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CONTRIBUTORS.

Among the Contributors to this Volume of the Annual Cyclopædia" are the following :

Oscar Fay Adams.

Powers, HORATIO NELSON.
George M. Allen,

Editor of Terre Haute Express.
TERRE HAUTE.
W. B. Alley,

Editor of Colchester Sun.
TRURO.
Albert L. Bartlett.

HAVERHILL.
Jerome A. Barhydt,

Author of "Crayon Portraiture."
PORTRAITS, CRAYON.
Marcus Benjamin, Ph. D.
NATIONAL ACADEMY OF SCIENCES,

and other articles. J. H. A. Bone,

of Cleveland Plaindealer. Ohio. Arthur E. Bostwick, Ph. D.

PHYSICS.
Samuel Bowles,

Editor of Springfield Republican.
SPRINGFIELD, Mass.
Charles Rollin Brainard.

TYPE-WRITERS.
Prof. James C. Brogan.

NEWMAN, John HENRY.
R. B. Brown,

Editor of Zanesville Courier.
ZasesVILLE.
Mrs. Caroline B. Buell,

Corresponding Secretary of W. C. T. U. Woman's CHRISTIAN TEMPERANCE UNION. John Cameron,

Editor of London Advertiser.
LONDON, CANADA.
Mrs. Adelaide A. Claflin,

QUINCY, Mass.

Thomas Campbell-Copeland,

Of United States Census Office.
UNITED STATES CENSUS.
James P. Carey,

Financial Editor of Journal of Commerce.
FINANCIAL REVIEW OF 1890.
John D. Champlin, Jr.,

Editor of “Cyclopedia of Painters and Paintings."
FINE ARTS IN 1890.
Edward L. Chichester.

PHONOGRAPH.
E. D. Cowles,

Editor of Saginaw Courier-Herald.
Saginaw.
Henry Dalby,

Of Montreal Star.
CANADIAN ARTICLES.
George T. Ferris.

BUNCE, OLIVER BELL,

SCHLIEMANN, HENRY. Austin E. Ford,

Editor of Freeman's Journal.
Roman CATHOLIC CHURCH.
Prof. C. W. Foss.

Rock ISLAND.
Rev. William E. Griffis, D.D.,

Author of "The Mikado's Empire."
FOREFATHERS' Day,

JAPAN.
George J. Hagar,

of New Jersey Historical Society.
OBITUARIES, AMERICAN.
Percy St. C. Hamilton,

Editor of Yarmouth Times.
Nova Scotia.
Rev. C. C. Harrington.

KEENE.
Rev, Moses Harvey,

Author of "Text-Book of Newfoundland History."
NEWFOUNDLAND.

T. E. Harwood,

Publisher of Springfield Gazette.
SPRINGFIELD, Ohio.
Ripley Hitchcock,

Author of " Etching in America," "The Madonna

in Art," etc. Hicks, THOMAS. Frank Huntington, Ph. D.

ARTICLES ON EUROPEAN COUNTRIES.
Dr. Abram S. Isaacs,

Editor of Jewish Messenger.
JEWS.
Prof. Charles D. Jameson,

of University of Iowa.
Iowa City.
Mrs. Helen Kendrick Johnson.

BURTON, RICHARD FRANCIS,

FRÉMONT, JOHN CHARLES.
James B. Kenyon.

WATERTOWN.
William H. Larrabee.

ARTICLES ON THE CHURCHES.
Charles H. Lugrin,

Of Department of Agriculture, Fredericton.
NEW BRUNSWICK.
Atherton P. Mason, M. D.

FITCHBURG.
Frederick G. Mather.

ORIGINAL-PACKAGE DECISION,
Tin, DISCOVERIES OF,

and other articles. E. R. Morse,

Editor of Bloomington Leader.
BLOOMINGTON.
Lieut. Arthur P. Nazro, U. S. N.

Naval APPARATUS, New.
Miss Bessie B. Nicholls.
LITERATURE, AMERICAN,

and other articles. S. W. Nichols,

Editor of Jacksonville Journal.
JACKSONVILLE.
Col. Charles L. Norton.

ENGINEERING,
SHOT-GUNS,

and other articles.
Rev. Solomon E. Ochsenford.

LUTHERANS.
Mrs. Evangeline M. O'Connor,

GEOGRAPHICAL PROGRESS IN 1890.
James O'Donnell,

Editor of Jackson Citizen. Jackson.

S. S. Parr,

Superintendent of Schools.
SAINT CLOUD.
Edward J. B. Pense,

Editor of British Whig.
KINGSTON, CANADA.
Col. Frank Place,

Superintendent of Schools.
CORTLAND.
W. D. Pratt,

Editor of Logansport Journal.
LOGANSPORT.
Edward Searing,

President of Mankato Normal School.
MANKATO.
Prof. William M. Sloane,

Formerly Private Secretary to George Bancroft.
BANCROFT, GEORGE,
William Christopher Smith.

ARTICLES ON THE STATES AND TERRITORIES. Rev. J. A. Spencer, D. D.

PROTESTANT EPISCOPAL CHURCH. Robert Stein.

Girls' COÖPERATIVE BOARDING-HOMES.
Chauncey Strong.

KALAMAZOO.
Lewis Swift, LL. D.,

Of Warner Observatory.
ASTRONOMICAL PROGRESS IN 1890.
Robert K. Turnbull.

HORSEMANSHIP.
J. Kendrick Upton,

Of United States Census Office.
UNITED STATES, FINANCES OF THE.
Arthur Dudley Vinton.
BOYCOTT,

and other articles. Louis von Eltz.

Music in 1890.
Gen. James Grant Wilson,

Editor of “ Cyclopædia of American Biography."
TOLLEMACHE, LORD.
Prof. P. C. Wolcott,

Of Griswold College.
DAVENPORT.
William J. Youmans, M. D.,

Editor of Popular Science Monthly.
CHEMISTRY,
PHYSIOLOGY,

and other articles. Charles L. Zahm,

Editor of Fostoria Democrat. FOSTORIA.

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PAGE SIR FREDERICK A. ABEL.

. 31, GEORGE LINCOLN GOODALE. AMADEO, DUKE OF Aosta . .

6 JOSEPH HENRY . . . . MARTIN BREWER ANDERSON .

. 631 | THOMAS HICKS . . COUNT JULIUS ANDRASSY .

. 8 | ROBERT Koch . . ALEXANDER DALLAS BACHE

. 573 OTANIEL CHARLES Marsh . JOHN WATRUS BECKWITH .

. 633 SAMUEL FREEMAN MILLER. GEORGE HENRY BOKER .

034 JUNIUS SPENCER MORGAN . Diox BOUCICAULT (in character)

72 | CHRISTIAN H. F. PETERS . (HARLES LORING BRACE .

636 PRUDENCE CRANDALL PHILLEO. David JosiAH BREWER . .

SAMUEL JACKSON RANDALL I ENRY BILLINGS BROWX

819 | WILLIAM BARTON ROGERS . OLIVER BELL BUNCE .

637 | STEPHEN CLEGG ROWAN . Sir RICHARD FRANCIS Burton (in char

JONATHAN YOUNG SCAMMON acter) . . . . .

ROBERT CUMMING SCHENCK Johx H, C. Coffin ,

BENJAMIN PENHALLOW SALLABER .. GEORGE CROOK .

.243 | ALFRED HOWE TERRY

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FULL-PAGE ILLUSTRATIONS. ('OLORED PLATES

Map of Wyoming
MAP OF IDAHO . . . . . 422 DominION PARLIAMENT BUILDINGS AT OT-
MAP OF ONTARIO. .

. 698 TAWA . . . . . . . ('Essus CHART. . . topochett Map of NEWFOUNDLAND . . . . 594 In han ary 63701. rat 190 .23

ILLUSTRATIONS IN THE TEXT. NEBULA IN ANDROMEDA . 42 | Magic LANTERN .

732 COAL PALACE AT OTTUMWA : 140 | DARK CHAMBER.

733 THE FORTH BRIDGE . .

FACE, IN CRAYON ST. CLAIR RIVER TUNNEL .

PROFILE, IN CRAYON MAP OF TUNNEL. .

CLOTHES, IN CRAYON

735 IRON TUNNEL-BLOCK.

STIPPLE EFFECT .

736 TUNNELING-NEEDLES. .

RUDIMENTARY GUN-LOCK METHOD OF ASCENDING CHIMNEY

286 IMPROVED HAMMERLESS LOCK . METHOD OF REPAIRING CHIMNEY 287 FLINT Lock, 1750 ..

774 THE THREE HOMES OF THE PILGRIMS 321 PERCUSSION LOCK, 1830 . HELIGOLAND . .

. 376

HAMMERLESS Lock, 1890 .
LAVED

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775 RANGE-FINDER DIAGRAM . . . 580 | THE THURBER CHIROGRAPHER .

807 POSITION-FINDER DIAGRAM. . • 581 | THE BEACH TYPE-WRITER .

808 Position FINDER IN USE . . 581 THE REMINGTON TYPE-WRITER .

811 VIEW OF PETRIE Point . . . 596 The HANSEN MACHINE .

812 THE ORIGINAL PHoxOGRAPH . 708 THE BROOKS TYPE-WRITER

812 SECTIONAL VIEW OF PHONOGRAPH . 708 THE HAMMOND TYPE-WRITER.

813 THE MODERN PHONOGRAPH

: 709 THE CRANDALL TYPE-WRITER . THE PHONOGRAPH-GRAPHOPHONE 709 THE PROUTY TYPE-WRITER

: 814 MAGNIFIED PHONOGRAM . 710 | THE WORLD TYPE-WRITER

. 815 USE OF MAGIC LANTERN. . . 731 | THE STENOGRAPH

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THE

ANNUAL CYCLOPÆDIA.

ABYSSINIA, an empire in eastern Africa. habitants. The districts that had been occupied The reigning sovereign is Menelek II, fornierly as Italian possessions up to the close of 1889 were King of Shoa, who on the death of the Negus the country around Massowah, Keren, and AsJohannis in 1889 proclaimed himself Emperor mara, having an area of 3,100 square miles, with of Ethiopia, and subsequently overcame the rival 250,000 inhabitants. claimants to the succession. He had already ac- The dominant race, of Arabian origin and cepted an Italian protectorate, May 2, 1889, in speaking the old Ethiopic language was cona treaty that was confirined and supplemented verted to Christianity in the fourth century. by a convention concluded between his plenipo- The abuna or head of the Church is always a Copt tentiaries and the Italian Government in Octo- who is appointed and consecrated by the Patriber of the same year. Under the Negus the arch of Alexandria ; but the actual control of country is ruled by 24 feudal vassals, who colreligious affairs is shared by the ecbegheh, an lect and pay into the royal treasury the taxes, Abyssinian dignitary who presides over the moand owe the King service with their retainers in nastic orders. There are about 12,000 monks in time of war. Menelek has, moreover, a perma- the country. nent army of paid soldiers, most of whom are The people raise large herds of cattle, as well armed with rifles.

as sheep and goats. Little attention is given to Area and Population. The provinces of agriculture. Wild indigo, tobacco, sumach.coffee, Tigré, Lasta, Amhara, and Gojam have a com- cotton, sugar-cane, the date palm, and the vine bined area of 80,000 square miles and a popula- thrive, and the forests contain valuable woods, tion of about 2,000,000 persons. The kingdom such as ebony, tamarind, sycamore, baobab, and of Shoa is more populous, having 1,500,000 in- the wild olive. Tobacco was successfully cultihabitants on a territory of 26,000 square miles. vated on a considerable scale by Greeks in the The dependencies of the Bogos, Shoho, Mensas, vicinity of Keren until Ras Aloula destroyed the Barea, Kunama, Hababs, and Beni Aier in the plantations. The soil is exceedingly fertile, pronorth cover an area of about 28,000 square miles, ducing abundant crops of wheat, barley and legwith a population not exceeding 100,000. Dana- umes in the elevated regions, and the plants of kil, the country between the Abyssinian plateau tropical and sub-tropical climates in the plains and the sea, inhabited by the Afars and Adals, and valleys near the sea, is 40.000 square miles in extent, with 200,000 pop- Commerce. Foreign commercial exchanges ulation. The extreme political boundaries of take place only through Massowah. The comAbyssinia include also a territory of 6,000 square merce of that port rose from $200,000 in 1861 to miles, inhabited by the Issas and other depend- $1,400,000 in 1881, and then ceased to a great exent Somali tribes, numbering 60,000 individuals, tent during the hostilities with Italy. The prinand the lands of the conquered Gallas and Kaffas, cipal export articles are mother-of-pearl, skins, 61.000 square miles in extent, with about 3,500, mules, and butter, which amounted to a total of 000 inhabitants. According to this calculation, $300,000 in 1889. Gums, coffee, ivory, ostrich the empire embraces 244,000 square miles, with feathers, skins, and cereals from the interior a total population of 7,360,000 souls. Prof. Gui- have ceased to be exported, owing to war and do Cora, of Turin, estimates the area of the King- anarchy. dom of Abyssinia, including Shoa, Kaffa, Harrar, The Pacification of Tigré.- The basis of etc., at 190,000 square miles, and the population an arrangement for a combined action against at 5,000,000); the dependencies of the Hababs, the Negus Johannis by Menelek, the rebellious Bogos Beni-Amer, etc., at 18,000 square miles, King of Shoa, in the south, and the Italians at with 200,000 inhabitants; the Danakil territory, Massowah, who were to advance to Asmara or with the sultanate of Aussa, at 34,000 square Gura, in Tigré, was agreed to in the summer of miles, with 200,000 inhabitants; and Oppia and 1888 by Count Antonelli and Menelek. In acother districts of the Somali coast, with a tract cordance with this secret treaty, Menelek was in the interior extending to Wadi Nogal and supplied with munitions. Yet neither he por Mudug, at 90,000 square miles, with 300,000 in- the Italian military authorities, who doubted his

VOL. XXX.-1 A

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