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THE PEACE CONFERENCES

AT THE HAGUE, 1899 AND 1907

WITH ENGLISH TRANSLATION
AND APPENDIX OF RELATED DOCUMENTS

EDITED, WITH AN INTRODUCTION, BY

JAMES BROWN SCOTT

TECHNICAL DELEGATE OF THE UNITED STATES TO THE SECOND PEACE
CONFERENCE AT THE HAGUE, SOLICITOR FOR THE DEPARTMENT
OF STATE, PROFESSOR OF INTERNATIONAL LAW IN

GEORGE WASHINGTON UNIVERSITY

PREFATORY NOTE BY

ELIHU ROOT

SECRETARY OF STATE

PUBLISHED FOR THE INTERNATIONAL SCHOOL OF PEACE
GINN & COMPANY, BOSTON AND LONDON

Ilosz

PARVARD COLLEC
NOV 241908
LIBRARI.
Summir fund

COPYRIGHT, 1908
BY GINN & COMPANY

ALL RIGHTS RESERVED

The Athenæum Press
GINN & COMPANY. PRO-
PRIETORS. BOSTON • U.S.A.

PREFATORY NOTE

In the letter submitting The Hague Conventions of 1907 for consideration by the Senate, the Secretary of State said:

“Let me go beyond the limits of the customary formal letter of transmittal and say that I think the work of the Second Hague Con

ference, which is mainly embodied in these Conventions, presents the • greatest advance ever made at any single time toward the reasonable

and peaceful regulation of international conduct, unless it be the • advance made at The Hague Conference of 1899.

“ The most valuable result of the Conference of 1899 was that it made the work of the Conference of 1907 possible. The achievements

of the Conferences justify the belief that the world has entered upon - an orderly process through which, step by step, in successive Con

ferences, each taking the work of its predecessor as its point of departure, there may be continual progress toward making the practice of civilized nations conform to their peaceful professions.”

The collection of documents in this volume brings into relief a fal which should affect our judgment regarding all of the attempts in recent years to secure international agreement upon matters affectir. peace and war; this fact is that e?ch attempt is to be considered, no by itself alone, but as part of a series in which sound proposals m come to general acceptance only by a very gradual process extendi through many years. For example, Dr. Francis Lieber's Instructid for the Government of the Army of the United States in the Fier prepared for President Lincoln and embodied by him in Gene Order No. 100 of the year 1863, has now developed, after forty-f¢ years, into the universal “Convention regarding the laws and custo of land warfare,” signed at the last Hague Conference. The th rules of the Treaty of Washington, agreed upon by the United St and Great Britain, in 1871, are now accepted by the civilized wo in 1907, in The Hague “Convention respecting the rights and duties of neutral powers in naval war.”

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