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very. But we shall now considler only the more important--the significant inflections; those upon the correct use of which the meaning and force of composition depend ;-leaving the learner, unincumbered by rules which perplex rather than instruct, to make a practical applica. tion of thein to the less inportant parts of composition as his judgment
Falling Inflection The falling inflection is used where the language is bold and ener. getic; where a positive assertion is made; or where an indirect ques tion is asked.
it of you.
EXAMPI.S. Who first second thiern to that foul revolt 1 Thic infernal sèreut. Where is boasting then? It is exưlüled. But Jesus sit, wly tèmpi ye me, ye llypnerites ! Jinsi il upon this point; 1 uge you to it; pièss it; require it; nay, demand
Wiat, 'Tubern, did that naked sword of youni's mea:l, at the battle of Pharsa. Jia? At whos biensi wis it thru? Will Was i!" Al!g of your arudin vour spirit, your ejus, your hands, your ardır of soul?
Risins In lecliun. The rising in'lection accompanies the weakri* emphasis, where the enunciation of thought is tender, conditional, or incoinplete.
EXAMPLES And he lifted np his eyes and saw his brother Benjamin, his mother's soie and said, is this your younger brother of whom you spake unto me?
If some of the branches be broken 5.1, anul thón, bring a wild olive tree, trert g aftei in angolo ther, iind with the partake of the root and duties of the olive tré.; boast not against the branches.
The beanty of a pláii, ilio great ss of a mohltan, the ornaments of a build. ing, the expression of a protitre, thircomp 811.01 of it disión/98, the convincent a third pé:son, the propers of liferent qualities and núnberg,-- die gem neral subjecis of science and taste, -are what we and our companions regard, as having no peculiar relatio: lu either of us.
This in!lection is also used with the direct question, or that which admits of yes or no for the answer; as, —Are you going to Cieneva ?
Do you g., to-idáy ?-But if the sa ne question be repeated, as if at first not heard or understood, it takes in the repetition the more forcible enphasis of the falling in lection ; as-Are you going to Genúva ? Are you going to Genèva ?Is this your book ?--“Sir?"--Is this your book ?
When the disjunctive or connects words or phrases, it has the rising inflection before, and the falling after it.
Is it tiwfulon live sabbath day to do good, or to do evil ?-to save life, or to dastidy it ?
Has God forsaken the works of his own liá: ds ?-or does he always gracions to preserve, and keep, and guid.. then ?
But when or is used conjunctively, it has the same inflection after as before it; as,
Would a belic of divine revelation contribute to makc rulers lees tyránnical, or subjects less góveruable ?-lle is a nan of wisduin ; or, at leasi, of great Icàrning
When affirmation and negation are opposed to each other, that which affirms has generally the falling, and that which denies the rising iniicction.
Think no that the indience of devotion is confined to the retiren:ent of the olúzet, and the assembly of the sai. is: Imagine noi, thai, Nicomected with the duties of life, it is suilid only to those enripiled souls, whose feelings per. haps you do-r.de as romantic and visionary :--) is the gliaidian of innocenceit is llie instument of virtue-it is a means by which every good atiectiun inay be formed and improved.
The Circumf.ex. T'he circumflex is used to express ideas ironically, hypothetically, or comparatively; or when sometiiing is rather insinuated than strongly expressed.
If nien sve our faults they will talk among theu:selves, though we refuse is let them talk to us.
lle hiis inore àit than science.
Were we to ask a physician concerning a sick person, and receive in reply—“He is better"-we miglit suppose him to be yet danger. ously sick,—the circumfex giving us an idea only of a slight, or compar: tive ameirument, but were he to say--He is better-our anxiety for his sfity would be at once removed.
The following example will more clearly show the controlling infuence which the intiection las upon the sense, without changing the seat of the em basis :
church I am unable to suppross evil thoughts. The idea, which this sentence is intended to convey, is, that the person making the assertion is subject to evil thoughts, which, not only most places of resort but even the sacrednees of a church does not enable him to suppress. Hence it should be read with the strong em. phasis and the falling infection upon church; thus~" In church 1 ani unable to suppress evil thoughts.'--But if the circumflex be used with the emphasis, a different idea will be conveyed, it will be, that the person, although in most places not subject to evil thoughts, is in church peculiarly a fllicted by, and unable to suppress them; thusIn church I am unable to suppress evil thoughts. We will take another example. Horatio in the Fair Penitent says:
"I will not turn aside froin iny loose pleasnie, though all thỹ force be armed to bar my way."
The circumpos upon thy implies 1het Ierstic loob rupen the op posing force with contempi; and is cquivalent tos virg"Prime turn asiile for a respectable osporition, but thy force is net worth re garding." But place the filling intretima urilitley, al'd it nakes it a matter of greator non ent:-while it compliu ents the ol'fusing force, it declares a lleternination to resist it, great as it is.
In exanining the principles of vocal ivicction. the ingrnicus scho lar will find both anilisement and instruction. Wislicul leng muderstcod, they are practiseel by all, intuitively, when the stronger cu o tions are excited; and if ycisons could strictly Sue 11:0 dictates of nature in these res: crts, they would neer err.* l'uitle force of batbit is alaost irresistible; and ivhen this is form od on the sile of crror, nothing hut the strongly excited emotions can disengage its londs. It will be in vain, therefore, to cle; and up on the dietition of these cmotions; for they will be found unerring only in the expressions of cri ginal thought, and then only under cirem: stances as i love descriled. It brzomes necessary, then, that the clocirine of infections he studied, that they mav lie applied in unimpressional discourse, and to tlie coin position of cthers- tudiel. riot umer tlire impression that they rincia ples of nature are to be sulivoiteil, knit discovered, and strictly followed,
Porter, in speaking of the importance of a kincwlovige of the prin. ciples of infection, says: “ Analysis of vocal infections lears tha saire relition to oratory, that the uning of an instrument clocs le R!usic. The rudest perform or in tis laltre ort knows, that his fin business is to regulate the instrui ont le usrs. when it is so dorange ag to produce no perfect notes, er to rcduce ahors than those which he intends. Tlie voice is the speakers instrument, which, liy neglec ormismanagement, is often so out of ture as no: to cher the will of hiin who uses it. To cure bad habits is the s.rst and hardest task in elocution. Among instructors of children, scarcely crie in fifty thinks of carrying his precep.ts beyond correctness in uttering words, and a mechanical attention in pauses; so that the child who speaks the words of a sentence distinctly and fuently, and " ninds the stojis," as it is called, is without scruple pronounced a good reader. Hence, among the multitude who consider themselves good readers, there are so few that give by their voice that just expression of sentiment, which constitutes the spirit and soul of delivery.'
V. Monotone. Monotone is a sameness of sound upon a succession of syllables, like the repeated strokes upon a lell. It has the peculiar property of rendering composition either sublime or ridiculous, according as it may be judiciouslv or injudiciously used. Nothing is more disgusting thau a dull repetition of sounds upon the sanie pitch of the voice, resulting from a dullness in the reader or speaker, and applied in common discourse. It is notwithstanding used with the most happy effect, in grave delivery, in the expression of sublime and reverential emotiong, and in elevated description. The following examples will illustrate *
used with propriety :
"If a man should discover his own bonse on fire, die wmild next, like a dio tant and disinterested observer, cry, fré! fré! firé !--but we should haar boks more expressive exclamation or Juel firel fire!
But when or is used conjunctirely, it has the same inflection after as before it; as,
Would a belief of divine revelation contribute to make rulers lees tyránnical, or subjects less governable ?-Ile is a man of wisdoin; or, at leasi, of great Icàrning.
When affirmation and negation are opposed to each other, that which affirms has generally the falling, and that which denies the ri. sing inilcction.
Think no that the influence of devotion is confined to the retirement of the olúčet, and the assembly of thie sái. ts: Imagine not, thah, inconnected with the duties of life, it is suited only to those eurapillied souls, whose feelings per. haps you dr.de as romantic and visionary :-- It is the guardian of innocenceit is the instrument of virtue-it is a meais by which every good affection inay be formed and improved.
The Circumflex. Tithe circumflex is used to express ideas ironically, hypothetically, or comparatively; or when something is rather insinuated than strongly expressed.
If men sve our faults they will talk among theur:selves, though we refuse to
Were we to ask a physician concerning a sick person, and receive in reply." He is better-we might suppose him to be yet danger. ously sick,—the circumfex giving us an idea only of a slight, or come parative amendment --but were he to say--He is better-our anxiety for his safety would be at once removed.
The following example will more clearly show the controlling infuence which the inflection has upon the sense, without changing the seat of the emphasis :
In church I am unable to suppross evil thoughts. The idea, which this sentence is intended to convey, is, that the person making the assertion is suhject to evil thoughts, which, not only most places of resort hut even the sacredness of a church does not enable him to suppress. Hence it should be read with the strong em. phasis and the falling infection upon church; thus," In church lan anable to suppress evil thoughts." —But if the circumflex be used with the emphasis, a different idea will be conveyed, it will be, that the person, although in most places not subject to evil thoughits, is in church peculiarly afflicted by, and unable to suppress them; thusIn chủrch I am unable to suppress evil thoughts. We will take another example. Floratio in the Fair Fenitent says:
"I will not turn aside from iny loose pleasure, though all thỹ force be armed to bar my way.”
Another great defect in modulation arises from an unskillful effort
avoid the monotone. It consists in a periodical clevation of the moice, both in pitch and volume, on one or more words in every sentence; while ii gently undulates upon the rest, varying but little from the monoione. Let the words in small capitals in the folowing ex. ample, be pronounceu withi â füller voice, and on a ligler key than the rest, and this manner of realing will be exliibited.
"Our siglii is the most perfeci, and most delightful of all our senare. !t lills the inind with the largest variety of 1208, converses with its radjects al GREATEST distance, and continues the longest in action without being TIRED OF futiated with its proper enjoyments :'
There is one other manner of reading deserving of notice. It is sometimes ådopted in the pulpit, from the mistaken notion that it adds solemnity to the subject matter. It consists in adopting two tones of voice, generally two or four notes distant from each other, and pronouncing every word upon these notes, changing alternately from one to the other. The difference between this manner, and that exhibitel in the last example, is, that in this, several words are often sounded upon the higher note in succession, and on the remaining words there is no variation from the monotone. This manner my be ex. hibited by reading the words in Roman letters, in the example following, in a strictly monotonous manner, and the words in Italic a minor third, or tone an: scuitone above them :
"I tell y;011 though you, thrugh all the world, though an angel froin heuren, should declare the truth of ii, I would not believe it."
The learner will find much benefit in practicing upon examples like the foregoint: by doing it understandingly, he will he led to the diseovery of his own peculiarity of mariner, if he have any, and be able to apply the corrective.
VII. The reading of Verse. The same rules may in general be observed in the reading of verse, that apply to prose. There is, however, a peculiar charm in poetry, which entities it to a few additional remarks.
First-Although the beauty of poetry consists in the smoothnessund harmony of its nuubers, the poetic measure should not be permitbed to destroy the sense by usur; ing the proper emphasis or accent. We sometimes hear sentences like the following, read thus:
"False eloquence, like the prismatic glass,
And selt, from lov'd ones far away,
An exile from Ameri-ca." In some cases, when the metrical and the custonary accent do not anite upon one syllable, they can both be indulged, as in the followmg:
"Our 81-preme soe in time may much relent." It is a general rule, however, that neither the rights of the customary sccent, nor the emphasis, should be infringed.
There are two kinds of pauses which belong to poetry: the cæsumal pause, which falls about the middle of the line, and the pause af the end of it. In poetry in which the casural pause unites with a ditriou make by the sense, the line is harmonious, as in the following: