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both sides of a great and stately tower in the midst of the front, that as it were joineth them together on either hand. I would have on the side of the banquet, in front, one only goodly room above stairs, of some forty feet high, and under it a room for a dressing or preparing place at times of triumphs. On the other side, which is the household side, I wish it divided at the first into a hall and a chapel, (with a partition between) both of good state and bigness; and those not to go all the length, but to have at the further end a winter and a summer parlour, both fair; and under these rooms, a fair and large cellar sunk under ground; and likewise some privy kitchens, with butteries and pantries, and the like. As for the tower, I would have it two stories, of eighteen feet high a-piece above the two wings, and goodly leads upon the top, railed, with statues interposed, and the same tower to be divided into rooms as shall be thought fit; the stairs likewise to the upper rooms, let them be upon a fair open newel, and finely railed in with images of wood, cast into a brass colour, and a very fair landing-place at the top. But this to be, if you do not point any of the lower rooms for a dining-place of servants, for otherwise you shall have the servants' dinner after your own; for the steam of it will come up as in a tunnel. And so much for the front: only I understand the height of the first stairs to be sixteen feet, which is the height of the lower room.
Beyond this front is there to be a fair court, but three sides of it of a far lower building than the front. And in all the four corners of that court fair stair-cases, cast into turrets on the outside, and not within the row of Buildings themselves. But those towers are not to be of the height of the front, but rather proportionable to the lower Building. Let the court not be paved, for that striketh up a great heat in summer, and much cold in winter; but only some side alleys, with a cross, and the quarters to graze being kept shorn, but not too near shorn. The row of return on the banquet side, let it be all stately galleries, in which galleries let there be three, or five fine cupolas in the length of it, placed at equal distance, and fine coloured windows of several works. On the household side, chambers of presence and ordinary entertainment, with some bed-chambers; and let all three sides be a double house, without thoroughlights on the sides, that you may have rooms from the sun, both for forenocn and afternoon. Cast it also, that you may have rooms both for summer and winter; shady for summer, and warm for winter. You shall have sometimes fair houses so full of glass, that one cannot tell where to become to be out of the sun, or cold. For inbowed windows I hold them of good use, (in cities indeed upright do better, in respect of the uniformity towards the street); for they be pretty retiring places for conference; and besides they keep both the wind and the sun off: for that which wouldstrike almost through the room, doth scarce pass the window. But let them be but few, four in the court on the sides only.
Beyond this court let there be an inward court of the same square and height, which is to be environed with the garden on all sides; and in the inside cloistered upon all sides; upon decent and beautiful arches, as high as the first story. On the under story towards the garden, let it be turned to a grotto, or place of shade or estivation; and only have opening and windows towards the garden, and be level upon floor, no whit sunk under ground, to avoid all dampishness : and let there be a fountain, or some fair work of statues in the midst of this court, and to be paved as the other court was. These buildings to be for privy lodgings on both sides, and the end for privy galleries: whereof you must foresee that one of them be for an infirmary, if the prince or any special person should be sick, with chambers, bed-chambers, anticamera, and recamera, joining to it: this upon the second story. Upon the ground story a fair gallery, open, upon pillars; and upon the third story likewise, an open gallery, upon pillars, to take the prospect and freshness of the garden. At both corners of the further side, by way of return, let there be two delicate or rich cabinets, daintily paved, richly hang ed, glazed with crystaline glass, and a rich cupola in the midst, and all other elegancy that may be thought upon. In the upper gallery too I wish that there may be, if the place will yield it, some fountains running in divers places from the wall, with some fine avoidances. And thus much for the model of the palace; sate that you must have, before you come to the front, three courts : and a green court plain, with a wall about it; a second court of the same, but more garnished, with little turrets, or rather embellishments upon the wall; and a third court, to make a square with the front, but not be built, nor yet enclosed with a naked wall, but enclosed with terraces leaded aloft, and fairly garnished on the three sides; and cloistered on the inside with pillars, and not with arches below. As for offices, let them stand at distance, with some low galleries, to pass from them to the palace itself.
Of Gardens. GOD Almighty first planted a Garden; and indeed it is the purest of human pleasures. It is the greatest refreshment to the spirits of man; without which buildings and palaces are but gross handyworks. And a man shall ever see, that when ages grow to civility and elegancy, men come to build stately, sooner than to garden finely: as if gardening were the greater perfection. I do hold it in the royal ordering of Gardens, there ought to be Gardens for all the months in the year, in which, severally, things of beauty may be then in season. For December and January, and the latter part of November, you must take such things as are green all winter ; holly, ivy, bays, juniper, cypress trees, yews, pine-apple trees, fir-trees, rosemary, lavender, perriwinkle, the white, the purple, and the blue germander, flags, orange-trees, lemon-trees, and myrtle, if they be stoved, and sweet marjoram warm set. There followeth for the latter part of January and February, the mezerion tree, which then blossoms; crocus vernus, both the yellow and the grey; primroses, anemones, the early tulippa, hyacinthus orientalis, chamairis, frettellaria. For March there comes violets, especially the single blue, which are earliest; the yellow daffodil, the daizy, the almond-tree in blossom, the peach-tree in blossom, the cornelian-tree in blossom, sweetbriar. In April follow the double white violet, the wall-flower, the stock gilly-flower, the cowslip, flower-de-luces, and lilies of all natures, roseniaryflower, the tulippa, the double piony, the pale daffodil, the French honey-suckle, the cherry-tree in