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row and sacrifices in the trials of war and to her perma- My country feels that it is desirable to organize a counnent collaboration in the processes and destinies of uni- cil charged with promoting, encouraging, and initiating versal culture,
the relations of cultural interchange between the naIt is also of the opinion that the Latin-American na- tions, for the same reason that it believes in the spirit, in tions should be considered for membership in the Coun- the moral forces, and in the factors of intelligence which cil in view of their proven ideals of international peace have definitely served as decisive motives for taking up and harmony.
arms and stimulating the conscience in the struggle With respect to the constitution of the International against the Axis powers. Court of Justice, Uruguay believes that all differences There will not be peace in the world if there is no peace and controversies between countries which cannot be set- in the spirit. tled by friendly means or arbitral procedures, should It is necessary to reach it for the rebirth of the ideals without any exception be submitted to its jurisdiction and at the end of the painful crisis of the world, the knowldecision. It maintains this, because it has the conviction edge and the interchange of the values of culture, the disthat all international conflicts are susceptible of solution semination of noble ideas which will pacify the soul and by law; and because it entertains the fear that, if distinc- will unite mankind, the propagation of the pacific spirit tions are made between political and juridical disputes, and the development of the movement called "moral disand if the former should be eliminated from the scope of armament,” which fosters respect and love for law, and the International Court of Justice, the situation might ethics, which recommends the correction of history and tend to strengthen the intervention of force in disputes geography textbooks which prevent understanding and or controversies between states.
agreement, and unites nations, classes, and individuals in In its opinion, the Court should be universal and the the collective duties and sentiments of civilization. only one, as is due the very attributes of justice, preclud- If poisoned words and dishonest teachers have been ing, consequently, courts of special jurisdiction or for able to prepare the war, generous words and truthful specific zones of the world.
teachers must maintain peace. Uruguay also favors the establishment of the Eco- But a stable and sane peace cannot be attained if nothnomic and Social Council directly elected by the Assem- ing is done for the democratization of the world and the bly, which would be free, in social and economic matters, rule of freedom. For Uruguay, peace and democracy conto make recommendations to its member states.
stitute complimentary objectives, each of which is a In this Organization and in its wise future action, my guarantee and a motive for the other. This is its thesis country has great interests and hopes, since it previously of law. had the honor of declaring that “peace should not be con- In this regard it feels that in the proposed Internasidered an end in itself but rather a starting point, a tional Organization there should not be admitted nations means and an instrument to effect the improvement of professing doctrines of aggression and war, which are ineconomic and spiritual living conditions of peoples." clined to undermine or destroy the order of juridical
It would not be possible to attain the international peace in the world. peace longed for by all, if social peace is not attained. For However, in order to be a member of international sothis purpose, it is indispensable that the economic life of ciety, it is not enough in its opinion to present the titles the world be laid on more equitable foundations, that co- of "peace-loving nations," but it is also necessary to be a operation between countries respond to active principles freedom-loving nation. and be affected with equity and amplitude; and that the For this reason, restating a thought in which it bepopular masses do not have the dangerous dissatisfaction lieves, Uruguay puts forward a formula according to in their living standard which produces social conflicts, which it would be required that the states aspiring to adrebellions, and wars. The greatest wealth is man himself, mission to the community of nations effectively respect and, consequently, the people without dividing lines—in the essential liberties inherent in the human being. Withone word, humanity-composed of persons under all out this condition, admission should be refused. flags. Hence, to promote the economic welfare and devel- The concept of equality imposes necessarily the nonopment of the human species is to combat war and to base intervention principle, which must be firmly and fully eslasting peace on harmony of interests and the extension tablished by the international association under the folof justice.
lowing conditions alone: Uruguay has endeavored to preserve, defend, and (a) The freedom of a state may not reach at any time guard this fundamental and precious wealth by provid- a point which is incompatible with the rights and the ing under a decree of July 26, 1944, that its delegates to pacific relations of the others; and conferences and congresses of the postwar express the (b) In the event that any state should make an atneed of combating the disturbing practice of "dumping" tempt, or prepare for an attempt against such rights in international trade. To this end it has proposed: That and such peaceful relations, collective intervention governments and peoples give preference in commercial by all nations in order to re-establish peace would be interchange to the merchandise and products of countries proper and justified. in which there prevail effectively the juridical and ethical Within the international community there is reason for principles of protection of workers against exploitation regional organizations, which may even be indispensable, by the state or by individuals; to reject the merchandise such as the inter-American system, under the condition and products of countries which obtain a lower cost for that their action should fall within the scope of the inthem at the expense of the rights, health, and freedom of ternational community, and that in no case would the rethe working masses; and to refrain from entering into gional organizations be able to set one continent or region commercial agreements with nations which maintain against another continent or region, and that they do not labor organizations oppressive to human beings.
represent an isolation of the nations composing them in This principle, in the opinion of Uruguay, should guide opposition to the other nations of the world. the activities and work of the Economic and Social Uruguay believes that the co-existence of regional sysCouncil.
tems with the world community could be implemented on If there is to be an organization entrusted with secur- the following bases: ity, another with justice, and another for the economic (a) The juridical systems of the world Organization and social planning of the world, there should also be an and the regional organizations must not exclude or organization entrusted with culture.
replace each other, but must be implemented and
co-ordinated so as to strengthen the rule of law; and tles, and hopes, it will not yet be a perfect and finished
should have the right to address themselves to all course of time, as a consequence of the aspiration and
The first day of its existence will also be the first day
n for sable, Hition ne inde reegion To not
1 sysced on
Verbatim Minutes ...
THE FIFTH PLENARY SESSION
APRIL 30, 1945, 3:34 P.M.
MR. EDEN: (Presiding Officer) Fellow Delegates, Ladies and Gentlemen: The Fifth Plenary Session of the United Nations Conference on International Organization is hereby convened. For the convenience of my fellow delegates, I now announce that the Sixth Plenary Session will be held in this hall tomorrow, Tuesday afternoon, at 3:30 o'clock.
The first item on our agenda today is the report of the rapporteur of a meeting of the heads of delegations on the organization of the Conference.
I call upon the chairman of the delegation of Cuba, rapporteur of the meeting of the heads of delegations.
MR. BELT: Mr. Chairman, Fellow Delegates: The chairmen of all delegations represented at the United Nations Conference on International Organization held their third meeting on April 30, 1945, at 11 a.m.; the Honorable
Edward R. Stettinius, Jr., President of the Conference, acted as chairman.
Seating of the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic at the Conference:
The meeting recommends to the Conference in plenary session that the Conference, having decided that the Ukrainian Soviet Socialist Republic and the Byelorussian Soviet Socialist Republic be invited to be initial members of the proposed International Organization, their representatives be permitted to take their seats at the Conference immediately, as they have requested through the representative of the Soviet Union.
MR. EDEN: Any observations on that resolution ? (pause) No observations ? The resolution is approved.
Fifth Plenary Session ...
Debate on Seating the Argentine Delegation
MR. BELT: Seating of the Argentine Republic at the Conference:
The meeting recommends to the Conference in plenary session that the representatives of the Argentine Republic should be permitted to take their their seats at the Conference immediately. MR. EDEN: Any observations on that resolution ?
MR. EDEN: I call on the chief delegate of the Union of the Soviet Socialist Republics.
MR. Molotov (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): Mr. Chairman, Ladies and Gentlemen: The Soviet delegation consider the question of inviting Argentina to this Conference an important one.
MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): I will discuss this question in Russian, which most of you are not familiar with. I know, however, that Russian is quite suitable for a just cause.
MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): The question of inviting Argentina to this Conference was only brought up before the delegates today, and it had never been discussed previously by representatives of the four sponsoring powers. It is quite natural, therefore, that the Soviet delegation, desiring to acquaint themselves with this question, and to let all the other members of this Conference do likewise, suggest that its discussion be postponed for a few days.
MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): Anbody knows that in this war against our common enemy Argentina has held a special place; it is equally well known that for these past years of war, neither the foreign nor the domestic policies of the Argentine regime has met with the other United Nations' approval. You will know what I mean when I quote a statement made by the former Secretary of State, Mr. Hull, and published on September 8, 1944:
"Secretary of State Hull yesterday branded Argentina as headquarters for a Fascist movement in this Hemisphere and a potential source of infection for the rest of the Americas.”
Allow me to quote another authoritative statement made by President Roosevelt on October 1, 1944:
“I have been following closely and with increasing concern the development of the Argentine situation in recent months. This situation presents the extraordinary paradox of the growth of Nazi-Fascist influence and the increasing application of Nazi-Fascist methods in a country of this Hemisphere at the very time that those forces of oppression and aggression are drawing ever closer to the hour of final defeat in Europe and elsewhere in the world.”
MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): I consider both statements authoritative and reliable. But they were made several months ago. The situation in Argentina may have changed since then. I understand that certain representatives of American countries hold the view that the situation has changed for the better there. All I should like to ask of you is that the Soviet as well as other delegations be given a chance to acquaint themselves at length with the facts and to satisfy themselves that the situation in Argentina has really improved and that statements like the above correspond to the facts. But this takes time, or, at least, a few days.
MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): Imagine what would happen if we acted rashly and invite Argentina to this Conference, although in the present war she has been assisting the Fascists who are our enemies, and failed to invite Poland which is an Ally. Poland is known to hold in this war an honorable place among Allied nations which have devoted all their efforts to the struggle against our common foe. The heroic Polish people have been fighting in our ranks and making innumerable sacrifices. We cannot afford to forget about all this. To invite Argentina, which has been helping our common enemy throughout this war, and not to invite the Provisional Polish Government, which is now functioning in liberated Poland and enjoys an enormous prestige among the Polish people, would be taking a course that might affect adversely the prestige of this Conference,
MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (In English): No one can deny the fact that the Polish Government now functioning in Warsaw and all over Poland is a democratic government. This
Provisional Polish Government is strongly supported by sition here. We consider this a very good rule and are opthe people and is carrying on a struggle against our com- posed to any disruption of our unity. mon enemy side by side with our allies.
MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian): MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): I think that we should all INTERPRETER (in English): We also remember that the value our unanimity and try to insure that any new suggovernments of the United States, Great Britain, and the gestion that has not been sufficiently studied by anyone, Soviet Union had undertaken promote the reorganiza- be given serious ht. That is
we think it proper tion of this Government on a broader democratic basis. I that the question of Argentina should be settled in exhave no doubt that this excellent decision responds to the actly the same manner as others have been, but not in wishes of the Polish people, too, and so we must do our all haste. best to implement it as soon as possible.
MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian): MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): The Soviet delegation sugINTERPRETER (in English): It is also obvious that the gest that the question of inviting Argentina to this Conquestion of reorganizing the Polish Government is not a ference be postponed for a few days for further study. matter for this Conference. It has to be dealt with by the MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian): three Allied governments and especially by the Poles INTERPRETER (in English): This is the only request themselves. We all want in Poland a government having made by the Soviet delegation. a broader democratic basis, a government with which MR. EDEN: I have been asked to recognize the delegate diplomatic relations will be esablished by all Allied gov- of Colombia. I call upon the Minister of Foreign Affairs ernments. This is understood. But if we are not supposed of Colombia to speak. to undertake at this Conference the settlement of the Pol- MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish): ish issue as a whole, neither must we ignore the fact that INTERPRETER (in English): Mr. Chairman and fellow an international conference is being held at this very mo- delegates: Spanish has always been the language of jusment which is not attended by representatives of the Pol- tice. I hope that on this occasion it will also be the lanish people. In any case we cannot refuse a seat at this guage of clarity. Conference to representatives of the Polish people, our MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish): heroic ally, while granting one to representatives of Ar- INTERPRETER (in English): As the Latin-American delgentina, which in this war has not been helping us, but egate I feel that I must say that there is involved here a our enemies.
question of principle. It is that we do not judge governMR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
ments in view of their domestic policy, but in view of INTERPRETER (in English): It may be argued that Ar- their international policy and international conduct. gentina has sinned, but that her sins may be forgotten. MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish): This may be true, perhaps we should really forget Argen- INTERPRETER (in English): In examining the question tina's sins. But let me ask you: If certain sins committed of Argentina, we must realize that we are dealing here by Argentina may be forgotten, why should we forget Po- not with a neutral nation but with a nation that has deland's services, why should we forget the great services clared war on the Axis powers, a war that is not yet of the Polish nation in the struggle against our common ended. foe?
MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish): MR. Molotov (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): While it is true that ArINTERPRETER (in English): We have at this Confer- gentina has declared war at a late hour, it is nevertheless ence an Indian delegation. But India is not an independent a nation that has adhered to the declaration of war and state. We all know that the time will come when the voice to the responsibilities involved. While it may not be in a of an independent India will be heard, too. Nevertheless position to participate in the armed conflict, it certainly we share the view held by the British Government which is in a position to contribute heavily towards the rehasuggested that representatives of India should be granted
bilitation of the peoples Nazi-Fascism has affected in its a seat at this Conference, imperfect though her status is. destructive war. MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish): INTERPRETER (in English): We have at this Conference INTERPRETER (in English): The United States Governa Philippine delegation. But the Philippines are not an ment and other American governments, including the independent country. We know full well that the time will Government that I represent, have spoken strong words come when we shall be able to hear the voice of independ- of reproof concerning the conduct of Argentina. The ent Filipinos, too. But we have agreed with the United words quoted by the delegate of the Soviet Union are States Government, which suggested that the Philippines true; however, those words refer to conduct in the past. have a voice even with their present status.
MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish): MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
INTERPRETER (in English): The Government of the INTERPRETER (in English): The Soviet Union still has United States under the Presidency of Franklin Delano no diplomatic relations with certain governments repre- Roosevelt did not object to the action of the Mexico City sented at this Conference. In spite of this fact the Soviet Conference relative to the invitation to Argentina, at the Government, meeting halfway the suggestions of Great same time requiring Argentina to meet certain condiBritain and the United States of America, raised no ob- tions, such as the declaration of war on the Axis powers. jections to the invitation of all the delegations present Argentina has met these conditions. The word of honor here, no matter whether the countries in question main- of the other American nations on this matter should be tain diplomatic relations with all of the sponsoring states. confirmed here. We felt that in this case we were bound to meet the MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish): wishes of Great Britain and the United States. All this
INTERPRETER (in English): I wish to make but a brief was prompted by a desire on the part of the Soviet Union
allusion to the comparison that has been established by to come to terms with the other sponsoring governments the delegate of the Soviet Union between the Argentine on Conference matters.
question and the Polish problem. Surely it would be an MR. MOLOTOV (in Russian):
act of injustice if Poland who has suffered so much in the INTERPRETER (in English): Up to now all invitations war were not to have a voice in the organization of peace. to this Conference have been approved unanimously by However, I must point out that there is no effort made in the four sponsoring governments which hold an equal po- sessions of the Conference or its committees to avoid the
question of an invitation to Poland. That is a question MR. PADILLA (in Spanish): pending the action of the three powers regarding the INTERPRETER (in English): Now I ask why, within that interior organization of Poland and her government, the spirit of coherence, unity, and fraternity that binds us all question being which government represents Poland. But -binds us in such a way that we have expressed our aphere let me state that fortunately for Poland, her cause proval to what the powers had compacted or agreed to at is in very good hands, in the hands of those three na- Yalta-are not the powers now recognizing, in the same tions.
spirit, what the 20 American nations have agreed to? MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish):
MR. PADILLA (in Spanish): INTERPRETER (in English): The Latin-American gov- INTERPRETER (in English) : Surely in questions of war, ernments had not thought to intervene in the Polish in questions where force is necessary to maintain the question. We maintain the principle that we must not peace, the four powers must also have the authority for intervene with the interior organization of other govern- decision. ments. We do realize, however, that after the destruction MR. PADILLA (in Spanish): of Poland it has been necessary that the strong hands of INTERPRETER (in English): But when we are dealing, the three strong governments should help in Poland to as we do now, with a nation that does not present a situaestablish a situation that will defend the interests of the tion of danger to unity in the family of nations, I raise United Nations. Colombia's vote will be one in full har- the question, what objection can there be to recognizing mony with whatever may be the vote of the three nations. that situation ? MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish):
MR. PADILLA (in Spanish): INTERPRETER (in English): The Argentine case is dif- INTERPRETER (in English): While Argentina has been ferent. We are dealing here with a nation that has de- branded a Fascist nation, we must bear in mind that here clared war. We are not interested in determining or ana- a distinction must be made between the nation and her lyzing the character or quality of her government. We government. Argentina is a nation of democratic tradiare merely interested in affirming that as long as there be tions, long-standing democratic traditions. Also, she has a government in Argentina that shall maintain Argentina distinguished herself by her contributions to internain the position that it has taken we shall consider Argen- tional law—a great nation that works—a great nation tina as now a belligerent nation.
that feels—a great nation with a people that feels full MR. CAMARGO (in Spanish):
sympathy with the Allied cause. While it is true that the INTERPRETER (in English): The other cases, Mr. Chair- Government accidentally divorced itself from the sentiman, I submit the cases of India and the Philippines, have ments of her people, it would not be fair to punish the no relation whatsoever with this problem, no relation at people for an accidental separation of the Government all with the discussion in hand. They could have been con- from those deep-rooted sentiments of her nation. sidered and can be considered with the question of the MR. PADILLA (in Spanish): acceptance as founding members of the International Or- INTERPRETER (in English): During the period when ganization of the Ukraine Republic and the Byelorus- Argentina maintained a position of isolation, the other sian Republic.
Latin-American governments were constantly pressing MR. EDEN: I have been asked to recognize the delegation upon her to define her situation clearly. Argentina conof Mexico. I call upon the chief delegate of Mexico to tinued its policy. The Latin-American countries then took come to the tribunal.
action, broke relations with the Argentine Government. MR. PADILLA (in Spanish):
At the Mexico City Conference, definite requirements INTERPRETER (in English): Let my first expression be were established and placed before the Argentine Govone of homage to Poland, the martyr nation, the people ernment for action. Action in compliance thereto was rethat has endured enormous sacrifices throughout its his- quired to bring Argentina within the American family of tory. I feel certain that in expressing this homage to Po- nations again. land you do not hear the voice of one man alone; it is the Argentina complied with these requirements. It is true voice of the world expressing such homage. We all aspire that when the Fascist Government of Argentina still exto the day, to that early hour, when Poland, possessing isted, President Roosevelt used strong terms of condemall the dignity and respect that she deserves, shall rise nation, but when Argentina broke with the Axis powers from all the destruction and the sacrifices she has en- and took the further step of declaring war on the Axis dured.
powers, President Roosevelt recognized the Argentine Now I would like to limit my words to the comparison Government. that has been established between Poland and Argentina. MR. PADILLA (in Spanish): These are, indeed, contrasting cases. Surely our Confer- INTERPRETER (in English): In the Act of Chapultepec, ence would welcome the voice of Poland in our Council. there is a clause that reiterates the adherence of the However, her admission is pending, because it is related Latin-American countries to democratic principles. Arwith the Yalta Agreement drawn up by the powers.
gentina subscribed to this requirement. We have faith The case of Argentina is different. Of course, there too, that Argentina will go on complying with these requirethere was a pact, an agreement. The Latin-American na- ments. We fellow delegates also feel that nothing can tions decided to invite Argentina to join the American na- unite nations more than democracy and liberty. When tions and the United Nations, to make of the whole of equality, the principle of democratic equality among naAmerica one continental unit. Therefore, Argentina was tions, shall be practiced in our international conduct, invited to sign the Act of Chapultepec. What was the re- then we shall consolidate the bonds of fraternity, justice, sult to this invitation ? Argentina welcomed that expres- and peace among nations. sion as coming from the 20 American nations, and read- MR. EDEN: The delegate of Belgium has asked to be ily expressed its willingness to sign the Act. However, recognized. I call upon the Foreign Secretary of Belgium. that was not enough. Argentina, it was said, must declare MR. SPAAK (in French): war on the Axis.
INTERPRETER (in English): We have heard, Ladies and MR. PADILLA (in Spanish):
Gentlemen, that the representative of the Soviet Union INTERPRETER (in English): When the American nations enjoyed speaking in the language that stood for justice; were informed of the Yalta Conference, we expressed our other delegations have enjoyed speaking in their lanwillingness to co-operate with what had been planned by guage for clarity. May I be allowed to speak in the lanthe powers.
guage of conciliation.