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that mild infipid Avid as the universal di- kept within proper bounds, gently excite the kuent ; and, therefore, most admirably adapt- nervous influence, promote an equable circued for our daily beverage. But experience lation, and are highly conducive to health ; bas equally proved, that vinnus and spiritu- while the depreffing affections, such as fear, ous liquors, on certain occasions, are no less grief, and despair, produce the contrary efLalutary and beneficial, whether it be to sup- fect, and lay the foundation of the most forport ttrength agairit ficknels or bodily fatigue, midable diseases. or to exbilarate the mind under the pressure From the light which history affords us, as of beavy misfortunes. But alas ! u hat Na- well as from some instances in the above Table, ture meant for innocent and useful cordials, there is great reason to believe, that longevity is to be ufed only occátionally, and according in a great measure hereditary ; and that healihy to the direction of reason ; cuítom and ca. long-lived parents would commonly transmit price have, by degrees, rendered habitual the same to their children, were it not for the to the human frame, and liable to the most frequent errors in the non-nurals, which to wormous and destructive abuses. Hence, it evidently tend to the abbreviation of human life. may be juftly doubted, whether gluttony and Whence is it, but from these causes, and intemperance have not depopulated the the unnatural modes of living, that, of all the world more than even sword, peftilence, children which are born in the capital cities and famine. True, therefore, is the old of Europe, nearly one half die in early infanmaxim, “ Modus utendi ex venenr facit Medi- cy? To what elie can we attribute this excamentum, ex Medicamento, venenuin." traordinary mortality. Such an amazing pro
3. and 4. Mction and reft, deep and portion o: premature deaths is a circumitance watching. It is allowed on all bands, that unheard of among favage nations, or among alternate motion and rest, and neep and the young of other animals ! In the earlieit watching, are necessary condicions to health ages, we are informed, that human life was and longevity; and that they ought to be prolracted to a very extraordinary length ; adapted to age, temperament, constitution, yet how few persons in theie later times ar. femperature of the climate, &c. but the er. rive at that period which nature seems to rors which mankind daily commit in there have designed ! Man is, by nature, a fieldreipects, become a fruitful source of diseases. animal, and seems destined to rise with the While some are bloated and relaxed with ease fun, and to spend a large portion of his time and indolence, others are emaciated, and be- in the open air, to inure his body to robust come rigid, through baru lub ur, watching, exercises and the inclemency of the seasons, and fatigue.
and to make a pisin homely repast, only when 5. Secretions and excretions. Where the bunger dictates. But art has studioully de. aninal functions are duly performed, the le- feated the kind intentions of nature ; and by cretious go on regularly; and the different euflaving him to all the blandishments of cucuations fo exactly correspond to the quan- sense, has left him, alas ! an easy victim to lity of alimene taken i), in a given time, that folly and caprice! To enumerate the various the body is found to ntarn daily to nearly the abuses which take place from the earliest intime weiglat. If any particular evacuation fancy, and which are continued through the happen to be preternaturally diminished, succeeding stages of modith life, would carry fome other evacuation is proportionally aug- me far beyond my present intention. Suffice mented, and the equilibrium is commonly it to observe, that they prevail more particuprelerved; but continued irregularities, in larly aniong people who are the most highly thete important functions, cannot but ternii- polished and reined. To compare their art:pate in disease.
ficial mode of life with that of nature, or 6. Affections of the mind. The due regu- even with the long livers in the lift, woul, Lation of the parlions, perlaps, contributes probably, afford a very Itriking contrift ; and more to health and longevity, than that of my at the tanie time supply an additional realun, otiver of the non naturals. The animating why, in the very large cities, unft inces of paffions, such as joy, bope, love, &c. when longevity are so very rare. OBSERVATIONS ON DRINKING MINERAL WATERS,
By Dr. BUCHAN. N our last Magazine we gave the inte- ters, and some of them are written with IN
resting Observations of Dr. Buchan on much ingenuity ; but they are chiefy emplurSea-Bathing : we now present our Readers ed in ascertaining the contents of the wateia with the tentiments of that able Physician on by chymical analysis. Tbis, no doubt, has the use of Mineral Waters.
its ule, but is by no means of fach im »rWe have many books on the mineral wa- tauce aj fome may imagine. A mai
know the chymical analysis of all the articles pursued, or, using them in cases where they in the materia medica, without being able are not proper. properly to apply any one of them in the A very hurtful preju.lice ftill prevails in cure of discales. One page of practical ob- this country, that all diseases must be cured fervations is worth a whole volume of chy. by medicines taken into the stomach, and that mical analysis. But where are such obser. the more violently these medicines operate, vations to be met with? Few physicians are they are more likely to have the defired efin a situation to make them, and fewer ftill fect. This opinion has proved fatal to thouare qualified for such a talk. It can only be sands; and will, in all probability, destroy 26complished by practitioners who refi many more hefure it can be wholly eradicated. the foxintains, and who, pofleffing minds su Purging is often useful in acute diseases, and penor to local prejudices, are capable of in chronical cales may pave the way for the diftinguishing diseales with accuracy, and of operation of other medicines ; but it will fala forming a sound judgment respecting the ge. dom perform a cure ; and by exhausting the Dune effects of medicines.
strength of the patient, will often leave him The internal use of water, as a medicine, in a worse condition than it found him. That is no less an object of the physician's attention this is frequently the case with regard to the than the external. Pure elementary water more active mineral waters, every person is indeed the most inoffensive all liquors, conversant in there matters will readily allow. and constitutes a principal part of the food of Strong Itimulants applied to the stomach trery animal.
But this element is often im. and bowels for a length of time, mult tend pregnated with subítances of a very active to weaken and dettroy their energy ; and and penetrating nature ; and of such an infi- what itimulants are more active than salt and dious quality, that, while they promote cer. sulphur, especially when these subitances are tain secretions, and even alleviate some dif- intimately combined, and carried tlough agreeable symptoms, they weaken the pow- the system by the penetrating medium of waers of life, undermine the conit tation, and ter? Those bowels must be strong indeed liy the foundation of worle diseases than which can withitand the daily operation of toe which they were employed to remove. Such active principles for moaths together, Of this every practitioner must have seen in- and not be injured. This, however, is the Itances; and physicians of eminence have plan pursued by most of those who drink the more than once declared that they have purging mineral waters, and whose circumknown more d seases occasioned than removed stances will permit then to continue long by the use of mineral waters. This, doubt- enough at those fathionable ri:ces of refoit. deis, tas proceeded from the abuse of thuse Many people imagine, that every thing doo powerful medicines, which evinces the ne- pends on the quantity of water taken, a id ceility of ufing them with caution,
that the more they drink they will the foon. By examining the contents of the mineral er get well. This is an egregious error; for waters which are most used in this country, while the unhappy palieut thinks he is by He shall be enabled to form an idea of the this means eradicating his disorder, he is out danger which may arise from an improper ap- ten, in fact, undermining the powers of life, plication of them either externally or inter- and ruining his conftitution. Indeed nothing nally, though it is to the latter of these that can do this so effettually as weakening the the present observations are chiefly confined. powers of digestion by the improper app i:a
Tlie waters most in use for medical pur. tion of strong ftamulants. The very effence poles in Britain, are those impregnated with of health depends on the digestive organs perfales, fulphur, or iron, either separately, or forming their due functions, and the most varioully combined. Of these the most pow. tedious maladies are all connected with india erful is the faline sulphureous water of Har. gestion. rowgate, of which I have had more occasion Drinking the water in too great quantity, to observe the pernicious consequences, when not only injures the bowels and occasions in. improperly used, chan of any other. To this digestion, but generally defeats the intention therefore the following remarks will more for which it is taken. The diseases for the immediately relate, though they will be found cure of which mineral waters are chiefly ce. applicable to all the purging waters in the iebrated, are mostly of the chronic kind ; kingdom which are strong enough to merit and it is well known that such disea es ca
only be cured by the flow operation of alterThe errors which so often defeat the in- atives, or such medicines as act by inducing tention of drinking the purgative mineral a gradual change in the habit. This requires waters, and which so frequently prove inju- length of time, and riever can be effected by firms to the patient, proceed from the manner medicines which run off by stool, and only of drinking, the quantity taken, the regimen operate on the first pallages,
Those who wish for the cure of any obsti- every care behind, to mix with the company, naie malady from the mineral waters, onglie and to make themselves as chearsul anul hap to take them in such a manner as bardly to py as postible. From this conduct, aslisted produce any effect whatever on the bowels. hy the free and wholefome air of those fashiWith this view a half.pint glass may be drank onable places of resort, and also the regular at bed time, and the fame quantity an hour and early hours which are usually kept, the before breakfast, dinner, and supper. The patient often receives more benefit than from fame dore, however, mutt vary according to using the waters. circumstances. Even the quantity mention - But the greatest errors in drinking the ed above will purge sonic persons, while purging mineral waters arile from their being others will drink twice as much without be- used in cates where they are absolutely ining in the least moved by it. Its operation
proper, and adverse to the nature of the on the bowels is the only standard for using Please. When people hear of a wonderful the water as an alterative. No more out (ure having been performed by some mineral to he taken than barely to move the buy ; witer, they immediately conclude that it will nor is it always necesary to carry it this leng n, cure every thing, and accor hingly swallow it provided the water goes off hy the other dun, when thev miglic as well take prison. emunctories, and does not occalion a chuliers, Patients ought to be well informed, beture or flatulency in the ftomach or wels, they brgin to drink the more active kinds of When the water is intended :o purge, the mineral waters of the propriety of the quantity mentioned above niay be all taken curie, and mould never persist in using bu fore bruakfast,
them when they are found to aggravate the I would not only caution patients who ditorier. drink the purging mineral waters overnigiit, In all cases where purging is indicated, the to avoid peavy tuppers, but also from earling faune mineral wilers will be found to fuloi meals at any time The stimulus of voti! this intention better than any other medicine. in pregnated with Tilts, seems to create a Tlorir operation, if taken in proper quantity, Sulle appelite. have teen a delicate perion, is gereilly mild; and they are attirer after drwking the Harrowgate walers of a found to irrigate the nerves, nor densitae myrning, eat a hreikfutt fufficient to bave
the patient, so much as the other purgajei ved two ploughmen, devour a plenti'ul lives. mwer of peth and fin, and to crown all, As a purgative, these waters are chiesy e31 1wch a lurper as miglit bave fatisfied a recommended in diseases of the fort passages,
giy porter. All this indeed the stomach accompanied with, or proceruing from, in. teeme la crare; but this craving had better re. activity vf the stomach and bowels, acesty, Dicio not quite ir.tisfied, than the che ftom ichi in igestion, viisted bile, worms, putrid. Du wid te luaded with what exceeds as paw fories, the ples, and jaindice. In mult
To Burve patients was never my çim, Cales of this kind, they are alle best medicines Dwie I am clearly of opinion, that, in dem ute that can ho administered. But when used of all the puiging mineral waters, a hght and with this vieir, it is fufficient to take them rather diluting diet is the most proper"; and twice, or at mott thre: times a week, to as that no person, during such a courie, ought to move the body three ar tur times; and to eat to the full extent of what his appelite it will be proper to continue this course for Craves.
a few weeks. To promote the operation of mineral wa. Bưr the operation of the more active min ters, and to carry them through the lyiteir, neral wlers is not confined so tire ou pas. exercise is indiipendibly neceifary. This may lages. They viten pron te the charge of be taken in any manner that is moft agreea- urine, and not unfrequently inced the per. ble to the patient, but he ought never to car. fpiration. This news that they are capable ry is to excels. The best kinds of exercise of penetrating into every part of the baxiv, are those connected with amusement. Every and of itimulating the whule fyftem Hence thing that tends to exhilarate the fpirits, not arises their efficacy in removing the moft obonly promotes tiie operation of the waters, itinate of all disorders, chftruttions of its But acts as a medicine. All who resort to glandular and lymphatic fleein. Under this the mineral waters onght therefore to leave clais w comprehended the scrofula os Aires
* When I fpeak of drinking a glafs of the water exer-nig!t, I must her leave to cauta those who follow this plan agunt eating boary suppors. The late Dr. Dealery of York, who was the first that brought the Harrow gate waters into repuie, used tu advise his pal.ent to drink a ghis before they went to bed; the consequence of which was, that having ezt a tith fupper, and the water operating in the night, they were often tormented with gripes, and wlged to coll for nieciuri ailitance.
wil, indolent tumours, obstructions of the Scotland, and Harrowgate in England, are liver, spleen, kidnies, and mesenteric glands. the most likely to succeed in diseases of the When these great purposes are to be effected, skin ; but for this purpose it will be neceffary the waters must be used in the gradual man- not only to drink the waters, but likewise per mentioned above, and persisted in for a to use them externally. length of time. It will be proper, however, To enumerate more particularly the quanow and then to discontinue their use for a lities of the different mineral waters, to spefew days.
cify those diseases in which they are respecThe next great class of diseases where tively indicated, and to point out their proper mineral waters are found to be beneficial, modes of application, would be an useful, are those of the skin, as the itch, scab, tet- and by no means a disagreeablc employment; ters, ringworms, fcaly eruptions, leprofies, but as the limits prescribed to these remarks, blotches, foul ulcers, &c. Though these may will not allow me to treat the subject more seem superficial, yet they are often the most at length, I shall conclude by observing, that obftinate which the physician has to encoun- whenever the mineral waters are found to ter, and not unfrequently set his skill at defi- exhaust the strength, depress the spirits, take ance : but they will sometimes yield to the away the appetite, excite fevers, diftend the application of mineral waters for a sufficient bowels, occasion or increase a cough, or length of time, and in most cases at lealt where there is reason to suspect an ulcer of these waters deserve a trial. The faline sul- the lungs, they ought to be discontinued. phureous waters, such as those of Moffat in
For the EUROPEAN MAGAZIN E.
The following Remarks on Dr. Goldsmith's Effay “ on the different Schools of Music,”
(see p. 96.) were addressed to the Editor of the periodical Publication in which that Essay first appeared, in the year 1960; a time when the Doctor had not obtained that celebrity of reputation as a writer to which he afterwards arrived, but lived in an obscure lodging in Green Arbour Court, near the Old Bailey. Yet in so much respect were his talents then held by Dr. SMOLLET, the Editor above alluded to, that he permitted Goldsmith himfelf to answer the Lctter-Writer's strictures in the notes subjoined to them below.
To the EDITO R. SIR, As you are supposed accountable for every * harmonious Purcel from the head of the
article that appears in your collection, per- English school, to erect in his room a foreignmit me to object against some things advanced er (Handel), who has not yet formed any in your laft Magazine, under the title of “ The school t. The gentleman, when he comes different Schools of Music.” The author of to communicate his thoughts upon the differ. this article seems too hasty in degrading the ent schools of painting, may as well place
* Had the Objector said melodious Purcel, it had teftified at least a greater acquaintance with music, and Purcel's peculiar excellence. Purcel in melody is frequently great : bis fong made in his last fickness, called Rosy Bowers, is a fine instance of this; but in harmony he is far fhort of the meanest our modern composers, his fullest harmonies being exceeding simple. His opera of Prince Artbur, the words of which were Dryden's, is reckoned his finest piece. But what is that, in point of harmony, to what we every day hear from modern masters? In short, with respect to genius, Purcel had a fine one : he greatly mproved an art but little known in England before his time; for this he deserves our applause: but the present prevailing taste in music is very different from what he left it, and who was the improver since his time we shall see by and by.
+ Handel may be laid, as justly as any man, not Pergolese excepted, to have founded a new School of music. When he first came into England, his music was entirely Italian: be composed for the opera ; and though, even then, his pieces were liked, yet they did not meet with universal approbation. In those he too servilely imitated the modern vitiated Italian taste, by placing what foreigners call the Point d'Orgue too closely and injudiciously. But in his Oratorios he is perfectly an original genius. In these, by steering between the manners of Italy and England, he has struck out new harmonies, and formed a species of music differeat from all others. He has left some excellent and eminent scholars, particularly Worgan and Smith, who compose nearly in his manner ; a manner as different from Purcel's as from that of modern Italy. Consequently Handel may be placed at the head of the Englijh
Rubens at the head of the English painters, come, so advanced in life as he did, froma because he left some monuments of his art Italy, and strike so far out of the common in England 1. He says that Handel, though road of his own country's music. originally a German, (as most certainly he Ag mere fiddler, a shallow coxcomb, a was, and continued so to his last breath) yet giddy, insolent, worthless fellow, to comadopted the Englith manner g. Yes, to be pose such pieces as nothing but genuine sensure, just as much as Rubens the painter did. sibility of mind, and an exquisite feeling of Your correspondent, in the course of his those passions which animate only the finest discoveries, tells us, besides, that “ some of souls, could dictate ; and in a manner too, the best Scotch ballads (the Broum of Cow. so extravagantly diftant from that to which denknows, for instance) are Itill ascribed to he had all his life been accustomed !
-Is David Rizzio ll.” This Rizzio must have is impossible.He mighi, indeed, have been a molt original genius, or have posselied had presumption enough to add some extraordinary imitasive powers, to have fourishes to a few favourite airs, like a
# The Objector will not have Handel's school to be called an English school, because he was a German. Handel, in a great measure, found in England those essential differences which characterize his music: we have already shewn that he had them not upon his arri. val. Had Rubens come over to England but moderately skilled in his art; had he learned here all his excellency in colouring, and correctness of designing; had he left several scholars, excellent in his manner, behind him, I should not scruple to call the school erected by him, the English school of painting. Not the country in which a man is born, but his peculiar Itile, either in painting or in music, conftitutes him of this or that school. Thus Chanpag.ne, who painted in the manner of the French school, is always placed among the painters of that school, though he was born in Flanders, and thould consequently, by the Objector's rule, be placed among the Flemish painters. Kneller is placed in the German school, and Ojiade in the Duish, though both born in the same city. Primatice, who may be truly said to have founded the Roman school, was born in Bologna ; though, if his country was to de. termine his school, he should have been placed in the Lombard. There might several other instances be produced; but these, it is hoped, will be sufficient to prove, that Handel, though a German, may be placed at the head of the English school.
§ Handel was originally a German; but, by a long continuance in England, he might have been looked upon as naturalized to the country. I don't pretend to be a fine writer; however, if the gentleman ditlikes the expression, (although he must be convinced it is a common one) I with it were mended.
ll 1 laid that they were ascribed to David Rizzio. That they are, the Objector need only look into Mr. Oswald's Collection of Scotch Tunes ; and he will there find not only the Broom of Cowdenknows, but also the Black Eagle, and several other of the best Scotcb tunes ascribed to him. Though this might be a sufficient answer, yet I must be permitted to go farther, to tell the Objector the opinion of our best modern musicians in this particular : 16 is the opinion of the melodious Geminiani, that we have in the dominions of Great Britain, no original music, except the Irish ; the Scorch and Englijn being originally borrowed from the Italians. And that his opinion in this respect is jutt, (for I would not be swayed merely by authorities) it is very reasonable to suppose, first, from the conformity between the Scotch and ancient Italian music. They who compare the old French Vaudevilles, brought from Italy by Rinuccini, with those pieces ascribed to David Rizzio, who was pretty nearly cotemporary with him, will find a strong resemblance, notwithitanding the opposite characters of the two nations which have preserved those pieces. When I would have them compared, I mean, I would have their balles compared, by which their fimilitude may be most exactly seen. Sucondly, it is reasonable, from the ancient music of the Scotch, which is still preserved in the Highlands, and which bears no resemblance at all to the mufic of the Low-country. The Highland tunes are sung to Irijh words, and now entirely in the Irish
On the other hand, the Lowland music is always fung to English words. David Rizzio was neither a mere fiddler, nor a shallow coxcomb, nor a worthless fellow, nor a stranger in Scotland. He had, indeed, been brought over from Piedmont, to be put at the head of a band of music, by King James V. one of the most elegant prices of his time, an exquisite juuge of music, as well as of poetry, architecture, and all the sae arts. Rizzio, at the time of his death, had been above twenty years in Scotland: he was fecretary to the Queen, and at the same time an agent from the Pope ; so that he could not be to obe fcure as he has been represented.