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THE NATIONS

AT WAR

BY

WILLIS J. ABBOT

AUTHOR OF
"PANAMA AND THE CANAL,.
“THE STORY OF OUR NAVY,
"THE STORY OF OUR ARMY”
“AIRCRAFT AND SUBMARINES”

WITH NUMEROUS ILLUSTRATIONS FROM DRAWINGS
BY THE FOREMOST WAR ARTISTS AND PHOTOGRAPHS
TAKEN IN THE FIELD BY EXPERTS OF EVERY NATION

THE 1918 EDITION

LESLIE-JUDGE CO.
PUBLISHERS NEW YORK

Copyright, 1918,
DOUBLEDAY, PAGE & COMPANY.

All Rights Reserved

CONTENTS

CHAPTER 1.
German. Responsibility for the War-Diplomacy and Intrigue–The Austrian
Ultimatum-The Declaration of War-France Springing to Arms—England and
Belgium-Invasion of Belgium-Comparative Military Strength of Belligerents-
British Military Preparations—The Fall of Liège-German “Frightfulness" in Bel-
gium-Louvain-The Rush on Paris-Battle of the Marne ............

CHAPTER II.
Battle of the Aisne–The German Blunder at Calais-Reaching Out on the Coast-
The Occupation of Antwerp-A Populace in Flight--Germans Reach the Sea-Hard
Fighting in Flanders—The French in Alsace-Lorraine-Christmas in the Trenches . ..

31

CHAPTER III. The War in the East-Russia Strikes First-German Troops Called from France - Battle of Tannenburg-First Appearance of Hindenburg—Austria in the War-The Fighting in Poland-Treachery in Russian Camps—The Long Struggle for Warsaw, Sweeping German Successes-Death of Lord Kitchener-Galicia and Bukovina-Distress of Austria-Russia's Internal Weakness—The Monk Rasputin .........

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CHAPTER IV. The Pan-German Plan-The Kaiser's Diplomatic Pilgrimage–The “Goeben” and “Breslau”—Turkey in the War-The Hesitation of Greece—The Crushing of SerbiaRoumania's Overthrow—The Dardanelles-Armenia and Mesopotamia-Fall of Bagdad and Jerusalem ..............................

103

CHAPTER V. The Navies in the War-Zeal of the Germans—British Control the Seas—The End of the Commerce Destroyers-Battle off Falkland Islands-Battle of the Bight of Heligoland-Weddigen's Exploit-Battle of Coronel-Battle off Dogger BankBombardment of British Coastwise Towns-Battle of Jutland ...........

123

CHAPTER VI.
The War in the Air-Duels in the Skies-Raids on England, The United States
Enters Aeronautics—The Brief Boer Revolt-War in Asia and Africa-Fate of the
German Colonies—The Rebellion in Ireland—The Career of the “Einden”—Mucke's
Amazing Retreat ..............................

159

CHAPTER VII. Again the West—The French Offensive in Champagne-The British Operations about Loos and Lens—The Historic Battle of Verdun-Nature of the FortressBoasts of the Germans—“They Shall Not Pass!”—The Road to Verdun-French Victory–Heavy Losses of the Germans-Battle of the Somme-Fighting at Péronne,The British Tanks—Battle of Arras ................. ......

179

INTRODUCTION

To tell the story of the Great War, now approaching the end of its fourth year,

in a single volume is a difficult but by no means an impossible task. .

- The salient features of the struggle, the great clashes of armies, the sharp actions which won this or that point of high vantage for one or the other belligerent can readily be described in swift phrases without sacrifice of the picturesque. Verdun was fought over for more than two years, yet after the first four days of fighting the story of Verdun is but one of persistent attack and dogged resistance along lines that changed hardly a score of yards in as many weeks. The true story of Verdun is the story of the almost spiritual consecration which held the French to its defense so long. But that is a story which takes little time for the telling.

I have seen two volumes given to an account of the Battle of Gettysburg which lasted three days. I have seen, too, eighteen volumes given over to the history of this great war up to the beginning of the year 1917. But the former was a treatise intended for the professional tactician; the latter a very excellent history in which the multitude of military details, interesting chiefly to the specialist, are set forth with so much particularity that the reader can not see the battles for the multitude of subsidiary things by which the picture is obscured.

To Americans, particularly, is a clear, straightforward and brief description of this war a most desirable work. We are in it up to the hilt; in it with a determination to conquer. But nevertheless we are in it somewhat to our own amaze, and the most determined among us may be pardoned if now and again he stops to ask just why a nation loving peace and strongly set against European entanglements should be thus embroiled.

This book tells with painstaking and dispassionate accuracy of the causes of the war, and of the developments that made it inevitable that the United States should take up its part of the bloody burder of which magnificent France, and devoted Britain so long bore the major share. And the author feels that he has fallen short of his fullest purpose if he has not shown that something deeper and more fundamental than the submarine outrages furnished the real reason for the entry of the United States upon a war that shall crush autocracy and militarism and make the world safe for its people.

The political strategy of this war has been no less important, no less interesting than its military operations, and in this book the fullest attention has been paid to this feature. Why Italy was justified in repudiating its ancient alliance with the Teutonic empires; what justification the Allies had for landing troops on Greek soil after denouncing Germany for violating Belgian neutrality; what Bolshevism promised and what it did; why Bagdad was worth fighting for are all matters somewhat in controversy but here made clear.

This war cannot be properly visualized in all its various phases, scenes and characteristics without the lavish use of pictures. The illustrations in this book exceed in number any collection made for an historical work. They are in the main from photographs taken at the front and accurately representative of the scenes and places more

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