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liable and subject to indictment, trial, judgment, and punishment, according to law.

14. Every white male citizen of the commonwealth, resident therein, aged twenty-one years and upwards, being qualified to exercise the right of suffrage according to the former constitution and laws; and every such citizen, being possessed, or whose tenant for years, at will or at sufferance, is possessed, of an estate or freehold in land of the value of twentyfive dollars, and so assessed to be if any assessment thereof be required by law; and every such citizen, being possessed as tenant in common, joint tenant or partner, of an interest in or share of land, and having an estate of freehold therein, such interest or share being of the value of twenty-five dollars, and so assessed to be if any assessment thereof be required by law; and every such citizen being entitled to a reversion or vested remainder in fee, expectant on an estate for life or lives, in land of the value of fifty dollars, and so assessed to be if any assessment thereof be required by law; (each and every such citizen, unless his title shall have come to him by descent, devise, marriage, or marriage settlement, having been so possessed or entitled for six months;) and every such citizen, who shall own and be himself in actual occupation of a leasehold estate, with the evidence of title recorded two months before he shall offer to vote, of a term originally not less than five years, of the annual value or rent of twenty dollars; and every such citizen, who for twelve months next preceding has been a housekeeper and head of a family within the county, city, town, borough, or election district where he may offer to vote, and shall have been assessed with a part of the revenue of the commonwealth within the preceding year, and actually paid the same -and no other persons-shall be qualified to vote for members of the general assembly, in the county, city, town, or borough, respectively, wherein such land shall lie, or such housekeeper and head of a family shall live. And in case of two or more tenants in common, joint tenants, or parceners, in possession, reversion, or remainder, having interest in land, the value whereof shall be insufficient to entitle them all to vote, they shall together have as many votes as the value of the land shall entitle them to; and the legislature shall by law provide the mode in which their vote or votes shall in such case be given: Provided, nevertheless, that the right of suffrage shall not be exercised by any person of unsound mind, or who shall be a pauper, or a non-commissioned officer, soldier, seaman, or marine, in the service of the United States, or by any person convicted of any infamous offence.

15. In all elections in this commonwealth to any office or place of trust, honour, or profit, the votes shall be given openly, or viva voce, and not by ballot.


1. The chief executive power of this commonwealth shall be vested in a governor, to be elected by the joint vote of the two houses of the general assembly. He shall hold his office during the term of three years, to commence on the first day of January next succeeding his election, or on such other day as may from time to time be prescribed by law; and he shall be ineligible to that office for three years next after his term of service shall have expired.

2. No person shall be eligible to the office of governor, unless he shall have attained the age of thirty years, shall be a native citizen of the United States, or shall have been a citizen thereof at the adoption of the federal constitution, and shall have been a citizen of this commonwealth for five years next preceding his election.

3. The governor shall receive for his services a compensation to be fixed by law, which shall be neither increased nor diminished during his continuance in office.

4. He shall take care that the laws be faithfully executed, shall communicate to the legislature, at every session, the condition of the commonwealth, and recommend to their consideration such measures as he may deem expedient. He shall be commander-in-chief of the land and naval forces of the state. He shall have power to embody the militia, when, in his opinion, the public safety shall require it; to convene the legislature, on application of a majority of the members of the house of delegates, or when, in his opinion, the interest of the commonwealth may require it; to grant reprieves and pardons, except where the prosecution shall have been carried on by the house of delegates, or the law shall otherwise particularly direct; to conduct, either in person or in such manner as shall be prescribed by law, all intercourse with other and foreign states; and during the recess of the legislature, to fill, pro tempore, all vacancies in those offices, which it may be the duty of the legislature to fill permanently: Provided, that his appointments to such vacancies shall be by commissions to expire at the end of the next succeeding session of the general assembly.

5. There shall be a council of state, to consist of three members, any one or more of whom may act. They shall be elected by joint vote of both houses of the general assembly, and remain in office three years. But of those first elected, one, to be designated by lot, shall remain in office one year only, and one other, to be designated in like manner, shall remain in office for two years only. Vacancies occurring by expiration of the term of service, or otherwise, shall be supplied by elections made in like manner. The governor shall, before he exercises any discretionary power conferred on him by the constitution and laws, require the advice of the council of state, which advice shall be registered in books kept for that purpose, signed by the members present and consenting thereto, and laid before the general assembly when called for by them. The council shall appoint their own clerk, who shall take an oath to keep secret such matters as he shall be ordered by the board to conceal. The senior counsellor shall be lieutenant-governor, and in case of the death, resignation, inability, or absence of the governor from the seat of government, shall act as governor.

6. The manner of appointing militia officers shall be provided for by law; but no officer below the rank of a brigadier-general shall be appointed by the general assembly.

7. Commissions and grants shall run in the name of the commonwealth of Virginia, and bear teste by the governor, with the seal of the commonwealth annexed.


1. The judicial power shall be vested in a supreme court of appeals, in such superior courts as the legislature may from time to time ordain

and establish, and the judges thereof, in the county courts, and in justices of the peace. The legislature may also vest such jurisdiction as shall be deemed necessary in corporation courts; and in the magistrates who may belong to the corporate body. The jurisdiction of these tribunals, and of the judges thereof, shall be regulated by law. The judges of the supreme court of appeals and of the superior courts, shall hold their offices during good behaviour, or until removed in the manner prescribed in this constitution; and shall, at the same time, hold no other office, appointment, or public trust; and the acceptance thereof by either of them shall vacate his judicial office.

2. No law abolishing any court shall be construed to deprive a judge thereof of his office, unless two-thirds of the members of each house present concur in the passing thereof; but the legislature may assign other judicial duties to the judges of courts abolished by any law enacted by less than two-thirds of the members of each house present.

3. The present judges of the supreme court of appeals, of the general court, and of the supreme courts of chancery, shall remain in office until the termination of the session of the first legislature elected under this constitution, and no longer.

4. The judges of the supreme court of appeals and of the superior courts shall be elected by the joint vote of both houses of the general assembly.

5. The judges of the supreme court of appeals and of the superior courts shall receive fixed and adequate salaries, which shall not be diminished during their continuance in office.

6. Judges may be removed from office by a concurrent vote of both houses of the general assembly; but two-thirds of the members present must concur in such vote, and the cause of removal shall be entered on the journals of each. The judge against whom the legislature may be about to proceed shall receive notice thereof, accompanied with a copy of the causes alleged for his removal, at least twenty days before the day on which either house of the general assembly shall act thereupon.

7. On the creation of any new county, justices of the peace shall be appointed, in the first instance, in such manner as may be prescribed by law. When vacancies shall occur in any county, or it shall, for any cause, be deemed necessary to increase the number, appointments shall be made by the governor, on the recommendation of the respective county courts.

8. The attorney-general shall be appointed by joint vote of the two houses of the general assembly, and commissioned by the governor, and shall hold his office during the pleasure of the general assembly. The clerks of the several courts, when vacancies shall occur, shall be appointed by their respective courts, and the tenure of office, as well of those now in office as of those who may be hereafter, appointed, shall be prescribed by law. The sheriffs and coroners shall be nominated by the respective county courts, and when approved by the governor, shall be commissioned by him. The judges shall appoint constables. And all fees of the aforesaid officers, shall be regulated by law.

9. Writs shall run in the name of the commonwealth of Virginia, and bear teste by the clerks of the several courts. Indictments shall conclude, against the peace and dignity of the commonwealth.


A treasurer shall be appointed annually by joint vote of both houses.


The executive department of the government shall remain as at present organized, and the governor and privy counsellors shall continue in office, until a governor, elected under this constitution, shall come into office and all other persons in office when this constitution shall be adopted, except as is herein otherwise expressly directed, shall continue in office, till successors shall be appointed, or the law shall otherwise provide; and all the courts of justice now existing shall continue with their present jurisdiction, until and except so far as the judicial system may or shall be hereafter otherwise organized by the legislature.

Done in convention, in the city of Richmond, on the fifteenth day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and thirty, and in the fifty-fourth year of the independence of the United States of America.


President of the Convention.

D. BRIGGS, Secretary of the Convention.


The Constitution or form of Government, agreed to and resolved upon, by the Representatives of the freemen of the state of North Carolina, elected and chosen for that particular purpose, in Congress assembled, at Halifax, December 18, 1776.


1. That all political power is vested in, and derived from, the people only.

2. That the people of this state ought to have the sole and exclusive right of regulating the internal government and police thereof.

3. That no men, or set of men, are entitled to exclusive or separate emoluments or privileges from the community, but in consideration of public services.

4. That the legislative, executive, and supreme judicial powers of government, ought to be for ever separate and distinct from each other. 5. That all powers of suspending laws, or the execution of laws, by any authority, without consent of the representatives of the people, is injurious to their rights, and ought not to be exercised.

6. That elections of members to serve as representatives in general assembly ought to be free.

7. That in all criminal prosecutions, every man has a right to be informed of the accusation against him, and to confront the accusers and witnesses with other testimony, and shall not be compelled to give evidence against himself.

8. That no freeman shall be put to answer any criminal charge, but by indictment, presentment, or impeachment.

9. That no freeman shall be convicted of any crime, but by the unanimous verdict of a jury of good and lawful men, in open court, as heretofore used.

10. That excessive bail should not be required, nor excessive fines imposed, nor cruel nor unusual punishments inflicted.

11. That general warrants, whereby any officer or messenger may be commanded to search suspected places, without evidence of the fact committed, or to seize any person or persons, not named, whose offences are not particularly described, and supported by evidence, are dangerous to liberty, and ought not to be granted.

12. That no freeman ought to be taken, imprisoned, or disseized of his freehold, liberties, or privileges, or outlawed or exiled, or in any manner destroyed, or deprived of his life, liberty or property, but by the law of the land.

13. That every freeman restrained of his liberty is entitled to a remedy, to inquire into the lawfulness thereof, and to remove the same, if unlawful; and that such remedy ought not to be denied or delayed.

14. That in all controversies at law, respecting property, the ancient mode of trial by jury is one of the best securities of the rights of the people, and ought to remain sacred and inviolable.

15. That the freedom of the press is one of the great bulwarks of liberty; and therefore ought never to be restrained.

16. That the people of this state ought not to be taxed, or made subject to the payment of any impost, or duty, without the consent of themselves, or their representatives in general assembly freely given.

17. That the people have a right to bear arms, for the defence of the state; and as standing armies, in time of peace, are dangerous to liberty, they ought not to be kept up; and that the military should be kept under strict subordination to, and governed by, the civil power.

18. That the people have a right to assemble together, to consult for the common good, to instruct their representatives, and to apply to the legislature for redress of grievances.

19. That all men have a natural and unalienable right to worship Almighty God according to the dictates of their own conscience.

20. That, for redress of grievances, and for amending and strengthen. ing the laws, elections ought to be often held.

21. That a frequent recurrence to fundamental principles is absolutely necessary to preserve the blessings of liberty.'

22. That no hereditary emoluments, privileges, or honours ought to be granted or conferred in this state.

23. That perpetuities and monopolies are contrary to the genius of a free state, and ought not to be allowed.

24. That retrospective laws, punishing facts committed before the existence of such laws, and by them only declared criminal, are oppres

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