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The population of the State, as ascertained by the federal census, or in such other mode as the General Assembly may direct, shall be divided by the number one hundred and five, and the quotient shall be the ratio of representation in Uie House of Representatives for the ten years succeeding such apportionment.

Every county shall be entitled to one representative; every county containing said ratio and one half over shall be entitled to two representatives; every county containing three times said ratio shall be entitled to three representatives; and so on, requiring after the first two an entire ratio for each additional representative.

The ratio for a Senator shall be ascertained by dividing the population of the State by the number thirty-seven. The districts formed shall be of contiguous territory and bounded by county lines. Until the next decennial apportionment, the county of Hamilton shall be entitled to four and the county of Cuyahoga to two Senators; and the other districts to one Senator each, and such additional Senators for fractional ratios as are provided for in this article.

When a county shall have a fraction above the ratio so large that, multiplied by five, the result will be equal to one or more ratios, additional representatives shall be apportioned for such ratios in the following manner: If there be only one ratio, a representative shall be allotted to the fifth General Assembly of the decennial period; if two ratios, a representative shall be allotted to the fourth and third General Assemblies; if three, to the third, second, and first General Assemblies; if four, to the fourth, third, second, and first General Assemblies, respectively.

The same rules shall be applied in apportioning the fractions of senatorial districts as are applied to the fractions of representative districts, and any senatorial district which may have less than one senatorial ratio at any decennial apportionment, shall then be attached to the contiguous district having the least population.

Any county, forming part of a senatorial district, having a population equal to a full senatorial ratio at any decennial apportionment, shall then be made a separate senatorial district, if a full senatorial ratio be left in the district from which it is taken.

Until the next decennial apportionment the assignment of Representatives and Senators to the several General Assemblies of the decennial period shall be as provided in this article, and no change shall be made in the principles of representation herein adopted, or in the senatorial district, herein established, except as above provided. All territory belonging to a county at the time of an apportionment shall, as to the right of representation and suffrage, remain an integral part thereof during the decennial period. * * * *. * * *

In voting for Representatives and Senators, in counties and districts entitled to more than two, each elector may cast as many votes for one candidate as there are Representatives or Senators to be elected, or he may distribute the same, or equal parts thereof, among the candidates, as he may see fit, and the candidates highest in votes shall be declared elected.

Article XVI.

No person who may hereafter fight a duel, assist in the same as second, or send, accept, or knowingly carry a challenge therefor, shall hold any office in this State.

No person elected to the General Assembly, or to a convention or commission to revise, alter, or amend this constitution, or elected or appointed to any judicial or lucrative State or county office, shall, from the time of his election or appointment until the end of the term of such office, knowingly accept from a railroad or transportation company any free pass, gift, or commuted service not offered to the public.

Separate Propositions.
Minority Representation.

"In every election for judges of the Supreme and Circuit Courts, where three or more are to be chosen of the same court and for the same term of service, no elector shall vote for a greater number of candidates than a majority of the judges of such court and term then to be chosen."

If this proposition be adopted it shall take the place of section 3 of article IV of this constitution, and section 20 of said article shall thereupon read as follows:

"sec. 20. In case the office oi any judge shall become vacant before the expiration of the regular term for which he was elected, the vacancy shall be filled by appointment by the Governor until a successor is elected and qualified; and such successor shall be elected for the unexpired term, at the first election for Governor that occurs more that thirty days after the vacancy shall have happened.

Railroad Aid. "But the General Assembly may, by general laws, authorize any township, city, or incorporated village to aid any railroad company in the construction of its road within this State, subject to the following restrictions, and such others as may be prescribed by law: No subscription, loan, or contribution for such purpose shall be made, unless authorized at an election held in pursuance of law, by at least two-thirds of all the electors of such township, city, or village, to be ascertained in such manner as may be prescribed by law, and subject to the further conditions of section 4 of article XI when applicable. Nor shall such aid be granted until the township, city, or village granting the same shall have adequate security that the road so aided will be completed. At such election no person shall vote who shall not have resided in the township, city, or village for six months prior thereto. No such election shall be held until the part of the road upon which the expenditure is to be made has been located and established, nor oftener than once a year, nor shall aid be voted to more than one railroad at any election. The order for election shall specify all the conditions of such loan, subscription, or contribution, the consideration proposed to be given therefor, the estimated cost of the proposed work, the means secured for its completion, and the part of the work on which the proposed subscription, loan, or contribution is to be expended. Provision may be made by law for the issue of stock or bonds for the amount of any such subscription or loan; but no township, city, or village shall be liable for the debts of the company. The obligations of a township, city, or village incurred for such purpose shall not bear a greater interest than seven per centum per annum, nor shall the aggregate thereof at any time exceed five per centum of the taxable value of the property of such township, city, or village as ascertained by the latest tax duplicate. The aggregate of taxes levied by a township, city, or village to pay such obligations and interest shall in no year exceed one per centum oi such value."

If this proposition be adopted it shall be added to and become part of section 6 of article VIII of the constitution.

Liquor Traffic.

For License.—" License to traffic in spirituousi vinous, or malt liquors, under such regulations and limitations as shall be prescribed by law, may be granted, but this section shall not prevent the General Assembly from passing laws to restrict such traffic, and to compensate injuries resulting therefrom."

Against License.—"No license or traffic in intoxicating liquors shall be granted; but the General Assembly may by law restrain or prohibit such traffic, or provide against evils resulting therefrom."

If either of these alternative propositions, "for license" or "against license," be adopted, it shall become section 11 of article XVI of this constitution.


Owing to its length, only such portions of the new constitution of Pennsylvania as are especially noteworthy and of general interest are given. Preamble.

We, the people of the Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, grateful to Almighty God for the blessings of civil and religious liberty, and humbly invoking his guidance, do ordain and establish this constitution.

The declaration of rights is substantially the same as the declaration in the old constitution, with these additions:

No power, civil or military, shall at any time interfere to prevent the free exercise of the right of suffrage.

No conviction shall be had in any prosecution for the publication of papers relating to the official conduct of officers or men in public capacity, or to any other matter proper for public investigation or information, where the fact that such publication was not maliciously or negligently made shall be established to the satisfaction of the jury.

No law making irrevocable any grant of special privileges or immunities shall be passed. Article II. The Legislature.

The General Assembly to meet every second year, and when convened by the Governor, but no adjourned annual session after 1878. In case of vacancy in office of United States Senator be

tween sessions, a special session to be held on notice by Governor of sixty days.

The members of the General Assembly shall receive such salary and mileage for regular and special sessions as shall be fixed by law, and no other compensation whatever, whether for service upon committee or otherwise. No member of either House shall, during the term for which he may have been elected, receive any increase of salary or mileage under any lawpassed during such term.

Each House shall have power, * * * with the concurrence of two thirds, to expel a member, but not a second time for the same cause, and shall have all other powers necessary for the Legislature of a free State. A member expelled for corruption shall not thereafter be eligible to either House, and punishment for contempt or disorderly behavior shall not bar an indictment for the same offense.

The State shall be divided into fifty senatorial districts of compact and contiguous territory, as nearly equal in population as may be, and each district snail be entitled to elect one Senator. Each county containing one or more ratios of population shall be entitled to one Senator for each ratio, and to an additional Senator for a surplus of population exceeding three-fifths of a ratio; but no county shall form a separate district unless it shall contain four fifths of a ratio, except where the adjoining counties are each entitled to one or more Senators, when such county may be assigned a Senator on less than four-fifths and exceeding one-half of a ratio; and no county shall be divided unless entitled to two or more Senators. No city or county shall be entitled to separate representation exceeding one sixth of the whole number of Senators. No ward, borough, or township shall be divided in the formation of a district. The senatorial ratio shall be ascertained by dividing the whole population of the State by the number fifty.

The members of the House of Representatives shall be apportioned among the several counties, on a ratio obtained by dividing the population of the State, as ascertained by the most recent United States census, by two hundred. Every county containing less than five ratios shall have one Representative for every full ratio, and an additional Representative when the surplus exceeds half a ratio; but each county shall have at least one Representative. Every county containing five ratios or more shall have one Representative for every full ratio. Every city containing a population equal to a ratio shall elect separately its proportion of the Representatives allotted to the county in which it is located. Every city entitled to more than four Representatives, and every county having over one hundred thousand inhabitants shall be divided into districts of compact and contiguous territory, each district to elect its proportion of Representatives according to its population; but no district shall elect more than four Representatives.

Prescribes that there shall be a new apportionment of the senatorial and representative districts after each decennial census.

Article III. Legislation. No law shall be passed except by bill, and no bill shall be so altered or amended on its passage through either House as to change its original purpose.

No bill shall be considered unless referred to a committee, returned therefrom, and printed for the use of the members.

No bill, except general appropriation bills, shall be passed, containing more than one subject, which shall be clearly expressed in its title.

Every bill shall be read at length on three different days in each House; all amendments made thereto shall be printed for the use of the members before the final vote is taken on the bill; and no bill shall become a law unless on its final passage the vote be taken by yeas and nays, the names of the persons voting for and against the same be entered on the journal, and a majority of the members elected to each House be recorded thereon as voting in its favor.

No amendment to bills by one House shall be concurred in by the other, except by a vote of a majority of the members elected thereto taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting for and against recorded upon the journal thereof; and reports of committees of conference shall be adopted in either House only by the vote of a majority of the members elected thereto, taken by yeas and nays, and the names of those voting recorded upon the journal.

No law shall be revived, amended, or the provisions thereof extended or conferred by reference to its title only, but so much thereof as is revived, amended, extended, or conferred, shall be re-enacted and published at length.

The General Assembly shall not pass any local or special law—

Authorizing the creation, extension, or impairing of liens; regulating the affairs of counties, cities, townships, wards, boroughs, or school districts; changing the names of persons or places; changing the venue in civil or criminal cases; authorizing the laying out, opening, altering, or maintaining roads, highways, streets, or alleys; relating to ferries or bridges, or incorporating ferry or bridge companies, except for the erection of bridges crossing streams which form boundaries between this and any other State; vacating roads, town plats, streets, or alleys; relating to cemeteries, graveyards, or public grounds not of the State; authorizing the adoption or legitimation of children; locating or changing county seats, erecting new counties, or changing county lines; incorporating cities, towns, or villages, or changing their charters; for the opening and conducting of elections, or fixing or changing the place of voting; granting divorces; erecting new townships or boroughs, changing township lines, borough limits, or school districts; creating offices, or prescribing the powers and duties of officers in counties, cities, boroughs, townships, election or school districts; changing the law of descent or succession; regulating the practice or jurisdiction of, or changing the rules of evidence in any judicial proceeding or inquiry before courts, aldermen, justices of the peace, sheriffs, commissioners, arbitrators, auditors, masters in chancery, or other tribunals, or providing or changing methods for the collection of debts, or the enforcing of judgments, or prescribing the effect of judicial

sales of real estate; regulating the fees or extending the powers and duties of aldermen, justices of the peace, magistrates or constables; regulating the management of public schools, the building or repairing of school-houses, and the raising of money for such purposes; fixing the rate of interest; affecting the estates of minors or persons under disability, except after due notice to all persons in interest, to be recited in the special enactment; remitting fines, penalties, and forfeitures, or refunding moneys legally paid into the Treasury; exempting property from taxation; regulating labor, trade, mining, or manufacturing; creating corporations, or amending, renewing, or extending the charters thereof; granting to any corporation, association, or individual any special or exclusive privilege or immunity, or to any corporation, association, or individual the right to lay down a railroad track. Nor shall the General Assembly indirectly enact such special or local law by the partial repeal of a general law, but laws repealing local or special acts may be passed. Nor shall any law be passed granting powers or privileges in any case where the granting of such powers and privileges shall have been provided for by general law, nor where the courts have jurisdiction to grant the same or give the relief asked for.

No local or special bill shall be passed unless notice of the intention to apply therefor shall have been published in the locality where the matter or the thing to be affected may be situated, which notice shall be at least thirty days prior to the introduction into the General Assembly of such bill, and in the manner to be provided by law; the evidence of such notice having been published, shall be exhibited in the General Assembly before such act shall be passed.

The presiding officer of each House shall, in the presence of the House over which he presides, sign all bills and joint resolutions passed by the General Assembly, after their titles have been publicly read immediately before signing, and the fact of signing shall be entered on the journal.

The General Assembly shall prescribe by law the number, duties, and compensation of the officers and employees of each House, and no payment shall be made from the State treasury, or be in any way authorized to any person, except to an acting officer or employee elected or appointed in pursuance of law.

No bill shall be passed giving any extra compensation to any public officer, servant, employee, agent, or contractor, after services shall have been rendered or contract made, nor providing for the payment of any claim against the Commonwealth, without previous authority of law.

All stationery, printing, paper, and fuel used in the legislative and other departments of government shall be furnished, and the printing, binding, and distributing of the laws, journals, department reports, and all other printing and binding, and the repairing and furnishing the halls and rooms used for the meetings of the General Assembly and its committees, shall be performed under contract, to be given to the lowest responsible bidder below such maximum price, and under such regulations as shall be prescribed by law; no member or officer of any department of the government shall be in any way interested in such contracts, and all such contracts shall be subject to the approval of the Governor, Auditor General, and State Treasurer.

No law shall extend the term of any public officer, or increase or diminish his salary or emoluments after his election or appointment.

The general appropriation bill shall embrace nothing but appropriations for the ordinary expenses of the executive, legislative, and judicial departments of the Commonwealth, interest on the public debt, and for public schools; all other appropriations shall be made by separate bills, each embracing but one subject.

No appropriation shall be made to any charitable or educational institution not under the absolute control of the Commonwealth, other than normal schools established by law for the professional training of teachers for the public schools of the State, except by a vote of twothirds of all the members elected to each House.

No appropriations except for pensions or gratuities for military services shall be made for charitable, educational, or benevolent purposes, to any person or community, nor to any denominational or sectarian institution, corporation, or association.

The General Assembly may make appropriations of money to institutions wherein the widows of soldiers are supported or assisted, or the orphans of soldiers are maintained and educated; but such appropriation shall be applied exclusively to the support of such widows and orphans.

The General Assembly shall not delegate to any special commission, private corporation, or association any power to make, supervise, or interfere with any municipal improvement, money, property, or effects, whether held in trust or otherwise, or to levy taxes or perform any municipal function whatever.

No act of the General Assembly shall limit the amount to be recovered for injuries resulting in death, or for injuries to persons or property, and in case of death from such injuries, the right of action shall survive, and the General Assembly shall prescribe for whose benefit such actions shall be prosecuted; no act shall prescribe any limitations of time within which suits may be brought against corporations for injuries to persons or property, or for other causes different from those fixed by general laws regulating actions against natural persons, and such acts now existing are avoided.

No act of the General Assembly shall authorize the investment of trust funds by executors, administrators, guardians, or other trustees, in the bonds or stock of any private corporation, and such acts now existing are avoided, saving investments heretofore made.

The power to change the venue in civil and criminal cases shall be vested in the courts, to be exercised Hi such manner as shall be provided by law.

No obligation or liability of any railroad or other corporation, held or owned by the Commonwealth, shall ever be exchanged, transferred,

remitted, postponed, or in any way diminished by the General Assembly, nor shall such liability or obligation be released, except by payment thereof into the State treasury.

When the General Assembly shall be convened in special session, there shall be no legislation upon subjects other than those designated in the proclamation of the Governor calling such session.

No State office shall be continued or created for the inspection or measuring of any merchandise, manufacture, or commodity, but any county or municipality may appoint such officers when authorized by law.

A member of the General Assembly who shall solicit, demand, or receive, or consent to receive, directly or indirectly, for himself or for another, from any company, corporation, or person, any money, office, appointment, employment, testimonial, reward, thing of value or enjoyment, or of personal advantage or promise thereof, for his vote or official influence, or for withholding the same, or with an understanding, expressed or implied, that his vote or official action shall be in any way influenced thereby, or who shall solicit or demand any such money or other advantage, matter, or thing aforesaid for another, as the consideration of his vote or official influence, or for withholding the same, or shall give or withhold his vote or influence in consideration of the payment or promise of such money, advantage, matter, or thing to another, shall be held guilty of bribery within the meaning of this constitution, and shall incur the disabilities provided thereby for said offense, and such additional punishment as is or shall be provided by law.

Any person who shall, directly or indirectly, offer, or promise any money, or thing of value, testimonial, privilege, or personal advantage, to any executive or judicial officer or member of the General Assembly, to influence him in the performance of any of his public or official duties, shall be guilty of bribery, and be punished in such manner as shall be provided by law.

The offense of corrupt solicitation of members of the General Assembly or of public officers of the State, or of any municipal division thereof, and any occupation or practice of solicitation of such members or officers, to influence their official action, shall be defined by law, and shall be punished by fine and imprisonment.

Any person may be compelled to testify in any lawful investigation or judicial proceeding, against any person who may be charged with having committed the offense of bribery or corrupt solicitation, or practices of solicitation, and shall not be permitted to withhold his testimony upon the ground that it may criminate himself or subject him to public infamy; but such testimony shall not afterwards be used against him in any judicial proceeding, except for perjury in giving such testimony, and any person convicted of either of the offenses aforesaid shall, as part of the punishment therefor, be disqualified from holding any office or position of honor, trust, or profit in this Commonwealth.

A member who has a personal or private interest in any measure or bill proposed or pending before the General Assembly shall disclose the fact to the House of which he is a member, and shall not vote thereon.

Article IV.
The Executive.

The Governor shall hold his office during four years, and shall not be eligible to the office for the next succeeding term.

Lieutenant Governor, subject to the same provisions as the Governor.

No person eligible for Governor or Lieutenant Governor, unless a citizen, over thirty years, and seven years next preceding his election an inhabitant of State.

No pardon shall be granted, nor sentence commuted, except upon the recommendation, in writing, of the Lieutenant Governor, Secretary of the Commonwealth, Attorney General, and Secretary of Internal Affairs, or any three of them, after full hearing, upon due public notice, and in open session. * * *

The Governor shall have power to disapprove of any item or items of any bill making appropriations of money, embracing distinct items, and the part or parts of the bill approved shall be the law, and the item or items of appropriation disapproved shall be void, unless repassed according to the rules and limitations prescribed for the passage of other bills over the executive veto.

Sec. 21. * * * No person elected to the office of Auditor General or State Treasurer shall be capable of holding the same office for two consecutive terms.

Article V.
The Judiciary.

The Supreme Court shall consist of seven judges, who shall be elected by the qualified electors of the State at large. They shall hold their offices for the term of twenty-one years, if they so long behave themselves well, but shall not be again eligible. The judge whose commission shall first expire shall be chief justice, and thereafter each judge whose commission shall first expire shall in turn be chief justice.

All judges required to be learned in the law, except the judges of the Supreme Court, shall be elected by the qualified electors of the respective districts, and shall hold their offices for the period of ten years.

Whenever two judges of the Supreme Court are to be chosen for the same term of service, each voter shall vote for one only, and when three are to be chosen, he shall vote for no more than two; candidates highest in vote shall be declared elected.

Article VII.
Oath of Office.

Senators and Representatives, and all judicial, State, and county officers shall, before entering on the duties of their respective offices, take and subscribe the following oath or affirmation:

"I do solemnly swear (or affirm) that I will support, obey, and defend the Constitution of the United States and the constitution of this Commonwealth, and that I will discharge the duties of my office with fidelity; that I have not paid or contributed, or promised to pay or con

tribute, either directly or indirectly, any money or other valuable thing to procure my nomination or election, (or appointment,) except for necessary and proper expenses expressly authorized by law; that I have not knowingly violated any election law of this Commonwealth, or procured it to be done by others in my behalf; that I will not knowingly receive, directly or indirectly, any money or other valuable thing for the performance or non-performance of any act or duty pertaining to my office other than the compensation allowed by law."

* * * Any person refusing to take said oath or affirmation shall forfeit his office, and any person who shall be convicted of having sworn or affirmed falsely, or of having violated said oath or affirmation, shall be guilty of perjury, and be forever disqualified from holding any office of trust or profit within this Commonwealth.

Article VIII.

Suffrage and Elections.

Every male citizen twenty-one years of age, possessing the following qualifications, shall be entitled to vote at all elections:

First, He shall have been a citizen of the United States at least one month; Second, He shall have resided in the State one year (or if having previously been a qualified elector or native-born citizen of the State, he shall have removed therefrom and returned, then six months) immediately preceding the election; Third, He shall have resided in the election district where he shall offer to vote at least two months immediately preceding the election; Fourth, If twenty-two years of age or upwards he shall have paid within two years a State or county tax, which shall have been assessed.at least two months, and paid at least one month before the election.

All elections by the citizens shall be by ballot. Every ballot voted shall be numbered in the order in which it shall be received, and the number recorded by the election officers on the list of voters, opposite the name of the elector who presents the ballot. Any elector may write his name upon his ticket, or cause the same to be written thereon and attested by a citizen of the district. The election officers shall be sworn or affirmed not to disclose how any elector shall have voted unless required to do so as witnesses in a judicial proceeding.

Whenever any of the qualified electors of this Commonwealth shall be in actual military service, under a requisition from the President of the United States, or by the authority of this Commonwealth, such electors may exercise the right of suffrage in all elections by the citizens, under such regulations as are or shall be prescribed by law, as fully as if they were present at their usual places of the election.

All laws regulating the holding of elections by the citizens or for the registration of electors shall be uniform throughout the State, but no elector shall be deprived of the privilege of voting by reason of his name not being registered.

Any person who shall give or promise, or offer to give to an elector any money, reward, or other valuable consideration for his vote at an election, or for withholding the same, or who

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