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required. Mr. Melvil Dewey, state librarian of New York, in speaking of the qualifications of an ideal librarian says:-"When we have covered the whole field of scholarship and historical knowledge and training, we must confess that overshadowing all are the qualities of the man. To my thinking a great librarian must have a clear head, a strong hand, and above all a great heart. He must have a head as clear as the master in diplomacy; a hand as strong as he who quells the raging mob or leads great armies to victory; and a heart as great as he who, to save others, will if need be lay down his life. Such shall be the greatest among librarians; and when I look into the future, I am inclined to think that most of the men who will achieve this greatness will be women." This ideal may appeal to one perhaps out of two hundred and then will come the question, How shall one attempt to realize it? The quickest way is to take a technical course at a library school. There the underlying principles are taught and also the application of those principles in the leading libraries.

The work in a library is so much more diversified than that of teaching that the all-round view of the situation given by the training school is perhaps more important to the would-be librarian than is the normal school course to an embryo teacher. Suppose, however, that an aspirant for library honors enters, let us say, a large library and is given work in one department. She may learn her special work thoroughly, and perhaps pick up a few hints of the work in other departments. It is for the library's interest. however, to retain her where she has become skilful rather than advance her to untried duties and replace her by a raw recruit. If she transfers her services to another library she may have the chagrin of finding that its methods in her own department are quite unlike those to which she has been accustomed. She may, on the contrary, have taken a humble position in a small library, but here, even with a superior able and willing to teach, the resources at hand will be insufficient to furnish a training conducive to future advancement. If herself given charge even of a small village library, it is well nigh needless to add that a dozen times a day she will meet with vexing problems which will make her sigh for such training as would have enabled her to foresee and provide for them.

The question frequently arises. What is there to learn that a two years' course is required? One has but to look over the curriculum of any one of the library schools to realize that the question should be, How can it all be learned in two years? The course covers a wide field broadly divided into the bibliographic, or more scholarly side, and the economic; the division pertaining to methods and accessories which facilitate the use of large collections of books. Again, both of these divisions may be studied from the historical or from the immediately practical point of view. Hence we have on one hand such topics as the history of manuscripts, their production, distribution, and preservation; the history of the printed book, followed by bibliographies of different countries and of different subjects,-bibliographies which furnish information as to choice of editions and such as give prices of rare and outof-print books; and on the other hand the history of libraries in the past, how founded, and by what means carried on; beginnings of the modern library movement and resulting legislation in our own and in other countries;

followed by practical considerations of best methods of rousing interest and raising funds ; proper housing of libraries, including heating, lighting, ventilation, and furnishing of buildings; best organization of the working force of the library; how to choose and buy books, involving a knowledge of prices, discounts, duties or free importation, auction sales, exchanges, bills and vouchers, as well as a knowledge of current bibliography. Then comes the still more technical side of recording accessions, classifying, including a knowledge of the different systems of classification ; cataloging, again in volving comparative study; proper shelving and arrangement of books on the shelves ; best systems of notation and labeling; arrangement and preservation of public documents, pamphlets, manuscripts, maps, music, prints etc., with comparative study of the mechanical accessories applicable in each case ; knowledge of correct forms of blank books, cards, catalogs, shelf-lists, guides and labels, as well as an insight into the practical work of preparing material for the press, proof-reading, and last but by no means least, knowledge of the detail work of book-binding. All this must of course but lead up to tbe great aim of all library administration,—the public and how best to serve its interests : the topics here considered are not only of the practical order, like those concerning regulations for readers, records of books loaned and accounts of fines due, shelves thrown open or barred off, and the advisability of establishing branch reading-rooms, delivery stations, or libraries ; but also of the more bookish order, how to attract patrons to the library, to stimulate and increase the interest of the timid reader, how best to solve the question of reading for the young, how to prove helpful in reference work with the student, in short, how to make the whole library contribute, if necessary, to answer a single question.

The parent school was opened at Columbia College Library in January 187, in response to a demand for trained librarians. In April 1889, it was transferred to Albany to become a part of the University of the State under the name of the New York State Library School. Only a limited number of students are admitted. The preference is given to college graduates who are admitted without examination, but only when of recognized fitness and character. The course is two years, though not all who finish the first year are permitted to take the second year. The student during the first year must show evidence of special ability to be admitted to the second year work. College graduates may obtain the degree of B. L. S. (Bachelor of Library Science) upon completing the course with an examination standing of ninety per cent or over. Detailed information may be obtained from the ViceDirector, Mrs. S. C. Fairchild, Albany, New York.

This school could not supply the demand for trained librarians and assistants, and other schools were started of which three, conducted by graduates of the original school, are worthy of consideration. The first to be started was that connected with Pratt Institute, Brooklyn (1890). Miss Mary W. Plummer, a graduate of the Columbia College Library School in the first class, is the director. In 1891, Drexel Institute, Philadelphia, opened a library school under the direction of Miss Alice B. Kroeger, graduate of the New York State Library School, class of 1891. In 1893, at Armour Institute, Chicago, the third school was opened under the direction of Miss Katherine

L. Sharp, B.L.S. '92 of the New York State Library School. In these Institute schools a college education is not required for admission, but examinations are given in literature, history, and general information. In 1897, the Library School at Armour Institute was transferred to the University of Illinois at Champaign, and the course is only open to those presenting two years of college work.

There are various summer schools carried on in connection with certain libraries, mainly for those already engaged in library work who can not spare the time to take a longer course. To the novice they furnish but birdseye view of the field. In a few large libraries training classes have been formed to furnish assistants for the service of the library giving the instruction. All of this provision for technical library training makes it easy for one now wishing to take up librarianship as a profession. The schools do not guarantee positions for their graduates, but no student who has done good work and is not hampered by personal peculiarities is long without some opportunity to try her skill.

Notwithstanding the importance of technical training, that alone without the foundation of a wide and deep knowledge of books is of as little avail as a normal course to a teacher who has no knowledge to impart. To be sure, the librarian does not spend his time in reading the books in his charge, yet an acquaintance with their contents he must have. The college graduate then is the one most likely to have the widest knowledge of books and so may be the one best fitted for the technical training wbich leads to the ever widening library profession.

NINA E. BROWNE, '82.

Six months ago none of our Club had more than barely heard of the National Consumers' League, but an interest in social problems is a natural

heritage of the girls who go out from A Recent Lecture on the Smith, and while the chief aims of our National Consumers' League society have been to raise money for the

college and to become better acquainted among ourselves, a chance to learn the details of a work lately taken up in behalf of the laboring classes was welcome.

The National Consumers' League is the outgrowth of the local work of Consumers' Leagues in four different states : New York, Massachusetts, Illinois, and Pennsylvania. The New York League is the oldest, and its services in white listing stores are well known. For ten years a band of patient workers in New York City have treated with the shopkeepers at whose mercy are the clerks, and have pleaded with the buyers at whose mercy are the shopkeepers. They have planted themselves on the firm economic basis that the world of labor is hypersensitive to the wants of the shopper and responds almost immediately to the fiats of his purse, and their appeal is addressed to the people who buy, in the hope that intelligent organization among them may convince those who sell that their customers really care how the clerks behind the counter are treated and how the factory hands and sewing women out of sight are paid. The New York League led the way, and the other state Leagues followed. The work in its beginning was of strictly local

character, but when it came to the problem of dealing with long factory honrs and sweat shop labor, disunion was weakness and the four Leagues cooperated and adopted a uniform label by which garments made under proper conditions may be known wherever they are sold.

This is only a hasty sketch of the history of the National League. It has been in existence a little over a year; its headquarters are in New York, its president is Mr. John Graham Brooks, and its secretary is Mrs. Florence Kelley, who was once a factory inspector in Illinois and is therefore peculiarly fitted to investigate the factories which ask to use the League label.

Mrs. Kelley lectured to us here in Hartford on the evening of March 20, in the Park Congregational Church, before an unusually attentive audience. She is a clear, forceful speaker, possessed of that coveted gift vaguely called magnetism, which might be defined as a faculty for making the rest of the people listen to what you have to say. She described to us the great need for a hearty and effective effort in behalf of the “ sewing classes” by telling of sights slie had herself seen, and she made clear many important points in the aim and working of the League.

It is a very common idea that paying a good, fair price for a garment, while it does not guarantee the amount of wages earned by its maker, at least makes it likely that a reasonable sum is received and acquits the conscience of the buyer. Mrs. Kelley disabused her audience of that comfortable notion. Many of the garments which bear the League label, made in good factories where the bands are well paid and a day's labor is not over ten hours, are of the cheapest sort, labor saving machinery has made their production possible at almost absurd prices, while at the same time thousands of garments of a better class, the medium quality which most of us buy, are farmed out, and the comparatively low prices they bear are made possible by the unfair wage paid to the worker. According to Mrs. Kelley, price is absolutely no clue to the conditions under which goods are made. She has seen a little girl working on garments of the very cheapest, meanest sort in a dirty kitchen where no one had had time to clear away the dinner dishes, while in a little. dark room off the kitchen the man of the family was stitching by artificial light on a handsome coat destined to fill the order of a custour tailor up town. The report Mr. Brooks gives of the relation between final prices and the wages of the workers is more encouraging ; still the sum and substance of all the argument is that there is no guarantee that what we buy is made as it should be and where it should be, unless it bears some mark given only when strictly deserved.

There are some people who are easily convinced that a long pull and a strong pull and a pull all together on the part of buyers who really care, migbt go far to stamp out the practice of sweating labor, because if the people call for goods rightly made the storekeepers will echo their demand, but they are not convinced that it is a sane and kindly thing to do. What," they say, " is to become of the poor woman who, to be sure, is ground down by the middleman, but who still ekes out the scanty living of the family by making a little something by her needle? Will you not crush altogether the very Weaklings whom you profess to pity?” Mrs. Kelley shed considerable light on this most difficult part of a difficult subject, and it must be remembered that she has been a resident of Hull House and knows very well what she is talking about. The tenement house labor as she has seen it is far from being a blessing in any, even a disguised, form. It gives the husband or father of the family a chance to drink and to be idle. The woman slaves at what is properly his business, the support of the family, and the man is less eager to find a job when he is out of work, and more free to spend his wages for whiskey. According to Mrs. Kelley, it is sentimentalism pure and simple, a sentimentalism of which we must rid ourselves,—to cry out that the poor woman who sews long hours of the day and night would starve if her work were taken from her in the course of fine economic plans for her class. When the women become what they ought to be, home-keepers, and the men are forced to work and be sober to support the homes for their wives and children, a great deal of the misery in crowded tenement districts will disappear of its own accord.

Another point which Mrs. Kelley touched upon is of general interest to us all, this time for more selfish reasons. It is the matter of contagion. Where the state inspection laws are inadequate or tend to be a dead letter, there is nothing to vouch for healthful conditions of manufacturing. Mrs. Kelley found in Chicago hundreds of trousers for little boys being made in a district where scarlet fever was rife,-in the very rooms where children were lying sick with it, the mother sewing and nursing her little patients by turns. These trousers were not for the most part to be sold in Chicago, but in other places; they were not even supposed to be made in Chicago,-so far as the knowledge of their future purchasers went they had nothing to do with Chicago. Stitched in each pair was a label which said New York.” It is against outrages which cut both ways that the work of the League is aimed. Its label is protected by law and is given only after investigation. The more call there is for garments bearing it, the more desire for it there will be ainong manufacturers. The abuse is guarded against by a penalty. Any manufacturer agreeing to conform to the standard adopted by the League and not living up to his agreement is liable to a fine of one hundred dollars.

There is a field of work here for alumnæ, who can help on the League all over the country, and for undergraduates, who can advertise it by asking for goods bearing its label wherever they may be, in Northampton, Springfield, the large centers, or in their own bomes. The Massachusetts branch of the League is strong and flourishing and deserves support for the sake of its work in the past and because of what it bids fair to do in the future. Its president is Miss Edith M. Howes, 416 Marlboro Street, Boston. Several interesting experiments in details of management have been successfully tried in Massachusetts. Since the annual membership fee of one dollar is burdensome, where it bears a familiar likeness to the annual dues of a dozen other societies that beset the philanthropically minded, Massachusetts has set going a system of group memberships, so that four or sometimes even ten shares may be held in a single dollar, and one may find oneself a fraction of a member. Then too, there is a valuable section of the Massachusetts branch at Wellesley College. The story goes, and it came from headquarters, that a number of Boston stores bad been vainly begged to keep in stock goods marked with the label. Wellesley became interested, and many of the girls

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