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appeal once more to that silent yet conclusive tribunal, the ballot box, confident that the people indorse overwhelmingly the action of this representative convention.

Independent ReformJune 10,1874.

1. That we insist upon severe retrenchment, reform, and economy in all branches of our public affairs, and believe that, with such economy, the tax now collected from the people might be reduced at least one-half without impairing the efficiency of any branch of the public service, State or National.

2. That we demand the immediate reform of abuses in the civil service, through which the patronage of the Government is dispensed as a reward for partisan service rather than regard for the public necessity.

3. That we are in favor of improving and perfecting the navigation of our lakes and rivers and water connections as soon as it can be properly done.

4. That we are opposed to any further grants of public lands or loans on public credit, and of National, State, or local subscriptions in aid of corporations.

5. That we demand the repeal of our national banking law, and believe that Government should issue legal-tender currency direct from the Treasury, interchangeable for Government bonds, bearing the lowest possible rate of interest.

6. That we hold our patent laws are too often made to subserve the interests of monopolists, and that they should be carefully revised and restricted.

7. That we are opposed to any construction of the State constitution which will justify, under any pretext whatever, annual instead of biennial sessions of the State Legislature.

8. That the existing railroad legislation of this State should be sustained and enforced until thoroughly tested before the courts; that we oppose any legislation by Congress, under the plea of regulating commerce between the States, which shall deprive the people of their present control and influence through State legislation, and that the claim of the railroad companies to the right to fix their freights and fares independent of the people involves the highest attribute of sovereignty—the right of a conqueror to levy contributions at will upon a subjugated people or State. And as this power cannot coexist with a government of the people, it must be resisted.

9. That the right of the Legislature to regulate and control the said railroads of the State must be vindicated, established, and maintained as an essential attribute of State government, and that those holding the doctrine that railroad charters are contracts in thesense that they are not subject to legislative supervision and control have no just appreciation of the necessary powers and rights of free government, and we will agree to no truce, submit to no compromise, short of the complete supremacy of the State government in its right, through its Legislature, to supervise and control the railroads of the State in such manner as the public interests may demand.

10. That we condemn the practice of our public officials in receiving free passes from railroads.

11. That the principle of protection as applied to duties on foreign imports is contrary to the spirit and intent of the Constitution, as it creates privileged classes, levying taxes on a large majority for the benefitof the favored few. We are therefore opposed to all duties levied with this end in view as unjust, unequal, and we insist upon a repeal of all laws laying such duties, and that taxes shall be levied for revenue, and that only.

12. That this convention early recommend to the independent voters of the various congressional and legislative districts and counties of the State to put in nomination at an early day, and use their best efforts to elect, candidates who support the principles herein enunciated.

13. That the contract system practiced in the construction of our public works, national, State, and municipal, has been a fruitful source of corruption and fraud, at the expense of the laboring and mechanical as well as against the public interest, and such system should be revised and reformed.

14. That we, the Independent Reform party of the State of Illinois, invite the people of the State, regardless of past political affiliations, to unite with us in the support of the platform and ticket of this convention, and we appeal to the better judgment of all our business and professional men to lend us their aid and sympathy, remembering, as they well may, that upon our prosperity and happiness depends their success in business.


RepublicanJune 17, 1874.

The Republicans of Indiana, assembled in State convention, do hereby declare:

1. Their unchangeable determination to adhero to allthe fundamental principles of the Republican party in so far as the future condition of the country shall require their enforcement. As the Union remains unbroken, and the people of all the sections are again bound together as brethren by a common destiny, and under a common flag, we favor such measures as shall develop the material resources of every portion of it, secure to all of every class and condition full protection in all the just rights of person and property, remove all the acerbities of the past, and perpetuate the nation as the model Republic of the world.

2. We recognize that as the true policy of the Government which shall harmonize all the diversified interests and pursuits necessarily existing in a country of such vast extent as ours; and as this can be done only by so directing legislation as to secure just protection and reward to every branch of industry, we are in favor of giving precedence to those measures which shall recognize agricultural and mechanical pursuits as entitled to the amplest protection and the fullest development; of putting a stop to large grants of the public domain to railroad corporations, and reserving it for settlement and cultivation; of improving the navigation of our great inland rivers; of securing cheap transportation and profitable markets for the products of agricultural and manufacturing labor; of encouraging such manufactures as shall bring the producer and the consumer in the neighborhood of each other, and thus to establish mutual relations between them and those engaged in commerce and transportation; of properly adjusting the relations between capital and labor in order that each may receive a just and equitable share of profits and of holding those in the possession of corporate wealth and privilege in strict conformity to law, so that these combined influences of the people of all varied pursuits may be united together in the common purposes of preserving the honor of the nation and developing the immense resources of every section of the Union, and of advancing the social and material prosperity of all its industrial and laboring classes.

3. We are in favor of such legislation on the question of finances as shall make national banking free and shall furnish the country with such an additional amount of currency as may be necessary to meet the wants of the agricultural, industrial, and commercial interests of the country; to be distributed between the sections according to population, and such as is consistent with the credit and honor of the nation will avoid the possibility of permitting capitalists and combinations of capital from controlling the currency of the country.

4. We are in favor of such a revision of our patent right laws as shall destroy the oppressive monopoly incident to the present system, and shall regulate and control the manufacture, use, and sale of patent right articles for the benefit alike of the inventor, consumer, and manufacturer.

5. That the Republican party continues to express its gratitude to the soldiers and sailors of the Republic for the patriotism, courage, and self-sacrifice with which they gave themselves to the preservation of the country during the late civil war, and will especially recognize the services of the enlisted by favoring the extension from time to time, as the ability of the Government will permit, of the pension and bounty laws.

6. In the opinion of this convention, intemperance is an evil against which society has the right to protect itself; that our whole system of legislation throughout the whole history of the State has asserted and maintained this right, and it can not now be surrendered without yielding up that fundamental principle of American government which places the power of passing laws in the hands of a majority. Therefore, we are in favor of such legislation as will give a majority of the people the right to determine for themselves, in their respective towns, townships, or wards, whether the sale of intoxicating liquors for use as a beverage shall be permitted tnem, And such as will hold the vender responsible for all damages resulting from such sales.

7. We favor the enactment of a law limiting the powerof township trustees, county commissioners, and municipal authorities to assess taxes and increase township, county, and municipal indebtedness.

8. Inasmuch as great abuses have grown up under our present system of fees and salaries, we demand such legislation as will so reduce and regulate all fees and salaries as will allow no more than a fair and just compensation for services rendered.

9. We look with pride and satisfaction upon our common school system, and regard its munificent fund as a sacred trust to be faithfully and honestly administered, so that all the children of the State may be educated in the duties of citizenship, and thereby become the better able to perpetuate our popular institutions, and whosoever shall seek to strike it down or impair its usefulness will meet our ceaseless and unrelenting opposition.

10. We have entire confidence in the integrity and honor of the President of the United States, and our Senators and Republican Representatives in Congress are entitled to our thanks for the zeal with which they have represented the principles of the Republican party during the present session of Congress, and the Republicans of Indiana view with especial pride and hearty approval the course of Senators Morton and Pratt, and the fidelity and ability with which they have represented the sentiments of the people of this State.

Independents—June 10, 1874.

1. We propose to restore the Government to its original purpose, and as far as possible to remedy these evils and remove their results by abandoning the gold basis fallacy and establishing a monetary system based on the faith and resources of the Government, and the nation in harmony with the genius of the Government, and adapted to the exigencies of legitimate commerce. To this end the circulating notes of the national and State banks, as well as all local currency, should be withdrawn from circulation, and a paper currency issued by the Government, which shall be a legal tender in the payment of all debts, public and private, duties on imports included, and declared equal with gold, the lawful money of the United States; this currency or money to be interchangeable, at the pleasure of the holders, for Government bonds bearing a low rate of interest, say 3:65; the Government creditors to have the privilege of taking the money or the bonds at their election, reserving to Congress the right to regulate the rate of interest on the bonds and the volume of the currency, so as to effect the equitable distribution of the products of labor between money or nonproducing capital and productive industry; by paying the national debt in strict accordance with the laws under which it was originally contracted, in gold where specifically promised, but all other forms of indebtedness, including the principal of the five-twenty bonds, should be discharged at the earliest option of the Government in the legal tender currency of the United States, without funding it in long bonds, or in any way increasing the gold paying and untaxed obligations of the Government.

2. That we are in favor of the office seeking the man, and not the man the office; that we will endeavor to select men to fill the various offices who are honest and capable, without re

fard to former political opinions; that we detest bribery,corruption,and fraud in obtaining votes, either by the use of money or whiskey, and will not support any man for office known to be guilty of the same, and that we are opposed to electing any man to fill the same office more than for one term in succession, from the President down.

3. That we uncompromisingly condemn the practice of our public officials in receiving free passes from railroad managers.

4. That we denounce the action of our Legislature and Representatives in Congress and the Senate for the increase of taxes, fees, and salaries, and we will use all honorable means in our power to reduce the taxes, fees, and salaries of all to a reasonable basis.

5. That we demand a reduction of all public expenditures, to the end that taxation may be reduced to the lowest possible limit.

6. That it is contrary to the policy of good government to encourage litigation, and that the allowing of ten per cent. 0n judgments and the collecting of attorney's fees off defendant encourages litigation, favors capital, and is a source of corruption, and subserves no good purpose, and therefore ought to be remedied by appropriate legislation.

7. That the present assessment law of real estate imposes unequal and unjust burdens on the producing classes, and favors capital and corporate wealth, and we demand its speedy amendment.

8. That we demand a change in our grand jury system, that their jurisdiction extend to felonies only.

9. That no party is worthy our confidence who denies the right of the people to restrict the abuses of the liquor traffic.


RepublicanJuly 1,1874.

1. That as the policy of the Republican party in relation to the finances has afforded the people not only a safe, sound, and popular currency ot equal and uniform worth in every portion of our commonwealth, but has likewise greatly improved the credit of the country at home and abroad, we point with pride to its record and accomplishments in this regard, and while reaffirming the policy announced by the party in the National Conventions of 1868 and 1872, and triumphantly indorsed by the people at the polls—a policy which, while contributing to the public credit, has also enhanced the individual and collective prosperity of the American people; we favor such legislation as shall make national banking free to all under just and equal laws, based upon the policy of specie resumption, at such time as is consistent with the material and industrial interests of the country, to the end that the volume of currency may be regulated by the natural laws of trade.

2. That we reaffirm the declaration of the Republican national platform of 1872 in favor of the payment by the Government of the United States of all its obligations, in accordance with both letter and spirit of the laws under which

such obligations were issued; and we declare that, in the absence of any express provision to the contrary, the obligations of the Government, when issued and placed upon the market of the world, are payable in the world's currency, to wit, specie.

3. That, under the Constitution of the United States, Congress has the power to regulate all commerce among the several States, whether carried on by railroads or by other means, and, in the exercise of that power may and should so legislate as to prohibit, under suitable penalties, all extortion, unjust discrimination, and other wrong and unjust conduct, on the part of persons or corporations engaged in such commerce, and by virtue of the same constitutional power, Congress may and should provide for the improvement of our great national waterways.

4. That the State has the power and it is its duty to provide by law for the regulation and control of railway transportation within its own limits; and we demand that the laws of this State, passed for this purpose at the last session of the General Assembly, shall be upheld and enforced until they shall be superseded by other legislation or held unconstitutional by a proper judicial tribunal.

5. That we feel bound to provide all appropriate legislation for the full and equal protection of all citizens, white or black, native or foreign born, in the enjoyment of all rights guaranteed by the Constitution of the United States and the amendments thereto.

6. That the reduction of $27,000 000 in the estimated General Government expenses for the coming fiscal year meets with our hearty commendation, and shows that the Republican party, on questions of retrenchment and economy, is carrying out in good faith their oftrepeated pledges to the people.

7. That we are in favor of an amendment to the Constitution of the United States, providing for the election of President and Vice President by direct vote of the people.

8. That, while inventors should be protected in their just rights of property in their inventions, we demand such modification of our patent laws as shall render the same more fair and equitable to consumers.

9. That the faith of the Republican party is pledged to promote the best good of the civil service of the country, and that we, as the Republicans of Iowa, demand that only honest and capable men be elected or appointed to office, and that we commend the position of the party in instituting investigations into corruption in office, sparing therein neither friends nor foes.

10. That, since the people may be entrusted with all questions of governmental reform, we favor the final submission to the people of the question of amending the Constitution so as to extend the rights of suffrage to women, pursuant to the action of the fifteenth General Assembly.

Anti-MonopolistJune 24, 1874.

That we, the delegated representatives of the people of Iowa, favorable to the organization of an independent political party, laying aside past differences of opinion, and earnestly uniting in common purposes to secure ne: ded reform in the administration of public affairs, cordially unite in submitting these declarations: that all political power is inherent in the people; That no government is worthy of preservation, or should Be respected, which does not derive its power from the consent of the governed by equal and just laws; that the inestimable rights of life, liberty, and pursuit of happiness should be secured to all men, without distinction of race, color, or nativity; that the maintenance of these principles is essential to the prosperity of our republican institutions, and that to this end the Federal Constitution, with all the amendments, the rights of States and the union of States, must and shall be preserved. That the maintenance inviolate of the rights of the States, and especially of the right of each State to order and control its own domestic institutions according to its own judgment exclusively, is indispensable to that balance of power on which the perfection and endurance of our political fabric depends, and that we denounce as a criminal excess of constitutional power the policy of President Grant's administration, in fostering enormities perpetrated in certain States of the Union, in arbitrarily interfering with their local affairs, in sustaining therein the usurpation of aliens and irresponsible adventurers, who, by certain men, have been illegally invested with official authority, and others deprived of their constitutional rights, oppressive enactments, burdensome taxation imposed, an immense and fictitious indebtedness created, resulting in the degradation of these States, and the general impoverishment of their people; that the conduct of the present administration in its bold defiance of public sentiment and disregard of the common good; in its prodigality and wasteful extravagance; in the innumerable frauds perpetrated under its authority; in its disgraceful partiality for and rewards of unworthy favorites; in its reckless and unstable finance policy, and in its total incapacity to meet the vital questions of the day and provide for the general welfare, stands without a parallel in our national history, and the highest consideration of duty requires the American people, in the exercise of their inherent sovereignty, to correct these accumulating evils, and bring the Government back to its ancient landmarks of patriotism and economy.

4. That the faith and credit of the nation must be maintained inviolate; that the public debt, of whatever kind, should be paid in strict accordance with the law under which it was contracted; that an over-issue of paper money being at variance with the principles of sound financial policy, the circulating medium should be based upon its redemption in specie at the earliest practicable day, and its convertibility into specie equivalent at the will of the holder, and that, subject to these restrictions, it is the duty of Congress to so provide by appropriate legislation that the volume of our Government currency shall at all times be adequate to the general business and commerce of the country, and be equitably distributed among the several States.

5. That tariffs and all other modes of taxa

ation should be imposed upon the basis of revenue alone, and be so adjusted as to yield the minimum amount required for the legitimate expenditures of the Government, faithfully and economically administered, and that taxation to an extent necessary to the accumulation of a suplus revenue inthetreasury subjects the people to needless burdens, and affords a temptation to extravagance and official corruption.

6. That railroads and all other corporations for pecuniary profit should be rendered subservient to the public good. That we demand such constitutional necessary legislation upon this subject, both State and national, as will effectually secure the industrial and producinginterests of the country against all forms of corporate monopoly and extortion, and that the existing railroad legislation of this State should faithfully be enforced until experience may have demonstrated the propriety and justice of its modification.

7. That while demanding that the railroads be subject to legislative control, we shall discountenance any action on this subject calculated to retard the progress of railroad enterprise, or work injustice to these invaluable auxiliaries to commerce and civilization.

8. That the limitation of the Presidency to one term, and the election of the President, Vice President, and United States Senators by a direct popular vote, and through the reform of our civil service to the end that capacity and fidelity be made the essential qualifications for election and appointment to office, are the proposed reforms which meet our hearty indorsement.

9. That we demand such a modification of the patent laws as shall destroy the monoply now enjoyed by manufactures of agricultural and other implements of industry.

10. That personal liberty and social rights of citizens should not be abridged or controlled by legislative enactments, except in so far as may be necessary to promote the peace and welfare of society.

11. That holding in grateful remembrance the soldiers and sailors who fought our battles, and by whose heroism the nation was preserved, we insist that Congress shall equalize bounties and grant to each one of them, or to his widow and children, a homestead of 160 acres of land from the unappropriated domain of the country.


RepublicanJune 18,1874.

1. That the Republican party should not be content with its past record, but, reiterating its former declaration of principles, should move forward to meet new issues as they arise.

2. That it is a high and plain duty to return to a specie basis at the earliest practicable day, not only in compliance with legislative and party pledges, but as a step indispensable to lasting material prosperity.

3. That we believe the time has come when this can be done, or at least begun, with less embarrassment to every branch of industry than at a future time, after resort has been made to unstable and temporary expedients to stimulate unreal prosperity and speculation, on a basis other than coin as the recognized medium of exchange throughout the commercial world.

4. That the Republican party of Maine approves of the action of the President in vetoing the bill known as the currency bill.

5. That our delegation in Congress are entitled to the gratitude of the people for their earnest and effectual opposition to jobbery, extravagance, and corruption, and for their efforts in behalf of honest and economical government.

6. That this Convention views with lively satisfaction the increasing indications that the vast water power of the State is being more understood and appreciated as our strongest reliance for the increase of wealth and population, and expresses its earnest sympathy for all judicious measures which tend to encourage capital and labor to engage in manufactures in Maine, as the most effective means of developing its agricultural, maritime, and commercial interests.

The 7th indorses Governor Dingley.

8. That we recognize not only the correctness of the principle, but its importance, and necessity of judicious prohibitory liquor laws, believing them to be superior to any plan of license or local option, and that the enactment, maintenance, and enforcement of such a law is a duty which we owe to the people.

DemocraticJune 23,1874.

1. That an inflated and irredeemable paper currency is among the worst evils that can afflict a community. It enables cunning and unscrupulous speculators to rob producers of the fruits of their labors, and afflicts every reputable business with the peril of continual panic and disaster. We regard a currency based on specie redemption as the only one upon which the business of the country can safely be trusted, and hold that we should, as rapidly as possible, approximate to such a circulating medium.

2. That a protective tariff is a most unjust, unequal, oppressive, and wasteful mode of raising the public revenues. It is one of the most frequent and fruitful sources of corruption of administration. We, therefore, the Democracy of Maine, in convention assembled, declare for free trade and in favor of unfettered and unrestricted commerce.

3. That the recent action of the Republican majority in the United States Senate, in attempting to revive the worst features of the sedition law of John Adams's administration, and to establish a censorship of the press of the country at the Federal capital, declares a purpose to silence all criticism of the conduct of public men, and as such demands the severest condemnation of every freeman in the land.

4. That the framers of our Constitution erected a system of government the corner-stone of which was local control of local affairs, which for nearly a century held the States in the Union as harmoniously as the planets hold their places in the heavens, and it is among the gravest faults of the Republican party that it has wantonly overawed and prostituted the government of the several States.

5. That the civil service of the Government

should be performed by those who are found to be best qualified therefor, and there is seen, in the recent action of the Republican Congress on this subject, a humiliating confession that the party in power cannot dispense with the proof afforded by public plunder.

6. That the undeniable corruptions pervading all departments of the General Government are themselves ample arguments against the continuance of the party now in power, and proof that it deserves the righteous indignation of the people.

The 7th indorses J. A. Titcomb for Governor.


RepublicanJune 17,1874.

1. That the Republicans of Vermont again affirm their adhesion to the declaration of the principles and policy of the National Republican party in its last National Convention.

2. That the events of the national campaign of 1872, and the history of public affairs since then, have fully justified our party in its action, and have clearly shown that now, as heretofore, it alone can be relied upon to maintain and preserve the great results of the overthrow of the rebellion, in giving and securing liberty and equal rights to all citizens alike; in spreading the principles of real Republicanism and just government; in making labor everywhere honorable; in protecting the people against reaction in aid of the principles of the "lost cause" and its friends; and in guarding now and in the future the Treasury of the nation from being depleted by claims for losses incurred in the rebellion.

3. That while we hail with joy every step toward permanent peace and obedience to the law in the States lately in rebellion, and pledge ourselves to aid in promoting the welfare uud happiness of the people thereof, we do not mean to forget that the cause of the Union and its noble defenders is sacred, and ought to be steadily and publicly kept in view as the pole star of the future progress of the Republic.

4. That we express our full approval of the administration of the President of our choice, and congratulate him and our party that it is willing and able to punish wrongs and rectify abuses wherever found, and that it does not, like the former administrations of our adversaries, palliate or cover up the shortcomings of any of the public servants.

5. That we stand by the oft-repeated and cardinal doctrine of our party, that a currency always redeemable in coin is the only true and safe one for the honesty and welfare of the community, as it is for the honor and good name of the nation; that we condemn all steps, direct or indirect, in any other direction than toward early resumption, and that we earnestly thank the President for his steadfast and active support of these principles by the exercise of his constitutional power.

6. That the tax and tariff laws ought to be so framed as to aid in the promotion and protection of American industry.

7. That we favor all proper and prudent measures for the improvement of internal communi

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