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extent with our allies in order to achieve: First, the utter all that we desire, but it will offer real opportunity for destruction of German militarism and Nazism: And, sec- progress to dependent peoples. ond, the absolute assurance that Germany shall never In all the discussions on trusteeship the United States again be able to threaten its neighbors or disturb the has continued to stand fast for provisions which will fully peace of the world.

safeguard the control by the United States—within the Our policy toward Japan is directed to the same end. Trusteeship System, but on conditions satisfactory to us Before leaving the discussion of the Security Council I ---of those strategic points in the Pacific which are neceswant to refer to the question of voting procedure in the sary for the defense of the United States and for world Council. The Conference has not yet taken final action on security. this matter. The Crimea proposals require that the five And we have stood with equal firmness for a trusteepermanent members must agree to any enforcement ac- ship System that will foster progress toward higher tion. There would be a similar requirement on action for standards of living and the realization of human rights the peaceful settlement of disputes, except that a party to

and freedoms for dependent peoples, including the right a dispute must refrain from voting. This requirement, to independence or another form of self-government, however, does not apply to the right of any nation to such as federation—whichever the people of the area bring a dispute before the Council and to full discussion may choose when they are prepared and able to assume of the merits of its case. It applies only when the Council the responsibilities of national freedom as well as to enmakes a decision involving positive action,

joy its rights. This provision has been criticized both here and else- The United States has demonstrated this long-standwhere as giving a privileged position to the large nations, ing policy in the Philippines, It looks forward to the time

This criticism is not justified. It is not a question of when many other now-dependent peoples may achieve the privilege, but of using the present distribution of military same goal. and industrial power in the world for the maintenance I regard the provisions which are being made in the of peace.

Charter for the advancement of dependent peoples, and The Security Council is the enforcement agency of the for the promotion of human rights and freedoms, as of world Oganization, and hence must be the repository of its the greatest importance. Together with measures to power to prevent aggression.

strengthen the Economic and Social Council, they will The five Permanent Members of the Security Council help to bring the world Organization closer to the needs have at their disposal an overwhelming proportion of the of the peoples of the world. They will provide the means men and material necessary to enforce peace. Their by which nations can work more effectively together for permanent membership in the Security Council therefore that economic and social development without which becomes essential, for, without their strength and their lasting peace is impossible. unanimous will to peace, the Council would be helpless We must realize that our most important task in the to enforce its decisions. And it must be remembered that next decade is not likely to be the enforcement of peace, any action taken by the Council toward settling a dispute but to prepare the economic and social basis for peace. may ultimately lead to the necessity for enforcement If the work of the Economic and Social Council is well action if peaceful methods fail.

done, we will have gone far toward eliminating in adBut, it is objected, what happens if one of the five vance the causes of another world war a generation hence. Permanent Members embarks upon a course of aggres- This is the objective of the second group of new prosion and refuses to recognize the machinery of the world

posals put forward at San Francisco. Organization? How can the aggressor be restrained if his These new proposals state clearly that justice and inown contrary vote prevents the Council from invoking ternational law, together with equal rights and self-deforce against him? In such an event, the answer is sim- termination of peoples, shall be guiding principles of the ple. Another world war has come, vote or no vote, and new world Organization. They embody a complete statute the world Organization has failed.

of a new Permanent Court of International Justice. But I think we should not be too deeply concerned They stipulate that international co-operation in the with the kind of question Franklin Roosevelt always char- protection and promotion of individual human rights acterized as “iffy." The five great nations have come here and freedoms for all, without distinction as to race, lanwith the other United Nations to form an organization guage, religion or sex, is a fundamental purpose of the for peace—not to conspire for war.

world Organization. Twice in the last thirty years they have fought side They give the Assembly of the world Organization by side as allies—not as enemies. Their intentions are sweeping power to recommend measures for the adjusthonorable and their necessities for peace are fully as ur- ment of any situation which is likely to impair the gengent as those of any other nation, large or small. To as- eral welfare—and this includes violations of the pursume that they seek to violate pledges rather than to en- poses and principles of the Organization. force them is to oppose the existence of any organiza- They provide for a Commission on Human Rights tion for peace, and to resign the world to an endless suc- which will have the power to work out an International cession of wars.

Bill of Rights which can be accepted by member nations Another important matter before the Conference has as part of their fundamental law, just as we in the been the establishment of a Trusteeship System under United States have a Bill of Rights in our Constitution. which dependent areas may be placed by later agree- The Four Freedoms stated by our great President ments.

Franklin D. Roosevelt-freedom of speech, freedom of reThis subject was not discussed during the Dumbarton ligion, freedom from want and freedom from fearOaks conversations. The United States Government felt are, from the point of view of the United States, the that it was of the utmost importance that such a system fundamental freedoms which encompass all other rights be provided for in the Charter. We therefore took the and freedoms. initiative in discussions to that effect with the other Freedom of speech, for example, encompasses freedom sponsoring governments even before the Conference be- of the press, freedom of information and freedom of comgan.

munications. I think I can now say with assurance that, as a re- Freedom from want encompasses the right to work, sult of this American initiative, the Charter will pro- the right to social security, and the right to opportunity vide for an effective Trusteeship System. It will not be for advancement.

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-A R Freedom from fear encompasses the protection from The delegation includes four outstanding members of persecution and discrimination of all men and women, Congress, two from each party-Senator Tom Connally and the protection of their equal right to enjoy all other of Texas, Senator Arthur Vandenberg of Michigan, Repfundamental rights and freedoms.

resentative Sol Bloom of New York, and Representative The United States Government will work actively and Charles Eaton of New Jersey. The delegation also intirelessly, both for its own people, and—through the In- cludes two representatives of the public-Dean Virginia ternational Organization for peoples generally, toward Gildersleeve and Commander Harold Stassen, who is on promoting respect for and observance of these rights and leave from active duty in the Navy. freedoms.

Our senior delegate, Cordell Hull, has unfortunately The Charter will also be strengthened by naming the been unable to attend the Conference. But we have been Economic and Social Council along with the General As- in daily communication with him and have leaned heavily sembly and the Security Council as principal organs of upon his wise counsel and guidance. It was Cordell Hull's the world Organization.

achievement at Moscow in 1943 which made this ConferWe have provided that the views of nongovernmental ence possible. international organizations in agriculture, labor, busi- The Charter which is written at this Conference must ness, education and related fields can be made available be ratified by a two-thirds vote of the Senate, and must to the Council.

be wholeheartedly approved by the American people if We have conferred upon the Economic and Social Coun- the world Organization is to succeed. The important part cil the power to promote cultural and educational co- played by our widely representative and nonpartisan operation among the nations and made more specific its American delegation should assure the kind of Charter function in co-ordinating the activities of specialized in- that will win this approval. We have carried one step tergovernmental organizations dealing with labor, agri- further here the policy of close co-operation with Conculture, finance, trade and other matters—all of them gress which was initiated by Mr. Roosevelt and Mr. Hull. having as their ultimate objective higher living standards Our purpose is to provide that continuity and strength and full employment.

of foreign policy which has been so difficult to achieve in I must emphasize, however, that the Economic and the past history of our country. Social Council is essentially a co-ordinating and recom- Finally, I wish to report that we have been in daily mendatory agency. It cannot interfere with the domestic communication with President Truman. He has been affairs of any member nation. Its hope for success lies in fully informed of every step in the work of this Conferthe co-operation of the member nations--in their willing- ence. As Chief Executive of the United States, he has ness to participate effectively in those organizations guided our course. His leadership has been essential to which will be affiliated with it.

our progress. There are, I am sorry to say, people who seem to think Our remaining work here at San Francisco moves that our American economy can function in a vacuum, ahead steadily. Since the committees have already apcompletely without relation to other national economies; proved most of the important provisions of the Charter, and that by some miracle we can hope to achieve pros- we shall be principally occupied during the next few perity for ourselves without taking into account the eco- days with drafting those provisions into Charter lannomic condition of our neighbors.

guage. The various drafts will then go to the four ComAfter the defeat of Japan, millions of young men and missions for approval, and finally to the plenary session women will return home to take their proper places in of the whole Conference. Our work will then be conagriculture and in our enormously expanded productive cluded. I hope we shall finish during the early part of system. We shall not be able to provide jobs for them June. if we have not helped, through the Economic and Social I have no doubt that the final Charter prepared here Council, to create those world-wide conditions under will offer great hope of lasting peace. But I cannot speak which other nations are able to purchase much greater so surely when I try to answer the question: Will it work? quantities of our goods than ever before, and we are able Will it keep the peace ? For that depends upon the will to buy more from them.

to peace with which the nations of the world support the We must choose between a constantly expanding econ- Charter and build strength into the world Organization. omy throughout the world, or mass unemployment in our We can do no more at San Francisco than to establish own country. Full participation in the Economic and So- the constitutional basis upon which the world can live cial Council provides us with our greatest opportunity without war-if it will. to break, once and for all, the vicious circle of isolation- Our own foreign policy will play a great part in deterism, depression and war.

mining the achievements of these ends. What, then, are I look upon this Charter as, in the deepest sense, a com- the major considerations which must govern our foreign pact between peoples, reached through their govern- policy? ments. Certainly the American delegation's part in the First, we must carry the second phase of the war to work of this Conference has been carried out in the closest final victory and see to it that Germany and Japan are possible relationship with the American people. We have never able to wage war again. been in constant touch with the consultants representing Second, we must maintain and extend the collaboraforty-two nongovernmental organizations widely repre- tion and community of purpose now existing among the sentative of American life. Through their suggestions Great nations which have fought this war together. The they have made valuable contributions to the Charter. I interests of the United States extend to the whole world. hope and believe that we can build upon this experience We must maintain those interests in our relations with in the future.

the other great powers and we must mediate between I want also to say a few words about the American them when their interests conflict among themselves. In delegation.

both cases our own interests, as well as theirs, require This delegation has carried out all its work in a splen- that agreement be achieved and the solidarity of the did spirit of nonpartisan co-operation. Each member has great nations be preserved. borne, with high distinction, a full share of the grave Third, we must seek constantly to make our full conresponsibility which is upon us all. Each has been guided tribution toward the establishment in practice of the only by the higher interests of our country as an insep- supremacy of justice and of fair dealing for all peoples arable part of the world community.

and states, large and small. The power that happens to be in the hands of certain nations must never be used of our Congress but a decision of the Japanese high comfor any purpose which is not in accordance with justice. mand to bomb Pearl Harbor which put the United States And the formulation of international law to embody jus- into this war. tice must be speeded.

We in America can never again turn our backs upon Fourth, those social and economic conditions which the world. For we are not only a part of it—we are one create a climate for peace must be advanced. The be- of its most important parts. If we do not assume our ginnings we shall make through the Economic and So- new responsibilities willingly, then we shall be comcial Council and its related agencies must be constantly pelled to assume them by the brutal necessities of selfdeveloped.

preservation. There is no possibility of retreat. Finally, we must realize that we live in a world where Let us, instead, with God's help, march forward in the sovereignty of no nation, not even the most power- the cause of peace, with a greatness worthy of our ful, is absolute. There is no such thing as complete free- heritage and of the men who gave lives on distant dom of decision for any nations. It was not the action battlegrounds.

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PRESIDENT TRUMAN (speaking from Washington): Delegates to the United Nations Conference on International Organization: The world has experienced a revival of an old faith in the everlasting moral force of justice. At no time in history has there been a more important Conference, nor a more necessary meeting, than this one in San Francisco, which you are opening today.

On behalf of the American people, I extend to you a most hearty welcome.

President Roosevelt appointed an able delegation to represent the United States. I have complete confidence in its chairman, Secretary of State Stettinius and in his distinguished colleagues, former Secretary Cordell Hull, Senator Connally, Senator Vandenberg, Representative Bloom and Representative Eaton, Governor Stassen and Dean Gildersleeve.

They have my confidence. They have my support.

In the name of a great humanitarian-one who surely is with us today in spirit-I earnestly appeal to each and every one of you to rise above personal interests, and adhere to those lofty principles which benefit all mankind.

Franklin D. Roosevelt gave his life while trying to perpetuate these high ideals. This Conference owes its existence, in a large part, to the vision and foresight and determination of Franklin Roosevelt.

Each of you can remember other courageous champions who also made the supreme sacrifice, serving under your flag. They gave their lives, so that others might live in security. They died to insure justice. We must work and live to guarantee justice-for all.

You members of this Conference are to be the architects of the better world. In your hands rests our future. By your labors at this Conference, we shall know if suffering humanity is to achieve a just and lasting peace.

Let us labor to achieve a peace which is really worthy of their great sacrifice. We must make certain, by your work here, that another war will be impossible.

We, who have lived through the torture and the trag. edy of two world conflicts, must realize the magnitude of the problem before us. We do not need far-sighted vision to understand the trend in recent history. Its significance is all too clear.

With ever-increasing brutality and destruction, modern warfare, if unchecked, would ultimately crush all civilization. We still have a choice between the alternatives: the continuation of international chaos—or the establishment of a world organization for the enforcement of peace.

It is not the purpose of this Conference to draft a treaty of peace in the old sense of that term. It is not

our assignment to settle specific questions of territories, boundaries, citizenship, and reparations.

This Conference will devote its energies and its labors exclusively to the single problem of setting up the essential organization to keep the peace. You are to write the fundamental charter.

Our sole objective, at this decisive gathering, is to create the structure. We must provide the machinery which will make future peace not only possible but certain.

The construction of this delicate machine is far more complicated than drawing boundary lines on a map, or estimating fair reparations, or placing reasonable limits upon armaments. Your task must be completed first.

We represent the overwhelming majority of all mankind. We speak for people who have endured the most savage and devastating war ever inflicted upon innocent men, women and children.

We hold a powerful mandate from our people. They believe we will fulfill this obligation. We must prevent, if human mind, heart and hope can prevent it, the repetition of the disaster from which the entire world will suffer for years to come.

If we should pay merely lip service to the inspiring ideals and then later do violence to simple justice, we would draw down upon us the bitter wrath of generations yet unborn.

We must not continue to sacrifice the flower of our youth merely to check madmen, those who in every age plan'world domination. The sacrifices of our youth today must lead, through your efforts, to the building for tomorrow of a mighty combination of nations founded upon justice for peace.

Justice remains the greatest power on earth.
To that tremendous power alone, will we submit.

Nine days ago, I told the Congress of the United States, and I now repeat it to you:

"Nothing is more essential to the future peace of the world than the continued co-operation of the nations which had to muster the force necessary to defeat the conspiracy of the Axis powers to dominate the world.

“While these great states have a special responsibility to enforce the peace, their responsibility is based upon the obligations resting upon all states, large and small, not to use force in international relations, except in the defense of the law. The responsibility of great states is to serve, and not to dominate the peoples of the world." None of us doubt that with Divine guidance, friendly

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*Prior to the start of the Conference's Plenary Sessions, an opening session was held at which addresses of welcome to the delegates were delivered by President Truman, Governor Earl Warren of California and Mayor Roger D. Lapham of San Francisco. Secretary of State Stettinius presided as temporary President of the Conference.

co-operation, and hard work, we shall find an adequate answer to the problem history has put before us.

Realizing the scope of our task and the imperative need for success, we proceed with humility and determination.

By harmonious co-operation, the United Nations repelled the onslaught of the greatest aggregation of mililary force that was ever assembled in the long history of aggression. Every nation now fighting for freedom is giving according to its ability and opportunity.

We fully realize today that victory in war requires a mighty united effort. Certainly, victory in peace calls for, and must receive, an equal effort.

Man has learned long ago that it is impossible to live unto himself. This same basic principle applies today to nations. We were not isolated during the war. We dare not now become isolated in peace.

All will concede that in order to have good neighbors, we must also be good neighbors. That applies in every field of human endeavor.

For lasting security, men of good will must unite and organize. Moreover, if our friendly policies should ever be considered by belligerent leaders as merely evidence of weakness, the organization we establish must be adequately prepared to meet every challenge.

Differences between men, and between nations, will always remain. In fact, if held within reasonable limits, such disagreements are actually wholesome. All progress begins with differences of opinion and moves onward as the differences are adjusted through reason and mutual understanding.

In recent years, our enemies have clearly demonstrated the disaster which follows when freedom of thought is no longer tolerated. Honest minds cannot long be regi. mented without protest.

The essence of our problem here is to provide sen

sible machinery for the settlement of disputes among nations. Without this, peace cannot exist. We can no longer permit any nation, or group of nations, to attempt to settle their arguments with bombs and bayonets.

If we continue to abide by such decisions, we will be forced to accept the fundamental philosophy of our enemies, namely, that "might makes right." To deny this premise, and we most certainly do, we are obliged to provide the necessary means to refute it. Words are not enough.

We must, once and for all, reverse the order, and prove by our acts conclusively, that right has might.

If we do not want to die together in war, we must learn to live together in peace.

With firm faith in our hearts, to sustain us along the hard road to victory, we will find our way to secure peace, for the ultimate benefit for all humanity.

We must build a new world--a far better world--one in which the eternal dignity of man is respected.

As we are about to undertake our heavy duties, we beseech Almighty God to guide us in building a permanent monument to those who gave their lives that this moment might come.

May He lead our steps in His own righteous path of peace,

MR. STETTINIUS: It is fitting, I believe, that we should undertake a task of world significance, on the western shore of the United States where we can look eastward across the whole American continent toward Europe and westward across the vast Pacific toward Asia. We meet as guests of the great State of California, whose tradi. tional hospitality has never been more warmly or ear. nestly demonstrated. It is now my pleasure to present to you the Honorable Earl Warren, Governor of California,

Opening Session ...

Address by Governor Earl Warren

GOVERNOR WARREN: Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen, the people of California are highly honored by your presence. We are profoundly grateful to the United Nations for the unity which has pushed the war to a stage that makes timely such a Conference as is now being opened. We share with you the full realization of the importance and the solemnity of the occasion.

You are meeting in a State where the people have unshakeable faith in the great purposes which have inspired your gathering. We look upon your presence as a great and necessary step toward world peace. It is our daily prayer that the bonds of understanding forged here will serve to benefit all humanity for generations to come.

We here on the Pacific Coast of the United States of America are fully aware of the special recognition you have given us. Ours is a young civilization, a civilization that has made its greatest development during the lifetimes of men now living. Many of you represent nations which are not only ages old, but which have for centuries been making the struggle for a better world, the struggle in which we are now all joined. It is a double compli. ment to us, therefore, to have our young and hopeful segment of the world chosen as the drafting room for a new era in international good will.

We recognize that our future is linked with a world future in which the term “Good Neighbor" has become a global consideration. We have learned that unders:anding of one another's prohl ms is the greatest assurance

of peace and that true understanding comes only as a product of free consultation.

This Conference is proof in itself of the new conception of neighborliness and unity which must be recognized in world affairs. The plan to hold this Conference was announced at Yalta-half way around the world--only two and a half months ago. Yet, in spite of all the tragic events of the war, including the sad and untimely death of our own President, it opens today here in San Francisco on schedule and without the slightest interference with the greatest military undertaking in all history.

Unity has created the strength to win the war. It is bringing us ever closer to the end of world conflict. This same strength of unity, continued and cultivated here, can be made to develop a sound pattern of world affairs with a new measure of security for all nations.

It is in the spirit of neighborliness that we join you in advancing tolerance and understanding, the tools with which we are confident a better and happier world can be built. It is in expression of this spirit that I as Gov. ernor of California welcome you to our State.

MR. STETTINIUS: Thank you, Governor Warren.

The municipal authorities and the people of this historic city have spared no effort and no sacrifice to provide to this Conference every facility to accomplish its labors.

I present to you a man who eminently deserves the gratitude of all of us. My friend, the Honorable Roger D. Lapham, Mayor of San Francisco.

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