
SOME PROFICIENCY IN A SUBJECT
LEAST OF THE FOLLOWING HEADS: (1) LATIN, OR A MODERN LANGUAGE; (2) THE LEADING POINTS OF ENGLISH OR MODERN History ; (3) ALGEBRA, EUCLID, OR ANY BRANCH OF MATHEMATICS OR SCIENCE," ELECTED TO BE EXAMINED IN
CIVIL ENGINEERING AS A BRANCH OF SCIENCE. 1. A beam of white pine'timber, 14 inches deep, is placed on two supports
14 feet apart. A weight of 6 tons is applied at the centre. What should be the breadth of the beam to allow a deflection of adth of an inch to the foot?
N.B.— The constant for white pine being .0125. 2. What is the meaning of the term “ horse power ?" And explain
what is meant by the “duty” of a steam-engine. 3. What is the use of the indicator-card, and how is it applied ? 4. What is the use of the air-pump in a condensing engine? 5. What are the principles which guide engineers in designing furnaces
adapted to consume smoke ? 6. Describe the several indices which are in use for exhibiting pressure
in boilers. 7. What is meant by parallel motion ? 8. A cylindrical boiler is required to be constructed 3 ft 6 in. in diameter,
capable of resisting 100 lbs. pressure per square inch. Assuming the tenacity of iron to be 5 tons per square inch, what should be the thickness of the plates ?
(The ends need not be considered.)
Translation from Greek may be selected as a branch of
Examination by Candidates for the
Department of Science and Art.
PASSAGES GIVEN TO BE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISA.
Τα δε Δημοσθένει τοιόνδε τι οι Μεσσήνιοι παρήνουν, όπερ και το πρώτον αναδιδάσκοντες αυτών των Αιτωλών ως εΐη ραδία ή αίρεσις είναι εκέλευον ότι τάχιστα επί τας κώμας, και μη μένειν έως αν ξύμπαντες αθροισθέντες αντιτάξωνται, τήν δ' εν ποσίν αεί πειράσθαι αιρεϊν. ο δε τούτοις τι πεισθείς και τη τύχη ελπίσας, ότι ουδέν αυτώ ήναντιούτο, τους Λοκρούς ουκ αναμείνας ούς αυτο άδει προσβοηθήσαι (ψιλών γάρ ακοντιστών ενδεής ήν μάλιστα) εχώρει επί Αίγιτίου, και κατά κράτος αιρεϊ έπιών. υπέφευγαν γάρ οι άνθρωποι, και εκάθηντο επί των λόφων των υπέρ της πόλεως" ήν γάρ εφ' υψηλών χωρίων, απέχουσα της θαλάσσης όγδοήκοντα σταδίους μάλιστα, οι δε Αιτωλοι (βεβoηθηκότες γαρ ήδη ήσαν επί το Αιγίτιον) προσέβαλλον τους Αθηναίους και τους ξυμμάχοις καταθίοντες από των λόφων άλλοι άλλοθεν, και έσηκόντιζον, και ότε μεν επίοι το των Αθηναίων στρατόπεδον, υπεχώρουν, αναχωρούσι δε επίκειντο και ήν επί πολύ τοιαύτη ή μάχη, διώξεις τε και υπαγωγαι, εν οίς αμφοτέροις ήσσους ήσαν οι 'Αθηναιοι.
Μέχρι μέν ούν οι τοξόται είχόν τε τα βέλη αυτούς και οδοί τε ήσαν χρήσθαι, οι δε άντείχον τοξευόμενοι γάρ οι Αιτωλοί, άνθρωποι ψιλοί, άνεστέλλοντο: επειδή δε του τε τοξάρχου αποθανόντος ούτοι διεσκεδάσθησαν, και αυτοι έκεκμήκεσαν επί πολύ τα αυτώ πόνω ξυνεχόμενοι, οι τε Αιτωλοί ενέκειντο και έσηκόντιζον, ούτω δή τραπόμενοι έφευγον, και εσπίπτοντες ές τε χαράδρας ανεκβάτους και χωρία ων ουκ ήσαν έμπειροι διεφθείροντο και γαρ ο ηγεμών αυτοϊς των οδών, Xρόμων και Μεσσήνιος, εσύγχανε τεθνηκώς.-THUCYDIDES.
Other papers :-
X. 143-167. Thucydides :
Lib. iv. cap. 21, 22.
Lib. iv. cap. 78 (to δρόμω). Sophocles :-Ajax, 845-865. Euripides :- Electra, 610-635.