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made. With instruction to mingle delight; to invigorate honourable patriotism ; to elicit and encourage diffident merit; to promote and extend the exertions of genius and science; to cherish and sonfirm the moral relations of life; these are the ends which, in the progress of their undertaking, the Proprietors of this work are anxious to see accomplished.

To effect these objects, estimable in themselves, and beneficial in their operation, no reasonable expence will be spared, nu exertion omitted. More cannot be promised; though we trust that our promises will not be discredited by our performances,

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UNIVERSAL MAGAZINE.

No. XXVI.-Vol. V.).

For JANUARY, 1806.

[New SERIES.

ALEXANDER THE FIRST, EMPEROR Austerlitz, was bornt December the OF RUSSIA.

12th, 1777. He was eldest son of the TO O estimate the characters of princes, late einperor, Paul the First, by Maria and elucidate the policy of cabi

Feodorovna, princess of Wirtemberg, Dets, is a task on which the abiest wri. his second consort.

This princess is ter will got enter without diffidence. allied to the royal family of Prussia, and So inscrutable are the views that often is still living. fegulate the conduct of courts; so un

Catherine the Second, prescient of the apparent are the causes that sonetimes fate experienced by the unfortunate

Paul, and anxious to perpetuate the Teverse or determine the lot of empire ; aud so variable are the interests of poli throne of Russia to her posterity, ditical connection, that it not only be rected her particular attention to the comes impossible to anticipate the events education of her grandchildren, whoan of futurity, but almost impracticable she was accustomed regularly to ques to appreciate those transactinns of which tion, as to the nature and estent of we are the spectators. Who would

their mental acquisitions, before their hare conjectured, a few weeks past, preceptors, and for the benefit of whom, that the august subject of the present

she condescended to write various gremoir, after having made a most tracts, which, under the title of " MisJawanimous and successful stand a

cellaneous Pieces, or the Library of the gainst the subjugators of Europe, should Grand Dukes," were collected, and are be induced to relinquish a contest is still preserved in the imperial library at which he had been crowned with glo- Petersburgh. As the present emperor ry, without accomplishing the

had attained his nineteenth year previobjects for which he had so honour- ous to the decease of Catherine, she ably contended? But, such is the mu- must have had the satisfaction to conteinlability of human prosperity; and so plate, in some degree, the maturity of fatally are the hopes, not only of indi- those intellectual powers, to the cultividuals, but of nations, deceived! It ration of which she so eminently conremains for fortitude to sustain, and tributed. It is about this period that wisdom to repair those disasters, which Chantreau, in his “ Philosophical Travigilance has failed to foresee, and

vels in Russia," speaks of Alexander as lour has pot been able to avert.

“ exceedingly promising." ALEXANDER, the first Russian em

But Catherine, with all her felicity, peror* of the saine, who has acted so

was not invariably successful. Auxidistinguished a part on the plains of ous to behold the extension of her pro

geny, she hastened the inarriage of her

great

va

• According to professos Pallas, the style of the Russian emperor is, “ His

+ The birth of the presentemperor was Majesty, the most serene, most potent, thus announced by an imperial utase, and beloved Emperor and Aurocrat of dated the 20th of December 1777. ali the Russias."

“God having blessed their Imperial The appellation of Tzar is supposed Highnesses with a first-born son, and to have been borne by the monarchs of Us (Catherine the Second) with a Russia, so early as 1015.

grandson, ALEXANDER PavloviTCH: That of Autocrat was first assum- We ordain, that in all cases and on all ed in July 1634, by Alexey Mitzhai- occasions, in out empire, that relate to lovitch, ind imports a SELF-Ruler. him, the title of His Imperial High. In 1721, Peter the First added the ness the Grand Duke Alexander Pay. dignity of EMPEROR w his other titles. lovitch' shall be given him."

sue.

favourite grandson, who, at the age of politics and warfare. But the policy of sixteen, was united to Louisa, princess Russia did not authorise a precipitatc of Baden Durlach, two years younger participation in the struggles of the. than the Grand Duke. She took the continent. Hitherto this power has name of Elizaveta Alexievna, conform- been wholly passive, as to the contenably with the rules of the Greek church. tions between France and England. of this marriage there has been no is- Remote from the scene of contest, and

unapproachable, at least comparatively, Shortly after the completion of his by any powers of whom he might have twenty-third year (March 12th, O. S. reason to stand in awe, nothing ap1801), Alexander, by a melancholy pears to have been more disinterested, catastrophe, not uncommon to the so- inore heroic, than the determination by vereigns of Russia, was suinmuned to which Alexander connected himself occupy the throne of his father; who with the fortunes of Austria ; and, had been strangled on the night pre- even at the hazard of his own life, enceeding, in his own palace, by two or deavoured to re-animate the spirit of three noble conspirators.

that ancient and illustrious house. HavThe young, monarch, a stranger to ing acceded to the continental conthis tragedy, shed tears, when, on the federacy against France, Alexander inorning of his accession to the crown, hastened to place himself at the head he was saluted by the soldiers, as their of those troops which he had marched emperor !

to the assistance of the allies. Thus terminated the short reign of He embraced this opportunity for the miserable, and, apparently, infatua- visiting the king of Prussia. Alexander red Paul. His life was without im- was graciously received by this potenportance, and his death excited no en- tate, whom he accompanied to the thequiry.

atre of Berlin ; where the people are reThe inauguration of Alexander was ported to have called on the two soveperformed with great magnificence. reigns for a vigorous opposition to the The emperor and empress were both French. The interviews of monarchs crowned at Moscow, in September 1801; are seldom unproductive of events comthe archbishop Platon, then one hunmensurate with the dignity of the pare dred and live years old, and who had ties. Over the tomb of Frederick the placed the same diadem-upon three of Great, if intelligence is to be credited, his successive sovereigns, officiating on these illustrious personages renewed the the occasion.

recollection of those ties which forWith the dethronement of Paul en. merly strengthened the alliance of their ded that systein of foreign ascendancy, respective families, and vowed to each which threatened to annihilate the best other an invariable and permanent interests of his country. There was at friendship. Experience will shew to once a stop to the revolutionary in- what extent this transaction may affect trigues of France. Russia, indeed, af- the system of European politics. Prusforded the only spot on which persecut- sia, at any rate, is likely to have seed royalty, and exiled bonour, were cured the co-operation of Russia, should permitted to repose. Cultivating the she be compelled, in her own defence, friendship of England, extending and to resent and resist the predominating iniproving the metropolis of his em- influence of France. pire, inviting and naturalizing valuable Inauspicious as was the situation in or illustrionis aliens, and ameliorating which Alexander found the allied arthe national jurisprudence, the emperor mies, he resolutely headed his troops, Alexander proved how seriously he had rallied the spirits of the confederates, considered the welfare of the people and determined to attack their coinmon over whom he was destined to reign, enemy. He performed prodigies of vaand his competency to discharge the lour.' It was in this contrict, which is duties of his elevated situation. .supposed to have continued during three

It is not to be supposed, shat such a days, (from December the 2d to Depotentate could remain merely a specta- cember the 4th, 1805,) that he had a ior of the important scenes that were horse shot under him; that, in the hottransacting on the theatre of European test of the fire, he, who had never be

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