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Importation of certain persons

1. The migration or importation of such persons as any not to be of the states now existing shall think proper to admit,

hibited until


Writ of habeas corpus.

Bills of attain

der, &c.

Direct taxes.

No export duty nor preference of one state to another, &c.

5. No tax or duty shall be laid on articles exported from any state. No preference shall be given by any regulation of commerce or revenue to the ports of one state over those of another; nor shall vessels bound to or from one state be obliged to enter, clear or pay duties in another. 6. No money shall be drawn from the treasury, but in legal appropri consequence of appropriations made by law; and a regular statement and account of the receipts and expenditures of all public money shall be published from time to time.


7. No title of nobility shall be granted by the United States, and no person holding any office of profit or trust under them, shall, without the consent of the congress, accept of any present, emolument, office or title of any kind whatever, from any king, prince or foreign state.

Money to be expended by

shall not be prohibited by the congress prior to the year one thousand eight hundred and eight, but a tax or duty may be imposed on such importation, not exceeding ten dollars for each person.

2. The privilege of the writ of habeas corpus shall not be suspended, unless when, in cases of rebellion or invasion, the public safety may require it.

3. No bill of attainder, or ex post facto law, shall be passed. 4. No capitation or other direct tax shall be laid, unless in proportion to the census or enumeration herein before directed to be taken.

Titles of nobility, &c.


Powers forbid. den to the


1. No state shall enter into any treaty, alliance or constates individu- federation; grant letters of marque and reprisal; coin money; emit bills of credit; make any thing but gold and silver coin a tender in payment of debts; pass any bill of attainder, ex post facto law, or law impairing the obligation of contracts; or grant any title of nobility.

Powers which the states can exercise only

2. No state shall, without the consent of the congress, lay under the sanc. any imposts or duties on imports or exports, except what

tion of congress.

may be absolutely necessary for executing its inspection laws; and the net produce of all duties and imposts, laid by any state on imports or exports, shall be for the use of the treasury of the United States, and all such laws shall be subject to the revision and control of the congress. No state shall, without the consent of congress, lay any duty of tonnage, keep troops or ships of war in time of peace, enter into any agreement or compact with another state, or with a foreign power, or engage in war, unless actually invaded or in such imminent danger as will not admit of delay.



er vested in a

1. The executive power shall be vested in a president of Executive pow the United States of America. He shall hold his office president, &c. during the term of four years, and, together with the vicepresident, chosen for the same term, be elected as follows:

president and

2. Each state shall appoint, in such manner as the legis- Electors of lature thereof may direct, a number of electors, equal to vice-president, the whole number of senators and representatives to which the state may be entitled in the congress; but no senator or representative, or person holding an office of trust or profit under the United States, shall be appointed an elector.

electors of

[3. The electors shall meet in their respective states, and Meeting of the vote by ballot for two persons, of whom one at least shall president, &c. not be an inhabitant of the same state with themselves. And they shall make a list of all the persons voted for, Their proceedand of the number of votes for each; which list they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the seat of the government of the United States, directed to the president of the senate. The president of the senate shall, in the presence of the senate and house of representatives, open all the certificates, and the votes shall then be counted. The person having the greatest number of votes shall be the president, if such number be a majority of the whole number of electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such majority, and have an equal number of votes, then the house of representatives shall immediately choose, by ballot, one of them for president; and if no person have a majority, then from the five highest on the list the said house shall, in like manner, choose the president. But in choosing the president, the votes shall be taken by states, the representation from each state having one vote; a quorum for this purpose shall consist of a member or members from two-thirds of the states, and a majority of all the states shall be necessary to a choice. In every case, after the choice of the president, the person having the greatest number of votes of the electors, shall be the vice-president. But if there should remain two or more who have equal votes, the senate shall choose from See amend them, by ballot, the vice-president.']


ments, art. 12.]


4. The congress may determine the time of choosing the Time of choos. electors, and the day on which they shall give their votes; which day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5. No person, except a natural born citizen, or a citizen Qualifications of the United States at the time of the adoption of this of the president constitution, shall be eligible to the office of president; neither shall any person be eligible to that office, who shall

not have attained to the age of thirty-five years, and been fourteen years a resident within the United States.

In case of vacancy in the of

6. In case of the removal of the president from office, or of fice of presi. his death, resignation, or inability to discharge the powers

dent, vicepresident to act, &c.

and duties of the said office, the same shall devolve on the vice-president, and the congress may, by law, provide for the case of removal, death, resignation or inability both of the president and vice-president, declaring what officer shall then act as president and, such officer shall act accordingly, until the disability be removed, or a president shall be elected.

Compensation of the president

The president to take an oath.

7. The president shall, at stated times, receive for his services a compensation, which shall neither be increased nor diminished during the period for which he shall have been elected, and he shall not receive within that period any other emolument from the United States, or any of them.


8. Before he enter on the execution of his office, he shall take the following oath or affirmation:

"I do solemnly swear [or affirm] that I will faithfully execute the office of president of the United States, and will, to the best of my ability, preserve, protect and defend the constitution of the United States.'



1. The president shall be commander-in-chief of the army Powers of the and navy of the United States, and of the militia of the several states, when called into the actual service of the United States; he may require the opinion, in writing, of the principal officer in each of the executive departments, upon any subject relating to the duties of their respective offices; and he shall have power to grant reprieves and pardons for offenses against the United States, except in cases of impeachment.

2. He shall have power, by and with the advice and consent of the senate, to make treaties, provided two-thirds of the senators present concur; and he shall nominate, and by and with the advice and consent of the senate, shall appoint ambassadors, other public ministers, and consuls, judges of the supreme court, and all other officers of the United States, whose appointments are not herein otherwise provided for, and which shall be established by law. But the congress may, by law, vest the appointment of such inferior officers as they think proper, in the president alone, in the courts of law or in the heads of departments.

3. The president shall have power to fill up all vacancies that may happen during the recess of the senate, by the judges in every state shall be bound thereby, anything

granting commissions which shall expire at the end of

their next session.


and powers.

1. He shall, from time to time, give to the congress in- Other duties formation of the state of the union, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he shall judge necessary and expedient; he may, on extraordinary occasions, convene both houses, or either of them, and in case of disagreement between them, with respect to the time of adjournment, he may adjourn them to such time as he shall think proper; he shall receive ambassadors and other public ministers; he shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed; and shall commission all the officers. of the United States.


to impeach

1. The president, vice-president and all civil officers of officers liable the United States, shall be removed from office on impeach- ment. ment for, and conviction of, treason, bribery or other high crimes and misdemeanors.



1. The judicial power of the United States shall be vest- Judicial power ed in one supreme court, and in such inferior courts as the congress may, from time to time ordain and establish. The judges, both of the supreme and inferior courts, shall Judges to hold hold their offices during good behavior; and shall, at ring good beha stated times, receive for their services a compensation which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

their offices du

vior, &c.



1. The judicial power shall extend to all cases in law Extent of the and equity, arising under this constitution, the laws of the Judicial power. United States, and treaties made, or which shall be made, under their authority; to all cases affecting ambassadors, (Modified. See other public ministers and consuls; to all cases of admi- No. 11.) ralty and maritime jurisdiction; to controversies to which the United States shall be a party; to controversies between two or more states, between a state and citizens of another state, between citizens of different states, between citizens of the same state claiming lands under grants of different states, and between a state, or the citizens thereof, and foreign states, citizens or subjects.

Original and appellate juris

2. In all cases affecting ambassadors, other public mindiction of the isters and consuls, and those in which a state shall be party,

supreme court.

the supreme court shall have original jurisdiction. În all other cases before mentioned, the supreme court shall have appellate jurisdiction, both as to law and fact, with such exceptions and under such regulations as the congress shall make.

3. The trial of all crimes, except in cases of impeachment, shall be by jury, and such trial shall be held in the state where the said crimes shall have been committed; but when not committed within any state, the trial shall be at such place or places as the congress may by law have directed.

Tr al of crimes to be by jury, &c.

Definition of treason.

Congress to declare its punishment.


1. Treason against the United States shall consist only in levying war against them, or adhering to their enemies, giving them aid and comfort. No person shall be convicted of treason unless on the testimony of two witnesses to the same overt act, or on confession in open court.

2. The congress shall have power to declare the punishment of treason; but no attainder of treason shall work corruption of blood, or forfeiture, except during the life of the person attainted.


1. Full faith and credit shall be given in each state to public acts, &c. the public acts, records and judicial proceedings of every

Credit in one state to the

of another.

other state. And the congress may, by general laws, prescribe the manner in which such acts, records and proceedings shall be proved, and the effect thereof.



Reciprocity of 1. The citizens of each state shall be entitled to all privileges and immunities of citizens in the several states. 2. A person charged in any state with treason, felony or other crime, who shall flee from justice, and be found in livered upon another state, shall, on demand of the executive authority

Criminals flying from one state to another, to be de.


of the state from which he fled, be delivered up, to be removed to the state having jurisdiction of the crime.

Runaways to

3. No person held to service or labor in one state under be delivered up the laws thereof, escaping into another, shall, in consequence of any law or regulation therein, be discharged from such service or labor; but shall be delivered up on claim of the party to whom such service or labor may be due.

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