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idea, I mean such an one as consists of a determinate number of certain simple or less complex ideas, joined in such a proportion and situation, as the mind has before its view, and sees in itself, when that idea is present in it, or should be present in it, when a man gives a name to it: I say, should be; because it is not every one, not perhaps any one, who is so careful of his language, as to use no word, till he views in his mind the precise determined idea, which he resolves to make it the sign of. The want of this is the cause of no small obscurity and confusion in men's thoughts and discourses.
I know there are not words enough in any language, to answer all the variety of ideas that enter into men's discourses and reasonings. But this hinders not, but that when any one uses any term,
may have in his mind a determined idea, which he makes it the sign of, and to which he should keep it steadily annexed, during that present discourse. Where he does not, or cannot do this, he in vair pretends to clear or distinct ideas : it is plain his are not so'; and therefore there can be expected nothing but obscurity and confusion, where such terms are made use of, which have not such a precise determination.
Upon this ground I have thought determined ideas a way of speaking less liable to mistakes, than clear and distinct: and where men have got such determined ideas of all that they reason, inquire, or argue about, they will find a great part of their doubts and disputes at an end. The greatest part of the questions and controversies that perplex mankind, depending on the doubtful and uncertain use of words, or (which is the same) indetermined ideas, which they are made to stand for; I have made choice of these terms to signify, 1. Some immediate object of the mind, which it perceives and bas before it, distinct from the sound it uses as a sign of it.
a sign of it. 2. That this idea, thus determined, i. e. which the mind has in itself, and
knows, and sees there, be determined without any change to that name, and that name determined to that precise idea. If men had such determined ideas in their inquiries and discourses, they would both discern how far their own inquiries and discourses went, and avoid the greatest part of the disputes and wranglings they have with others.
Besides this, the bookseller will think it necessary I should advertise the reader, that there is an addition of two chapters wholly new; the one of the association of ideas, the other of enthusiasm. These, with some other larger additions never before printed, he has engaged to print by themselves after the same manner, and for the same purpose, as was done when this essay had the second impression.
In the sixth edition, there is very little added or altered; the greatest part of what is new, is contained in the 21st chapter of the second book, which any one, if he thinks it worth while, may, with a very little labour, transcribe into the margin of the former edition.
VOLUME FIRST. .
8. What idea stands for. 9-11. It is false that reason dis.
and particularly no innate spe-
reason were the time of
ceived as the fore-mentheir discovery, it would
tioned speculative maxnot prove them innate.
ims. 15, 16. The steps by which the 2. Faith and justice not mind attains several
owned as principles by truths.
all men. 17. Assenting as soon as pro- 3. Obj. Though men deny posed and understood,
them in their practice, proves them not innate.
yet they admit them in 18. If such an assent be a
their thoughts, answered. mark of innate, then that 4. Moral rules need a proof, one and two are equal to
ergo, not innate. three; that sweetness is 5. Instance in keeping comnot bitterness; and
pacts. thousand the like, must 6. Virtue generally approve be innate.
ed, not because innate, 19. Such less general propo
but because profitable. sitions known before these 7. Men's actions convince universal maxims.
us, that the rule of virtue 20. One and one equal to
is not their internal printwo, &c. not general, nor
ciple. useful, answered.
8. Conscience no proof of 21. These maxims not being any innate moral rule. known sometimes till pro
9. Instances of enormities posed, proves them not
practised without innate. 22. Implicitly known before
10. Men have contrary prac. proposing, signifies, that
tical principles. the mind is capable of 11-13. Whole nations reject sem understanding them, or
veral moral rules. else signifies nothing.
14. Those who maintain in23. The argument of assent
nate practical principles, ing on first hearing, is
tell us not what they are. upon a false supposition 15-19. Lord Herbert's inuate of no precedent teaching.
principles exainined. 24. Not innate, because not 20. Obj. Innate principles universally assented to.
may be corrupted, an25. These maxims not the
swered. first known.
21. Contrary principles in 26. And so not innate.
the'world. 27. Not innate, because they 22--26. How commonly appear least, where what
come by their principles. is innate, shows itself 27. Principles must be exaclearest.
mined. 28. Recapitulation.
Other considerations about innate No innate practical principles. principles, both speculative and SECT.
practical. 1. No moral principles so SECT.
clear and so generally re- 1. Principles uot innate, une
less their ideas be innate.
innate, since no ideas are
ed, till after they have
21. Principles pot innate, be-
cause of little use or lit-
coveries depends upon
the different applications
of their faculties.
23. Men must think and
know for themselves.
24. Whence the opinion of
9. The soul begins to have
ideas, when it begins to
1. Idea is the object of 10. The soul thinks not al.
for this wants
2. All ideas come from sen-
sation or reflection.
11. It is not always conscious
3. The objects of sensation
one source of ideas.
12. If a sleeping man thinks
4. The operations of our
without knowing it, the
minds, the other source
sleeping and waking man
are two persons.
5. All our ideas are of the 13. Impossible to convince
one or the other of these.
those that sleep without
6. Observable in children.
dreaming that they think.
7. Men are differently fur- 14. That men dream without
nished with these, ac-
remembering it, in vain
cording to the different
objects they converse 15. Upon this hypothesis, the
thoughts of a sleeping
8. Ideas of reflection later,
man ought to be most ra
because they need atten.