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or two, they discharge a portion of their people upon other nations, which the ancient Northern people were wont to do by lot, casting lots what part should stay at home, and what should seek their fortunes. When a warlike State grows soft and effeminate, they may be sure of a war; for commonly such States are grown rich in the time of their degenerating; and so the prey inviteth, and their decay in valour encourageth a war.
As for the weapons, it hardly falleth under rule and observation; yet we see even they have returns and vicissitudes. For certain it is, that ordnance was known in the city of the Oxydrakes in India ; and was that which the Macedonians called thunder and lightning, and magic. And it is well known, that the use of ordnance hath been in China above 2000 years. The conditions of weapons, and their improvement, are,—first, the striking afar off; for that outruns the danger, as it is seen in ordnance and muskets. Secondly, the strength of the percussion, wherein likewise ordnance do exceed all battering rams, and ancient inventions. The third is, the commodious use of them; as that they may serve in all weathers, that the carriage may be light and manageable, and the like.
For the conduct of the war: at the first, men rested extremely upon number; they did put the wars likewise upon main force and valour, pointing
days for pitched fields, and so trying it out upon an even match; and they were more ignorant in ranging and arraying their battles. After they grew to rest upon number, rather competent than vast, they grew to advantage of place, cunning diversions, and the like; and they grew more skilful in the ordering of their battles.
In the youth of a State, arms do flourish; in the middle age of a State, learning; and then both of them together for a time: in the declining age of a State, inechanical arts, and merchandize. Learning hath his infancy when it is but beginning, and almost childish; then his youth, when it is luxuriant and juvenile ; then his strength of years, when it is solid and reduced ; and lastly, his old age; when it waxeth dry and exhausted. But it is not good to look too long upon these turning wheels of Vicissitude, lest we become giddy. As for the philology of them, that is but a circle of tales, and therefore not fit for this writing. .
A Fragment of an Essay of Fame.
THE poets make Fame a monster. They describe her, in part, finely and elegantly; and in part, gravely and sententiously. They say-Look how many feathers she hath, so many eyes she hath underneath : so many tongues ; so many voices; she pricks up so many ears.
This is a flourish : there follow excellent parables ; as, that she gathereth strength in going; that she goeth upon the ground, and yet hideth her head in the clouds. That in the day-time she sitteth in a watch-tower, and flieth most by night: that she mingleth things done, with things not done; and that she is a terror to great cities : but that which passeth all the rest is, they do recount that the Earth, mother of the giants, that made war against Jupiter, and were by him destroyed, thereupon, in anger, brought forth Fame : for certain it is, that rebels figured by the giants and seditious fames, and libels, are but brothers and sisters, masculine and feminine. But now if a man can tame this monster, and bring her to feed at the hand, and govern her, and with her fly other ravening fowl, and kill them, it is somewhat worth. But we are infected with the style of the poets. To speak now in a sad and serious manner: there is not in all the politics, a place less handled, and more worthy to be handled, than this of Fame. We will therefore speak of these points : What are false Fames; and what are true Fames; and how they may be best discerned; how Fames may be sown and raised; how they may be spread and multiplied, and how they may be checked and laid
dead; and other things concerning the nature of Fame. Fame is of such force, that there is scarcely any great action wherein it hath not a great part, especially in the war. Mucianus undid Vitellius by a fame that he scattered—that Vitellius had in purpose to remove the legions of Syria into Germany, and the legions of Germany into Syria : whereupon the legions of Syria were infinitely inflamed. Julius Cæsar took Pompey unprovided, and laid asleep his industry and preparations, by a fame that he cunningly gave out,-how Cæsar's own soldiers loved him not; and being wearied with the wars, and laden with the spoils of Gaul, would forsake him as soon as he came into Italy. Livia settled all things for the succession of her son Tiberius, by continual giving out, that her husband Augustus was opon recovery and amendment. And it is an usual thing with the Bashaws, to conceal the death of the Great Turk from the Janizaries and men of war, to save the sacking of Constantinople, and other towns, as their manner is. Themistocles made Xerxes, king of Persia, post apace out of Græcia, by giving out that the Græcians had a purpose to break his bridge of ships, which he had made athwart Hellespont. There be a thousand such like examples; and the more they are, the less they need to be repeated, because a man meeteth with them every where : therefore let all wise governors have as great a watch and care over Fames, as they have of the actions and designs themselves.
Character of Julius Cæsar.
JULIUS CÆSAR was partaker at first of an exercised fortune, which turned to his benefit; for it abated the baughtiness of his spirit, and whetted his industry. He had a mind, turbulent in his desires and affections ; but in his judgment and understanding very serene and placid : and this appears by his easy deliverances of himself, both in his transactions and in his speech; for no man ever resolved more swiftly, or spake more perspicuously and plainly. There was nothing forced or difficult in his expressions. But in his will and appetite, he was of that condition, that he never rested in those things he had gotten; but still thirsted and pursued after new; yet so, that he would not rush into new affairs rashly, but settle and make an end of the former, before he attempted fresh acti : so that he would pnt a seasonable period to all his undertakings. And therefore, though he won many battles in Spain, and weakened their forces by degrees; yet he would not give over, nor despise the reliques of the civil war there, till be had seen all things composed :