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iron, tin, and zinc respectively; and state any facts regarding the modification of the result by the purity or the alloying of any of

these metals. 7. Define the terms temperature, specific heat, and latent heat, and the

term xolume as applied to a gas. 8. What law has been asserted connecting the specific heats of the

several elements? How far is it universal ? 9. What is meant by the theoretical density of carbon vapour ? Within

what limits is its determination true, and on what assumptions is

that determination based ? 10. Describe the oxides (1) of carbon, (2) of iron; and give a complete

account of the most important oxides of chlorine. 11. Phosphoric acid is tribasic. Give illustrations of each type of its

salts. It undergoes modifications by the action of heat. Under

what circumstances, and what types of salts result ? 12. What is meant by the empiric as distinguished from the rational

formula of a substance? Illustrate each by means of acetic acid. 13. Describe the chemical changes involved in the process called the

vinous fermentation. 14. The analyst employs sulphuretted hydrogen to separate metals from

each other. Into what groups does he thus divide them, and what

principles are involved in the separation? 15. A solution contains lead, tin, nickel, iron, zinc, magnesia, potash, with

hydrochloric and nitric acids. Give in detail the process of analys

ing (qualitatively) such a solution. 16. Give a series of illustrations, (1) from minerals, (2) from the products

of the laboratory, of isomorphism, dimorphism, allotropism, and isomerism.

a

NATURAL SCIENCE.

Set to Candidates for the Office of the Committee of Council

on Education.

66

IN THIS EXAMINATION NATURAL SCIENCE IS NOT PRESCRIBED, BUT MAY

BE SELECTED BY ANY CANDIDATE WHO HAS MADE IT HIS ESPECIAL STUDY," WITH THE VIEW OF DISPLAYING HIS INDUSTRY AND INTELLIGENCE

1. Enumerate the various kinds of levers, and state the general relation

between the power and weight, when balanced on a lever. 2. Explain fully the principle of the graduation in the common and in

the Danish steelyard. 3. What are the three laws of motion in dynamics, and how is their

truth established ? 4. Explain the construction and use of a common barometer and its

vernier. Show also how a self-registering thermometer may be constructed.

5. Define specific gravity, and give a method by which the specific

gravity of a body lighter than the fluid in which it is weighed
may be found.
A piece of metal whose weight in water is 12 ounces is attached

to a piece of wood which weighs 16 ounces in vacuo, and the
weight of the two in water is 8 ounces; find the specific

gravity of the wood. 6. Explain the following terms : equator, ecliptic, zenith, solstice, me

ridian, meridian line, nadir, horizon, perihelion, solstitial colure,

magnetic variation, compression of the earth. 7. Explain how it is that in sailing round the world a day is either lost

or gained.
8. Explain the following phenomena:-

(1) The changes of the seasons.
(2) The different lengths of day and night.
(3) The comparative absence of twilight in the tropics.
(4) The trade winds.
(5) The harvest moon.

(6) The phases of the moon. 9. State concisely the principal arguments by which it may be proved

(1) that the earth moves round its own axis; (2) that it moves round

the sun. 10. Explain fully why the clock is sometimes before and sometimes

behind the sun. How often are they together? What is this phe

nomenon called ? 11. On the 31st January, when it is 3:15 P.M. at Dublin, Lat. 53.20,

Long. 6·15, – what is the hour and season at Rio Janeiro, S.

Lat. 23°. W. Long. 43° ? 12. Describe the common astronomical telescope, and show how its mag

nifying power may be measured. 13. How is a telescope made achromatic ? 14. What are the various effects produced on bodies by heat ? What

exception is there to the law that the bulk of bodies increases with their temperature? What result would follow if this exception did

not exist ? 15. What hypotheses have been framed as to the formation of coal ?

Which do you prefer? Give your reasons.

Another paper :1. Explain the principle of the mechanical power known as the wheel

and axle. How is the principle practically employed for obtaining

large mechanical advantage ? 2. Illustrate, by reference to the inclined plane and the screw, the saying,

· What is gained in power is lost in time.” 3. What are the requisites of a good balance ? Explain popularly the

means practically employed for securing them. 4. Enunciate the first and second laws of motion, and state some con

siderations which suggest their truth. How is their truth finally

established ? 5. Explain the nature of impact between two elastic bodies. If one billiard ball moving at the rate of 4 feet per second overtakes

н

98

CIVIL ENGINEERING-VOLUNTARY EXAMINATION.

another similar ball moving at the rate of 1 foot per second, deter

mine their motions after impact, their elasticity being ). 6. Describe and explain the principle of Bramah's press, and for any

given machine calculate the mechanical advantage. 7. Explain, by a figure or otherwise, how the length of the day at a place

varies, and how it is that the sun does not always rise and set at the

same points of the horizon. 8. Give an explanation of the tides, and account for spring and neap

tides. Can you mention any local tidal peculiarities? 9. How would the present arrangement of the seasons be affected if the

earth's axis

(1) Were perpendicular to the plane of the ecliptic?
(2) Retaining its parallelism, were in the plane of the ecliptic ?

(3) Pointed always towards the sun ? 10. Explain what is meant by the term refraction. What effect does it

produce upon

(1) The apparent position of a star ?
(2) The horizontal diameter of the sun or moon ?

(3) The vertical diameter ? 11. When light is incident on glass, into what portions is it divided ?

State the laws of reflection and refraction. Can you give any account of the two great hypotheses which have been framed to account for

the phenomena of light ? 12. Describe Herchel's telescope, and explain its advantages and dis

advantages. Trace the course of a pencil of rays through it from

an external point to the eye. 13. Coal has sometimes been accounted for as the result of drift by

water of masses of vegetable matter, sometimes as an accumulation of such matter by growth in situ. What hypotheses do these views

involve, and what circumstances lend probability to each view ? 14. What are the usual characteristics of a mineral vein? How far is its

wealth found to depend on the rock it traverses ? Describe the

methods adopted by the practical miner for the discovery of a lode. 15. State the law of multiple proportions, and illustrate it by means of the

oxides of (1) sulphur, (2) carbon, (3) iron. 16. Show how to test a solution for silver, soda, and arsenic.

CIVIL ENGINEERING.

*Used in a Voluntary Examination. 1. Describe what is meant by parallel motion in machinery. 2. Explain the principle upon which Nasmyth's steam hammer is de

signed. 3. Explain the principles upon which Bramah's hydraulic press is de

signed. 4. State what considerations limit the thickness of metal in a cylindrical

hydraulic press. 5. Explain the principles of the construction of a Cornish engine.

6. Define the term “ horse-power.” 7. What is Tredgold's rule for the dimensions of safety-valves in low

pressure engines ? 8. The diameter of the cylinder of a locomotive engine is 16 inches, the

length of stroke 21 inches, the driving-wheel is 6 feet in diameter. What would be the forcę applied at the circumference of the wheel

when worked to a pressure of 100 lbs. per square inch ? 9. State the object of the variable cut off, and of the link motion in high

pressure engines. 10. Describe a Daniel's constant battery, and a Smee's battery. 11. What is an amalgamated zinc plate, and how is it prepared ? 12. Show the general expression for the force of a voltaic current in a

circuit in terms of the “ electro-motive power of each element, the No. of elements, the resistance of the liquid, the distance between the plates, and their sectional area, the length of the connecting

wire, and its sectional area.”— - OLAM's Law. 13. Describe the principles upon which Cooke and Wheatstone's needle

instrument is founded. 14. Describe the principles upon which Morse's instrument is founded. 15. Explain the meaning of the term induced currents.

SHOW

COMPRISED

UNDER ONE AT

Set to a Candidate for the Admiralty,

66 WHO BEING REQUIRED TO

SOME PROFICIENCY IN A SUBJECT

LEAST OF THE FOLLOWING HEADS: (1) LATIN, OR A MODERN LANGUAGE; (2) THE LEADING POINTS OF ENGLISH OR MODERN History ; (3) ALGEBRA, EUCLID, OR ANY BRANCH OF MATHEMATICS OR SCIENCE," ELECTED TO BE EXAMINED IN

CIVIL ENGINEERING AS A BRANCH OF SCIENCE. 1. A beam of white pine'timber, 14 inches deep, is placed on two supports

14 feet apart. A weight of 6 tons is applied at the centre. What should be the breadth of the beam to allow a deflection of adth of an inch to the foot?

N.B.— The constant for white pine being .0125. 2. What is the meaning of the term “ horse power ?" And explain

what is meant by the “duty” of a steam-engine. 3. What is the use of the indicator-card, and how is it applied ? 4. What is the use of the air-pump in a condensing engine? 5. What are the principles which guide engineers in designing furnaces

adapted to consume smoke ? 6. Describe the several indices which are in use for exhibiting pressure

in boilers. 7. What is meant by parallel motion ? 8. A cylindrical boiler is required to be constructed 3 ft 6 in. in diameter,

capable of resisting 100 lbs. pressure per square inch. Assuming the tenacity of iron to be 5 tons per square inch, what should be the thickness of the plates ?

(The ends need not be considered.)

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LANGUAGES.

GREEK.

Translation from Greek may be selected as a branch of

Examination by Candidates for the
Colonial Office.
Ecclesiastical Commission.

|

Department of Science and Art.
Board of Trade.

PASSAGES GIVEN TO BE TRANSLATED INTO ENGLISA.

Τα δε Δημοσθένει τοιόνδε τι οι Μεσσήνιοι παρήνουν, όπερ και το πρώτον αναδιδάσκοντες αυτών των Αιτωλών ως εΐη ραδία ή αίρεσις είναι εκέλευον ότι τάχιστα επί τας κώμας, και μη μένειν έως αν ξύμπαντες αθροισθέντες αντιτάξωνται, τήν δ' εν ποσίν αεί πειράσθαι αιρεϊν. ο δε τούτοις τι πεισθείς και τη τύχη ελπίσας, ότι ουδέν αυτώ ήναντιούτο, τους Λοκρούς ουκ αναμείνας ούς αυτο άδει προσβοηθήσαι (ψιλών γάρ ακοντιστών ενδεής ήν μάλιστα) εχώρει επί Αίγιτίου, και κατά κράτος αιρεϊ έπιών. υπέφευγαν γάρ οι άνθρωποι, και εκάθηντο επί των λόφων των υπέρ της πόλεως" ήν γάρ εφ' υψηλών χωρίων, απέχουσα της θαλάσσης όγδοήκοντα σταδίους μάλιστα, οι δε Αιτωλοι (βεβoηθηκότες γαρ ήδη ήσαν επί το Αιγίτιον) προσέβαλλον τους Αθηναίους και τους ξυμμάχοις καταθίοντες από των λόφων άλλοι άλλοθεν, και έσηκόντιζον, και ότε μεν επίοι το των Αθηναίων στρατόπεδον, υπεχώρουν, αναχωρούσι δε επίκειντο και ήν επί πολύ τοιαύτη ή μάχη, διώξεις τε και υπαγωγαι, εν οίς αμφοτέροις ήσσους ήσαν οι 'Αθηναιοι.

Μέχρι μέν ούν οι τοξόται είχόν τε τα βέλη αυτούς και οδοί τε ήσαν χρήσθαι, οι δε άντείχον τοξευόμενοι γάρ οι Αιτωλοί, άνθρωποι ψιλοί, άνεστέλλοντο: επειδή δε του τε τοξάρχου αποθανόντος ούτοι διεσκεδάσθησαν, και αυτοι έκεκμήκεσαν επί πολύ τα αυτώ πόνω ξυνεχόμενοι, οι τε Αιτωλοί ενέκειντο και έσηκόντιζον, ούτω δή τραπόμενοι έφευγον, και εσπίπτοντες ές τε χαράδρας ανεκβάτους και χωρία ων ουκ ήσαν έμπειροι διεφθείροντο και γαρ ο ηγεμών αυτοϊς των οδών, Xρόμων και Μεσσήνιος, εσύγχανε τεθνηκώς.-THUCYDIDES.

Other papers :-
Homer :-
Iliad, ix. 182-204.

ix. 620-642.

X. 143-167. Thucydides :

Lib. iv. cap. 21, 22.

Lib. iv. cap. 78 (to δρόμω). Sophocles :-Ajax, 845-865. Euripides :- Electra, 610-635.

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