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6. Coal has been accounted for sometimes as the result of drift, by water, of masses of vegetable matter; sometimes as an accumu lation of such matter by growth in situ. What hypotheses do these views involve, and what circumstances lend probability to each view?

7. Give an accurate description of the stigmaria and the sigillaria, and of the facts that prove their mutual relation, with the most characteristic mode of their occurrence in the strata.

8. Describe the mountain limestone formation. How is it distributed over the world?

9. By what observations and arguments does the geologist seek to determine the period of elevation of a mountain chain? Illustrate this

by some example.

10. Show that, by the amount and by the characters of the distribution of organic remains in one and the same rock in different localities, we may predicate facts concerning its oceanic and littoral deposition, pointing to the limits of the sea in which it was formed. Give illustrations of this.

11. Give a description of the most important characteristics common to the trilobites, and give the history of their distribution in time. 12. What are the usual characters of a mineral vein ?

How far is its
Describe the

wealth found to depend on the rock it traverses ?
methods adopted by the practical miner for the discovery of a

13. Describe the structure of the ammonite, and give an account of the distribution of its species in time.

14. Trace the changes in the character of the zoology during the oolitic period, as illustrated by the reptilia and the cephalopoda.

15. Describe some of the fossils characteristic of the chalk.

16. Give a sketch of the geology of the Malvern Hills.


Prepared for an Examination of Candidates for the Colonial Office.

1. Define the term element. What elements are gascous, what are liquids, under the ordinary conditions of the globe? What changes do these undergo by considerable alteration of such conditions? 2. State the law of multiple proportions; and illustrate it by means of the oxides (1) of nitrogen (2) of manganese.

3. Give the chemical names of, and write in formula, alum, common salt, green vitriol, calomel, corrosive sublimate, and chloride of lime. 4. The equivalent of aluminium is 137. How much per cent of oxygen, of sulphur, and of aluminium is contained in the anhydrous norinal (or neutral) sulphate of alumina ?

5. Of what gases does the atmosphere consist? Give any accurate method of effecting its analysis; and state the results of this analysis.

6. Explain the changes resulting from the action (1) of hydrochloric acid, (2) of strong nitric acid, (3) of very dilute nitric acid, on gold,

iron, tin, and zinc respectively; and state any facts regarding the modification of the result by the purity or the alloying of any of these metals.

7. Define the terms temperature, specific heat, and latent heat, and the term volume as applied to a gas.

8. What law has been asserted connecting the specific heats of the several elements? How far is it universal?

9. What is meant by the theoretical density of carbon vapour? Within what limits is its determination true, and on what assumptions is that determination based?

10. Describe the oxides (1) of carbon, (2) of iron; and give a complete account of the most important oxides of chlorine.

11. Phosphoric acid is tribasic.

Give illustrations of each type of its salts. It undergoes modifications by the action of heat. Under what circumstances, and what types of salts result?

12. What is meant by the empiric as distinguished from the rational formula of a substance? Illustrate each by means of acetic acid. 13. Describe the chemical changes involved in the process called the vinous fermentation.

14. The analyst employs sulphuretted hydrogen to separate metals from each other. Into what groups does he thus divide them, and what principles are involved in the separation?

15. A solution contains lead, tin, nickel, iron, zinc, magnesia, potash, with hydrochloric and nitric acids. Give in detail the process of analysing (qualitatively) such a solution.

16. Give a series of illustrations, (1) from minerals, (2) from the products of the laboratory, of isomorphism, dimorphism, allotropism, and isomerism.


Set to Candidates for the Office of the Committee of Council on Education.

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1. Enumerate the various kinds of levers, and state the general relation between the power and weight, when balanced on a lever.

2. Explain fully the principle of the graduation in the common and in the Danish steelyard.

3. What are the three laws of motion in dynamics, and how is their truth established?

4. Explain the construction and use of a common barometer and its vernier. Show also how a self-registering thermometer may be constructed.

5. Define specific gravity, and give a method by which the specific gravity of a body lighter than the fluid in which it is weighed may be found.

A piece of metal whose weight in water is 12 ounces is attached to a piece of wood which weighs 16 ounces in vacuo, and the weight of the two in water is 8 ounces; find the specific gravity of the wood.

6. Explain the following terms: equator, ecliptic, zenith, solstice, meridian, meridian line, nadir, horizon, perihelion, solstitial colure, magnetic variation, compression of the earth.

7. Explain how it is that in sailing round the world a day is either lost or gained.

8. Explain the following phenomena :—

(1) The changes of the seasons.

(2) The different lengths of day and night.

(3) The comparative absence of twilight in the tropics.

(4) The trade winds.

(5) The harvest moon.

(6) The phases of the moon.

9. State concisely the principal arguments by which it may be proved (1) that the earth moves round its own axis; (2) that it moves round the sun.

10. Explain fully why the clock is sometimes before and sometimes behind the sun. How often are they together? What is this phenomenon called?

11. On the 31st January,- when it is 3.15 P.M. at Dublin, Lat. 53-20, Long. 615,- what is the hour and season at Rio Janeiro, S. Lat. 23°. W. Long. 43° ?

12. Describe the common astronomical telescope, and show how its magnifying power may be measured.

13. How is a telescope made achromatic?

14. What are the various effects produced on bodies by heat? What exception is there to the law that the bulk of bodies increases with their temperature? What result would follow if this exception did not exist?

15. What hypotheses have been framed as to the formation of coal? Which do you prefer? Give your reasons.

Another paper :—

1. Explain the principle of the mechanical power known as the wheel and axle. How is the principle practically employed for obtaining large mechanical advantage?

2. Illustrate, by reference to the inclined plane and the screw,


"What is gained in power is lost in time."

the saying,

3. What are the requisites of a good balance? Explain popularly the means practically employed for securing them.

4. Enunciate the first and second laws of motion, and state some considerations which suggest their truth. How is their truth finally established?

5. Explain the nature of impact between two elastic bodies. If one billiard ball moving at the rate of 4 feet per second overtakes




another similar ball moving at the rate of 1 foot per second, determine their motions after impact, their elasticity being.

6. Describe and explain the principle of Bramah's press, and for any given machine calculate the mechanical advantage.

7. Explain, by a figure or otherwise, how the length of the day at a place varies, and how it is that the sun does not always rise and set at the same points of the horizon.

8. Give an explanation of the tides, and account for spring and neap tides. Can you mention any local tidal peculiarities?

9. How would the present arrangement of the seasons be affected if the earth's axis

(1) Were perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic?

(2) Retaining its parallelism, were in the plane of the ecliptic?

(3) Pointed always towards the sun?

10. Explain what is meant by the term refraction. What effect does it produce upon —

(1) The apparent position of a star?

(2) The horizontal diameter of the sun or moon?

(3) The vertical diameter ?

11. When light is incident on glass, into what portions is it divided? State the laws of reflection and refraction. Can you give any account of the two great hypotheses which have been framed to account for the phenomena of light?

12. Describe Herchel's telescope, and explain its advantages and disadvantages. Trace the course of a pencil of rays through it from an external point to the eye.

13. Coal has sometimes been accounted for as the result of drift by water of masses of vegetable matter, sometimes as an accumulation of such matter by growth in situ. What hypotheses do these views involve, and what circumstances lend probability to each view? 14. What are the usual characteristics of a mineral vein? How far is its wealth found to depend on the rock it traverses? Describe the methods adopted by the practical miner for the discovery of a lode. 15. State the law of multiple proportions, and illustrate it by means of the oxides of (1) sulphur, (2) carbon, (3) iron.

16. Show how to test a solution for silver, soda, and arsenic.


Used in a Voluntary Examination.

1. Describe what is meant by parallel motion in machinery.

2. Explain the principle upon which Nasmyth's steam hammer is designed.

3. Explain the principles upon which Bramah's hydraulic press is designed.

4. State what considerations limit the thickness of metal in a cylindrical

hydraulic press.

5. Explain the principles of the construction of a Cornish engine.

6. Define the term "horse-power."

7. What is Tredgold's rule for the dimensions of safety-valves in lowpressure engines?

8. The diameter of the cylinder of a locomotive engine is 16 inches, the length of stroke 21 inches, the driving-wheel is 6 feet in diameter. What would be the force applied at the circumference of the wheel when worked to a pressure of 100 lbs. per square inch?

9. State the object of the variable cut off, and of the link motion in highpressure engines.

10. Describe a Daniel's constant battery, and a Smee's battery.

11. What is an amalgamated zinc plate, and how is it prepared ? 12. Show the general expression for the force of a voltaic current in a circuit in terms of the "electro-motive power of each element, the No. of elements, the resistance of the liquid, the distance between the plates, and their sectional area, the length of the connecting wire, and its sectional area."- -OLAM'S Law. 13. Describe the principles upon which Cooke and Wheatstone's needle instrument is founded.

14. Describe the principles upon which Morse's instrument is founded. 15. Explain the meaning of the term induced currents.

Set to a Candidate for the Admiralty,




1. A beam of white pine timber, 14 inches deep, is placed on two supports 14 feet apart. A weight of 6 tons is applied at the centre. What should be the breadth of the beam to allow a deflection of th of an inch to the foot?

N.B. The constant for white pine being 0125. 2. What is the meaning of the term "horse power?" what is meant by the "duty" of a steam-engine.

And explain

3. What is the use of the indicator-card, and how is it applied?

4. What is the use of the air-pump in a condensing engine?

5. What are the principles which guide engineers in designing furnaces adapted to consume smoke?

6. Describe the several indices which are in use for exhibiting pressure

in boilers.

7. What is meant by parallel motion ?

8. A cylindrical boiler is required to be constructed 3 ft 6 in. in diameter, capable of resisting 100 lbs. pressure per square inch. Assuming the tenacity of iron to be 5 tons per square inch, what should be the thickness of the plates?

(The ends need not be considered.)

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