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dreds of thousands of Americans of Greek descent who In view of the compromise adopted in Yalta on the are repaying in grateful loyalty the opportunities granted question of voting, it is now open to any country to to them by their country of adoption.

bring to the attention of the Security Council any dispute Inspired by the example of the American people, we or situation likely to endanger peace by requesting that will soon begin to build up our new Charter of interna- it should be placed on the agenda of the Security Council. tional security on the basis of the drafts worked out at It is not open to any one of the permanent members of Dumbarton Oaks and Yalta by the great powers, to whom the Council to veto such a step so long as seven of the the gratitude of this Conference is most surely due. eleven members of the Council vote in favor of such

The Greek Government commit themselves to the adop- a procedure. tion of these drafts as a basis of discussion, and venture Moreover, in cases concerning the pacific settlement of to make some observations in regard to their provisions. disputes and situations likely to lead to international

During the initial phase, postwar security should be friction, the Yalta Proposals mitigate the rigidity of the pursued as a projection of the solidarity maintained by power of veto of the permanent members since, when any the United Nations in the prosecution of the war. The of them is a party to a dispute, it is debarred from United Nations owe it to their peoples and to their voting. dead to safeguard a peace that has been won at so great If, however, no settlement is reached through the proa price. It is understandable that the great Allies on cedures referred to in Section A, i.e., by negotiation, whom fell the main burden of responsibility for smashing mediation, conciliation, arbitration, judicial settlement, the Axis aggressors should also assume the main re- or any other peaceful means which may be open to the sponsibility for directing the first steps of the new parties, or through the recommendation of appropriate Organization. Their continued unity of purpose and col- measures of adjustment made to the parties by the laboration are the principal prerequisites of peace.

Security Council itself, and if such failure is considered Does this mean that the small powers should resign by the Council as constituting a threat to peace and themselves to complete self-effacement? We do not think security, Section B, Chapter VIII comes into play, and so. On the contrary there is ample scope for their activi- the following important steps are then contemplated : ties. The gods will help only those who help themselves, First, the Council should determine the existence of and during this war we have seen a few so-called small any threat to the peace, or any breach of the peace, countries who made no mean contribution to our common or of any act of aggression and should make recomvictory. At a time when Britain was resisting alone the mendations or decide on the measures to be taken for fury of the German assaults, the Greek people did not the maintenance or the restoration of peace and seflinch from facing the treacherous Fascist attack, and for curity. six long months victoriously withstood and overcame Second, the Council should be empowered to determine their onslaught, thereby provoking Hitler's wrath and what measures could be employed to give effect to its calling down upon the Greek people the fury of his decisions. Those measures could range from the intervengeance.

ruption of means of communication or the mere severance Along with the other United Nations, Greece has un- of diplomatic relations to the application of sanctions by dertaken a historic responsibility, and one that she is armed force. determined to discharge resolutely and sincerely. Her There would be nothing to object to in the above two past record is an earnest of what she may justifiably be steps if they were not marred by the possibility of the expected to do in defense of general security and, in use of the right of veto by any one of the permanent fairness, entitles her to an active and responsible part in members. This right of veto appears to create a feeling of our new Organization.

uneasiness in certain quarters. The small countries are The Charter that we are about to draft should not not unaware of the necessity or unmindful of the imporcreate a false sense of security and complacency. We tance of maintaining the solidarity of the “Big Three" should take care that it does not lead to an individual powers, which is in the last resort the greatest guaranty sense of irresponsibility by promoting a confused feeling

of peace. that the maintenance of peace is the anonymous concern

It is in that spirit that they will no doubt sacrifice their of everybody in general, and of nobody in particular, for legal scruples in respect of the application of sanctions thus a convenient alibi would be provided for govern

to the superior interests of peace, and will be prepared ments reluctant to shoulder courageously their share of in that connection to be resigned to—if not applaud—the responsibility. The undoing of the League of Nations was

exercise of the right of veto by the permanent memdue also to this cause and not to constitutional short

bers. comings.

It will be more difficult for the small countries to While reserving to itself the right of making specific

acquiesce in the use of the veto by any one of the peramendments with the competent organs of the Confer

manent members in respect of the determination of the ence, the Greek delegation takes this opportunity of

existence of a threat to the peace, or of any act of submitting, for the consideration of the other United

aggression. Nations of the Conference, the following general observa- This is a point on which the small countries will feel tions on the principles and procedures embodied in the very strongly for reasons connected with the principles Dumbarton Oaks and the Yalta proposals. The mainte

of international justice and morality. nance of peace and security, the development of friendly They would bear with greater fortitude their disaprelations, and international co-operation for the solution pointments and tribulations resulting from the nonof international problems, should be linked with the gen- application of sanctions in consequence of the use of the erally accepted precepts of justice, morality, and inter- right of veto, if at least the Security Council could deternational law. The decisions of the Security Council should mine the existence of aggression and, implicitly, of the be governed by the criteria of law and justice.

aggressor. In the opinion of the Greek delegation the role assigned Is it not too much to ask a small country, victim of to the General Assembly should be a more active one. In aggression, to forego the moral and legal satisfaction of particular it should be stipulated that it shall be open to knowing what is right and what is wrong, and who is the Assembly to make recommendations on any question the wrongdoer and who is the victim ? that is under consideration or has already been treated Let no one think the small countries' earnest desire in by the Security Council.

this connection is an unprofitable and purposeless claim. There is a very great deal in it which is of interest also deal with economic, social, and other humanitarian to the great powers and would ultimately serve the best problems. interests of peace. In this connection, less confusion and The great sufferings and sacrifices sustained by milgreater clarity are necessary, and they would have a re- lions of people will have been made in vain unless the straining effect on the potential aggressor.

nations that have fought side by side in this terrible war We venture to suggest a few alternative remedies to shall have learned at last the supreme lesson that there these drawbacks. The best course to take would be that cannot and will not be peace and political security in the the permanent members should, of their own accord, world if we are unable to bring about a satisfactory relinquish their right of veto in the determination of the degree of international economic stability and prosperity, existence of a breach of peace or of an act of aggression. and to assure to the peoples of all nations the conditions This would make it possible for the Council “de dire le of health, social security, well-being, and education to droit,” a fundamental element of any charter of security which they have an imperative claim. worthy of that name.

In particular, those people who have sacrificed all Failing this, it is suggested that the permanent mem- their material wealth in fighting and resisting the enemy bers should relinquish their right of veto in the determi- have the right to expect that the economic solidarity and nation of the existence of a breach of peace or of an act interdependence of all nations will be recognized as a of aggression, when two or more countries, other than fundamental principle which not only emanates from the permanent members of the Security Council, are con- conception of international justice and morality but is cerned. It is further suggested that at least a recom- dictated by the common interest of all nations that are mendation should be obtainable from the Security Coun- members of the same international society. cil without the use by the permanent members of the These are in brief the general observations of the Greek right of veto.

Government on the essential features of the Dumbarton The Greek delegation welcomes the provisions con- Oaks Proposals as completed by the texts adopted at cerning an International Court of Justice as the judiciary Yalta, and it is the earnest desire and wish of the Greek of the new 'Organization. It would also welcome the ex- people, as indeed of the peoples of the United Nations, tension of the compulsory jurisdiction of the Court in that this Conference may respond to their expectations the settlement of legal points.

and to the challenge which is made to the statesmanship In connection with the section concerning the pacific of the eminent representatives assembled here. May we settlement of disputes it is suggested that it should be not fail them! left to the Court to decide whether or not a given situa- Before closing I desire, in the name of my Governtion or dispute arises out of matters that under interna- ment, to express our fervent wishes for the success of this tional law fall within the domestic jurisdiction of the Conference! state concerned.

MR. MOLOTOV (translation): I now recognize the ResiThe Greek Government welcome wholeheartedly the dent Commissioner of the Philippines to the United States provisions contained in Chapter IX of the Proposals, and chairman of the delegation of the Philippine Comwhich provide for the creation of a special council to monwealth.

Fourth Plenary Session ...

Address by Brig. Gen. Carlos P. Romulo


GENERAL ROMULO: Mr. Chairman, Fellow Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen: Let us make this floor the last battlefield.

We are here to determine whether the human race is going to exist or whether it is to be wiped out in another world holocaust. Those among us who have watched the death agony of great cities, those among us who come from the foxholes of battle fronts, have no illusions as to what another war will do to all men. This may be our last opportunity to achieve peace. We are here to fight for our lives.

As one from the troubled Pacific, let me impress upon you that unless all men of good will act now and together -unless we are determined in this Conference to achieve our goal—we are but preparing the setting for another world cataclysm. If we fail, we may find ourselves in another global war, with the Pacific as its maelstrom. Peace to be an actuality must be based on the recognition of the problems that affect human dignity. We have seen the ultimate achievement of aggression in the human bonfires of Manila and Essen. These living torches lighted the road back to savagery--no, beyond a savagery we never dreamed human beings could be capable of reaching. It is impossible for minds to grasp the monstrous agony of these things. The charred bones of men, women, and children that are now being shoveled under German and Philippine earththey are war. They are what would

be in these very streets if the advantage of Pearl Harbor had been pressed, and the Rising Sun flew today over this building and this city.

We know how much is being unleashed against us who are seeking to achieve a decent medium of world existence without war. We are all aware that Japan and Germany are joined in their fears and their hopes for our failure, and that their skulking protagonists elsewhere are aiding their fears and their hopes that we may not succeed. They are the haters and the degraders, and they are willing us to fail. But why should we fail ? Why should peace be impractical? Why should humanity again betray itself?

Words and ideas are more powerful than guns in the defense of human dignity. Treaties are stronger than armamented boundaries. The only impregnable line is that of human understanding.

We are well aware that international imderstanding must rest on practical security, and that the economic structure of the world must determine the balance between nations. But of more lasting importance is the spiritual structure.

Technicalities can be ironed out. The wise and the shrewd of all lands can come to an understanding. Business and commerce can agree, or let us say that they can be made to agree, but the human pattern cannot be forced, and its settlement cannot be delayed. For it must


be determined or another war will wipe us and our again. Men of all nations have shown their ability to sacbickerings and our misunderstandings from the face of rifice and to die. Now-now-is the time to show our the earth. Unless we can agree, we will return to the ability to sacrifice and to live. For without mutual sacdust, for we have failed as men.

rifice now, we will only live to die. In every human being is the craving and the right for There is a pattern to study and dissect. It is one of the recognition. In every normal human is the longing for spirit, of what we must call the human soul. In our hands peace. One of the oldest prayers in the human heart is is the tremendous responsibility to preserve the human this: “Let us have peace.” The mountain of man's prog- race, or to condemn it to certain doom. Here--here-on ress is great and terrible, and they who climb must this testing ground, cannot the victorious say: "Let us adjust their pace to the weakest or the entire chain of come out of our strength and our power. Let us yield to climbers will go down. Until the weakest link in our these others; let us be prepared to share our power and human chain is made safe, not one of us is safe. We our opinion that victory may be sure. Our aim must be must determine here and now this basic pattern of un- tolerance, for victory can be preserved only with tolerderstanding that will insure world security.

ance. We will sign here our death warrant for the future We have seen in this war how effectively boundaries unless we show our willingness for giving and not for and nationalities and racial division have been forgotten grasping, a capacity for understanding and not of clingwhile achieving a common stand against a

ing to the set determination that has undone the past, enemy. In the ultimate effort to save our lives, it is the and the ability for meeting on the common earth of unshared understanding that matters, and not the heritage derstanding, the littlest nation and the littlest man.” of blood or country.

This war has given us a new yardstick by which to Today, one billion Oriental faces are turned plead- judge the stature of nations. Nations are no longer ingly toward us for recognition of their human rights. judged by their size or by their wealth or by their popuIt is their hope and their prayer that the peace which this

lation. In the darkest hour for civilization in Europe-in Conference is seeking to secure is one that will not neglect

the darkest hour for civilization in Europe-8,000,000 the uplift and development of all socially and economi- Greeks, in number insignificant, their country in size cally depressed areas and peoples, but one that will help inconsequential; and yet because they refused to give in, raise them to a plane of living where they can become because as worthy descendants of the heroes of Thernot merely bystanders but effective collaborators in the mopylae they stood their ground and refused to surpromotion of human welfare and advancement. Theirs is render their principles and ideals, the Mediterranean Sea the plea, my Fellow Delegates, that such a peace may

was not made into a German sea. not be appropriated for the purpose of freezing the po- We were able through our forces to invade North litical, economic, and social order of that part of the Africa from where German bombers could have been world.

based to attack the Atlantic seaboard; but the Greeks May I pause here to pay tribute to the memory of resisted and because they resisted they saved civilizaFranklin Delano Roosevelt, the staunch defender of the tion in its darkest hour in Europe, for you as well as for human rights of these millions-a man who died an me. But that was in Europe. American, but whose grave is the world—the peerless In the Pacific, let us review the events of the recent leader who gave new meaning to our lives in the Far past. Let us recall how nations in that section of the East because he was the champion not only of the for- globe collapsed one after another before the Japanese gotten man of his own nation, but of the forgotten man onslaught. And it was dark indeed for civilization in the everywhere in the world. We turn our reverential thoughts Pacific. But 9,000 American soldiers—9,000 American to him today with a very deep sense of loss, because to soldiers—and 75,000 loyal Filipino troops stood their us of the United Nations he is the symbol of all the ideals ground in Bataan. They held at bay 300,000 Japanese for which we are fighting in this war; and his passing troops and 500 Japanese planes that at that time could away at this time deprives us of his guidance and inspira- have been used for an outright invasion of Australia. tion. We find consolation and strength in the assurance They resisted. They held. They fought, and behind them that in Harry S. Truman, his worthy successor, his spirit 18,000,000 loyal Filipinos. And in the words of Chief of marches on.

Staff George C. Marshall, of the United States Army, Paramount in Asia today is the remembrance of past later confirmed and substantiated by that great Aushopelessness. Sections of our world are festering with tralian leader, Prime Minister Curtin, these four months resentments that will obstruct the way to peace unless that we resisted the Japanese in Bataan and Corregidor they are brought out into the open and cleared away. gave the United Nations time to prepare in Australia. We must give ourselves tolerance. We must ask what So that in the darkest hour for civilization in the Pacific, gave birth to those resentments and hatreds. We must 18,000,000 Filipinos, insignificant in number, their counask why they are there. And we must answer these ques- try a mere dot on the map, helped to save civilization, tions frankly before we can wipe away these erosions for you as well as for me. of distrust.

In Athens, the ancient Greeks sculptured the goddess This can be and must be done. True, this is not a con- who brought them victory as an angel with clipped wings ference to frame a peace treaty. But our words and ac- (Nike Apteros) because they did not want her to fly tions here can outline a future pattern that can serve for away. They wanted to keep her safe with them with her all the small nations of the world—a pattern that can feet on the ground. To them as to us, victory represented be the working basis for world communal living—a pat- power, but they were willing to curtail that strength for tern that will set the peace. In this plan, the terms under they did not want to lose all that they had won. We can which the individual nations have set their manner of find no wiser formula for the lasting victory which will living must adjust themselves to the needs of the peace; be the lasting peace. By yielding to the common good, power must become pliable. Each nation must be pre- by a civilized recognition of the mutual advantages that pared to contribute its share of effort and its share of will be given to us all, by trimming the wings of power, yielding. In this civilized family first one member and we can hold to our victory, with her head so proudly then another gives in or yields a little and by these small among the stars, and her feet set firmly on our earth! submissions they gain everything in pride and protection. MR. Molotov (translation): I now recognize the Min

In that past war, heroic efforts have been spent in a ister of Foreign Affairs and the chairman of the deleganobility and sacrifice we pray may never be required tion of Uruguay.

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Fourth Plenary Session ...

Address by Jose Serrato


MR. SERRATO (translation): Mr. President, Delegates: I have the honor to address my first words at this meeting place in a tribute to the memory of Franklin Delano Roosevelt, the great democrat and citizen of the world, whose death is lamented by all men and all peoples of the earth, both free and oppressed. His name will have a prominent place in the history of humanity because of his self-immolation in the service of mankind without limitations, without rest, fear, or suspicion, and with noble and lofty inspiration in their legitimate and mutual aspirations for freedom and welfare.

I also wish to render homage to the heroism and the glory of the great fighting peoples—the United States of America, the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, and China—to whose victorious efforts we owe the defeat of the forces of the Axis powers and the calling together of all peace-loving nations in order to organize international society and create the system of world security to protect and guarantee the legitimate rights of all peoples.

The courage, daring, and spiritual greatness of these peoples merit the gratitude of civilized humanity and they shall always be remembered by history. Their blood, sweat, tears—to recall the memorable words of Winston Churchill—have brought to the world, after noble sacrifices, this birth of justice.

But I also wish, in the name of the Government and of the people of Uruguay, to pay tribute to all countriesof any status or power—which have accompanied in their heroic crusade the United States, Great Britain, the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics, China, and Brazil; have taken risks through the conflict; and have sacrificed the lives of their sons, whose fighting and suffering have known no limit and no truce, in order to assure and establish the triumph of civilization. This tribute is also extended to the French people, which arose in the fight against Nazi-Fascism despite the faint-hearted surrender of their leaders in 1940, and whose Committee of Liberation the Uruguayan Government was the first to recognize.

Uruguay, in the most bitter hours of the conflict, had the honor to be faithful to the call of a civilization in danger. Without hesitation or fear of the power of the Axis, disregarding risks and reprisals, its people enlisted in the fight against aggression from its very beginning. It prevented within its territory treason against the fighting nations; it vigorously suppressed the Fifth Column; it granted the status of nonbelligerency to the countries fighting for liberty; it opened its ports and bases to the ships and airplanes of the Allies; it placed its raw materials at the disposal of the peoples at war against the Axis; it broke diplomatic and commercial relations with the members of the Tripartite Pact; it promptly declared a state of belligerency with Germany and Japan; and it did not officially send its troops to the theaters of war because they were not requested, but its volunteers-an unforgettable group of earnest young men-left their sacred remains in the battlefields of Africa and Europe.

America feels honored by the fact that the peoples of the Western Hemisphere did not hold back, nor did they hesitate. They contributed with measures of political defense, nonbelligerency procedures, democratic loyalty, raw materials, broken relations, and declarations of war,

to the struggle and triumph against the Axis powers. And at the bitter moment of the treacherous attack on Pearl Harbor on December 7, 1941, they tightened their bonds and intensified their efforts to express, materialize, and maintain, without defection or hesitation or fear, their fullest active solidarity toward the United States, the great and heroic nation of the continent, which was attacked in an unpardonable act of treachery. Another sister republic, Brazil, has sent forward its courageous expeditionary Army to the Italian front, where it is co-operating honorably in the Allied triumph.

Thus, the American peoples have been loyal collaborators in the struggle against aggression and conquest; and just as they have rendered an efficient and undeniable support throughout the struggle, within their means and resources, they also wish to co-operate, living up to the high ideals of their history and international conduct, in the tasks of organizing the world and consolidating the peace and welfare of mankind.

The so-called Latin-American countries cannot rival the great powers in population or military and economic might; but, on the other hand, they possess an unfailing and precious moral strength derived from adherence to law, love of freedom, and respect for democratic ideals, a strength which cannot be ignored or set aside without injury to the human destiny.

The small countries lacking in military power constitute at all times a power for the good of peace and international justice, because they depend entirely on law and must inevitably abolish aggression, threats of aggression, and violence. The sword of the conqueror and the ax of the executioner are banished by them. Consequently, in the future Organization of the world these peoples without vanity and without aims of conquest can and must be considered as a great new power at the service of peaceful living among the nations, the rule of international law, and the ethical and juridical principles of civilization. Between the just and the unjust, they have always declared themselves for justice; between the lawful and the illegal, they have always decided in favor of law; between violence and security, they have always struggled for the maintenance and strengthening of the realm of peace. To assure the participation in international society of countries small in size and military strength, the enforcement of their rights, and the natural sway because of their large proportion in the earth's population, their spirit, their moral orientation, their wealth, and possibilities in international trade, would be equivalent to establish and consolidate an effective and unshakable guarantee for the fulfillment of the essential and supreme purposes of the organization for solidarity and peace which is to arise out of the historic deliberations in San Francisco.

The Latin-American countries constitute an eloquent proof of all that I have said. They had not been attacked directly in the First World War, nor in the present war; they had no territorial problems or boundary disputes with the aggressor countries; they did not entertain plans for expansion nor did they covet territories; but in both cases they did not hesitate in deciding in favor of liberty against oppression, or justice against iniquity, siding strongly with the nations which defended in the world what Woodrow Wilson aptly called “the treasures of law.”

Uruguay, in whose name I speak, has kept and still keeps unswerving fidelity to that spirit. It has not come

to San Francisco to defend private or selfish interests, the acquiescence of the latter. We shall thus avoid creatnor to discuss pre-eminences or win honors, nor to hinder ing new forms of conflict later. with trivial obstacles the fundamental agreements on Security must be collective, universal, and coercive. whick will rest the solemn and greater function of the (The proceedings of the Conference were interrupted maintenance of peace after the approaching final victory. when paper bearing the headlines “Nazis Quit” was Urugua; has come to San Francisco to collaborate loy- brought into the room and shown to the Conference. Mr. ally in the organization of the world and of international Molotov, being informed that the report of Nazi surrensecurity with constructive aims, without prejudices or der was without official confirmation, shortly directed the illusions contrary to reality, but with the desire and hope translator to proceed.) that the world of the future will respond to and satisfy With respect to the framework itself of the Organizathe ideal of justice which inspires the nations and men tion to be established, Uruguay accepts the Dumbarton of all continents.

Oaks agreements as a system imposed by the needs and Victory is not a desideratum. if it is not used for the contingencies of the state of war and of what will follow benefit of humanity; and the cruel effort of years of strug- in the immediate future, in the character of a first impergle would be of little avail if the United Nations did not fect stage, but one that can be perfected in the future, demonstrate that they are capable of winning the peace transitory and provisional in nature, and lasting only as well as the war, by their acts, by incarnating into liv- until the final consequences of the conflict are liquidated ing reality, and perfecting whenever possible, every day and it is possible therefore to restore a statute of interand every hour, the spirit of universal co-operation and national society without the deficiencies which appear in concord which inspired the Dumbarton Oaks agreements those agreements. and proposals.

It is not the peace of force that we desire, but that of Uruguay accepts those proposals and agreements, con- harmony, justice, and the general welfare. vinced that the essential and first thing to do is to create The contention for organized coercive action--the only in the world an organization and a system of security effective form in its case against the aggressor who rewhich will suppress international banditry and prevent a sorts to force in seeking aims which justice denied him return to the law of the jungle; but, together with its and which he could not attain by regular peaceful juridibrothers of America-in accordance with what was cal means, is a reality which we must also contemplate. agreed upon at the Inter-American Conference on Prob- The order that is to be established for regulating instilems of War and Peace, recently held in Mexico City- tutional life will not be perfect, but it must indeed be it wishes the future world organization to gain the maxi- effective. mum efficiency and not to suffer from omissions or cleav- Only through collaboration of all large and small naages, but to perfect its structure to the greatest possible tions, weak or strong in military might, whatever their extent.

creed, race, or political organization, will it be possible to Uruguay is pleased by the creation of a world Organi- build a secure system of peace in the world. For this, it is zation in which the participating nations are recognized indispensable, before all and above all—and I expressly * as being juridically the equal of one another, and the emphasize it—to fulfill loyalty and correctly what is purpose of which is to guarantee international security; agreed upon. but it also desires that, among their more definite and Uruguay accepts the organization of an Assembly as a precise aims, they may have those of permanently realiz- body that is fully representative of the nations, in the ing the ideals for which free nations have fought and suf- understanding that all of them will act therein under the fered in this war: the supremacy of law, the triumph of same juridical category and on a level of perfect equalliberty, respect for the dignity of the human being, the ity—that is to say, that there will be no superior states outlawing of violence in any of its forms as an instrument and inferior states, nor states with privileges and states for the settlement of disputes, and repudiation of doc- without them, nor states which have a form of hierarchy trines of racial division and discrimination.

and quality and states which appear in a rank-and-file To this aspiration it adds the hope that the world Or- line of countries with lesser rights. In this same concept, ganization will expressly and categorically adopt the it deems it advisable that the powers of the Assembly be principle of the inviolability of the independence, territo- strengthened in order to promote and facilitate solutions rial integrity, frontiers, and rights of nations, and that it tending to consolidate the peace and stimulate internawill create adequate machinery for preventing or repress- tional co-operation. ing acts of aggression.

With respect to the projected Security Council, my For Uruguay, the country which attacks any member country affirms that, in keeping with its old traditions, it of the peaceful community of nations must be considered sustains the hope that the Council will be formed by proan aggressor by all of them collectively, and all of them, cedures of democratic origin, it being necessary that it be in turn, must act to find a juridical settlement of the dis- directed by members chosen by the Assembly without pute and, in lieu thereof, to defend the state attacked, distinction as to prerogatives or rights. with arms if necessary.

In the present circumstance, however, Uruguay acThe Act of Chapultepec, approved by the American na- cepts, as a transitory situation, that the four great powtions at the Mexico City Conference, has adopted this ers—the United States of America, the United Kingdom, principle and organized procedures for the prevention and the Union of Socialist Soviet Republics, and Chinasanction of threats of aggression, at the suggestion of which have borne the heaviest load of the war, have conUruguay, Brazil, and Colombia. My country fervently tributed most decisively to victory and will have the most hopes that that memorable international instrument will serious duties and responsibilities for the maintenance be integrated with the world Organization and will lay of the future peace, should be assured seats on the the necessary foundation for studying a way to see that Council, but not indefinitely and only for a period which defense, both material and in respect to acts involving the may be judged advisable, say eight or ten years, for independent personality of the countries and the quaran- example. tine and punishment of acts of aggression, will be effect- But, as it already maintained in a statement of Seped by regional organizations, with the support of all the tember 28, 1944, it desires that France be included in the members of the International Organization.

category of big members of the Council not subject to Continental regionalism must be connected with the election by the Assembly, as a tribute to her role as world Organization and should mobilize forces only upon champion of liberty, to her moral significance, to her son

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