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B.

bé,

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22 tché or ché, CH or TCH soft. R hard (as in raft.)

rah,

S.

* noo,

2 shah,

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sé,

4 viev,

dune,

ré,

tzvoh,

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wo, tchab,

r

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The 36 Characters from to R were formed in the fourth Century, the last two (and were introduced into the Armenian Alphabet in the twelfth Century .

Vowels.

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1 The above sounds are the nearest that can be given in English characters.

10

Consonants.

4,

f, 4, 7, 4, P, d, L, Fu, d, S, &, q X, S, J, 4, 2, 2, 4, 2, 2, 1, 4, m, l', g, t, e, J.

SYLLABLE.

A syllable is an articulate sound, as, шIL,

ar. Ew, nah. qup, tar. wqm, aghd. ap,
նա,
worm. ¿шpŋ, part. qunu, karn. qp, temk.
Lp, zor. puq, unt. [e, tiv. Fw, zham.
Lyu, looyce. Sun, dzar. 4w, gahl. Swp,
hire. Sufu, tzine. Xun, jar. up, mire. ¿n,
շուն,
shoon.wp,
tchar. Qap, tshoor or chure. unpp,
soorp. np, der. pud, rahm. gau, tzoo. eft,
ւիւթ,
ute or ext. fumg, park.

A syllable may be also composed of six letters, as ubweg, siampk. Qappg, chiurpk. Two or three consonants are sometimes formed before or after a vowel.

Double consonants at the end of a syllable are pronounced short, as, mшpp, darr.pw. quee cahghack.

When the word ends with double, in

the pronunciation an is inserted, as մատնն ( մատնըն ) madnun. ձեռնն (ձեռնըն)

t

tziernun.

So also when in the beginning of a word the same consonant is doubled, as, 224 (2244) shashoog. 44ng ( 4c4ng) gugotz.

When the liquids, 2, r, are at the end

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of a syllable after another consonant, they have equally in the pronunciation the letter ը, as, մուկն ( մուկն ) moogun. աստղ ( աս տլ ) asdugh . դուստր ( դուստր ) toosder .

But not when they precede the consonant, as, գունտ, coond. աղտ, aghd. կարգ, garck . Likewise when the consonants are different, as, թուղթ, tooght . սուրբք, soorpk . Հողմք, hoghmk .

In the beginning of many words between two consonants the letter is understood in t the oblique cases in stead of another vowel of the nominative case, as, ձուկն, tzoogun . ձկան (ձկան) tzugan. միշտ, mishd. մշտակայ ( մշտակայ ) mushdagah.

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WORD

A word is an articulate sound expressive

of our ideas.

Words in the Armenian language consist of eight parts of speech; Nouns, Pronouns, Verbs, Participles, Prepositions, Adverbs, Conjunctions, Interjections.

NOUN

GENDER.

A noun signifies some substance, or quality, as, up, man. bpkbp, earth. u, light. wppuyne her, kingdom. Snqh, soul, spirit. wuðu, person. punɩəfiɩu, nature. Mung, mind, thought. pup, good. qbqbgbų, handsome. pung, sweet. &, great.

In nouns six peculiarities are to be considered: Gender, Form, Species or Kind, Number, Case, Declension.

In the Armenian language the genders are distinguished by their natural significations, as

MASCULINE.

դամ, Adam . ]J՝ովսէս, Moses . Պետ pbqp, Gregory. 1] wpquiu,

pnu, Peter. Vardan, etc.

Հայր, եղբայը up, father. Equp, brother. ուստը, son, a male-child. puuy, a husband, spouse. шulp, a father-in-law. np, uncle, a mother's brother. upw<wjp, gossip, Godfather. up, man, husband. Sunuy, a man-servant. թագաւոր օր արքայ, king . նախարար , sa– trap, a peer. gay, a bull. Equ, an ox.pwq, a he-goat. Jung, ram, a male sheep. qnɩшpw4, bullock, a young ox. եղջերու, a stag. աքաqwq, cock, etc.

Tinku, tribunal. soldiers. &qu հեծելա quduq, cavalry, horse-troops, etc.

10,

FEMININE.

buy, Eve. Yunw, Sarah. 'wpfund, Մարիամ, Mary . ( ուշան օr ( ուշանիկ , Susanna . վ արդուչի, Rose, etc.

u, grandmother. Typ, mother. pp, sister. Supu, spouse, bride. liu, woman; 4, wife. Lump, daughter. 24, girl, maid. qnpшus, mother-in-law. un, son's wife, daughter-in-law. ubunıp, mother-in-law, husband's mother. Lupulum, gossip, Godmother. դշխոյ, տիկին, թագուՀի, queen, princess . օրիորդ-, young girl. նաժիշտ, աղա fufiu, servant-maid. 4, cow. Epful, hei

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