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but setting these aside, I make no doubt, a dern garden ; but we by no means think that grove of English oaks would be 2 more beau- a parterre, or any other unnatural receptacie, tiful as well as a more magnificent object, is ncceiiury tu their introduction.. thin the olive grove of Academe," or that of plane trees in the Armenian Lyceum. On the Regeneration of Animal Substances. “ After all, it is as pollinie to err in too

By Charles White, Esq. F. R. S. Sc. closely following Nature, as it is in neglect

Read Dec. 18, 1782. ing her. There are beauties of the artificial We have here an ample collection of cases k.nd, as well as natural, which are proper

and other facis relative to this interesting to be introduced into scenes of this kind. subject. The collection is revidered the more Statues, buildings, and oiher urnaments, in

valuable, as being made by a man of Mr. guld talte, and well executed, may unite

White's acknowledged abilities. The manwith great propriety with natural ohjects, and ner in wliich he introduces his history of beighten their effect. I do not speak of these facts, and the observations he afterwards Ornaments, as to any particular beauties they m.ikes upon them, Jo laia head and his heart may iidividually polies, but mielely as coin

equal crevlic ciding with the general effect and nature of “ The great Author of the creation has en

They are, however, to be dowed the animal world with a wonderful employed cautiously, lince, if injudiciously, power of repairing and recruiting its various or even two frequently introduced, they give compound machines, and not only filling up an ar of frivolousnuis and affcctation to the and making good lott substances, but in lume whule, which renvers it an object of con

infances, of even totally regenerating parts; tempt and ridicuit, rather than of admira. but we must not from hence accule bim of

partiality, in not doing it in every indiance ; Mure, I think, might be said agaiolt for the further we carry our researches into excluding parteries of flowers, which were the secrets of Nature, the more we shall be fu constant attendants upon the old gardens, convinced of the great and unbounded wife and I rarely seen at preicht. We all know, dom of God, and of the extraordinary rethat several kinds of Howers are exquisitely sources he has placed in her poileilion ; beautiful, and that their beauty and perfec.

The firtt Almighiy caule tion depends on certam circumstances reid- Acts not by partial, but by general laws. due to their culture. Great care is necellary,

Pope's Illay on Man. and a separation from other plants, both of " The Deity has drawn the line, bas fixwhich fuggest the parterre as the most pru

ed the limits, and has said to Nature; Hither per and convenient way of producing theni. shalt thou go, and no further. I conteís, parterre divisions pollets nu re- • li this order does not appear to us to markable beauties in themselves; but I think, be un fornily preserved, we must not conat the same time, that they have no.bing to clude that it is not really so, bui that it is hocking, to the most delic.de taite, that owing to our fiender capacities, that we are should hinder their being employed, when unable to trace his band through all his they are the harbuigers of luc! beautivul pro. Ways: ductions of nature. A square, or an oblong bor

6. Ste and confess, one comfort ftill must der, has nothing obviously absurd or diguit.

rile, hg in its appearance; and as to its being or- “ 'Tis this, tho' man's a fool, yet God is tificial, it may be said in defence of it, that is


Loc. citat. is not an imitation of any thing in natuie, nor

« The ancients knew that a fresh broken ment to be so, but solely calculated for uti. bone would unite by a callus, that wounds lity, as an inftrument neceifary to the pro- of the fieth would fill up by wire is called duction of beauty; and, considered in this incarnation, and would be healed over with view, we might with equal realun ohject ikin hy what is called cicatr Zation, But al. agunt a house, as an unnatural, and there. vain-glorious buatting mau mult not troin fore an improper ubje&t, as agaimit the di- hence pretend, that he can make a {ingle fi. visions of a flower parterie.

bre grow : this is the act of Natut univ. “I grant, indeed, that they have been The ablett surgeon living can do no more wirimsically, and often abiuruly arranged, than uliist her, remove thie present obitales, and tathioned; bu such I do not here defend. and prevent others bennig Muncuri in her way. lunly maintain the cause of parterres, on ac- “ Yes, Nature's road must ever be pretercunt of the beauties which they are recolliry

red, to produce; not of any they then tulves polleis." Realon is here no guide, but still a guard." We perfeally coincide in opinion lith our

L. cit. aatlur, chat a collection of flowers is a beau- 6. The moderns have carried this matter ty which ought not to be excluded ihe mu- further."

A va

A variety of cases are then enumerated, maging the joint, had not taken it wholly fhewing the wonderful efforts which Nature out, but he would diffect it out entirely, and frequently makes towards re-establishing then it would rot return. He accordingly whatever art or accident has deranged or executed the plan he had described with displaced.—IV.e natural history of the crab great dexterity, and turned the ball fairly out and lobster,--the polypus,—the sea-ane- of the locket; notwithitanding this, it grew mone,--the earth-worm, &c. &c. are next

again, a fresh nail was formed, and the adduced, to place in a ftill stronger light the thumb remains in this Atate. regeneration of animal subítances. Finally,

“ The conclusions I would draw from the author presents us with two unpublished cases which have occurred to his owu expe.

these facts, are, that, in the human species, rience; closing his excellent performance

not only flesh, skin, and bores, may be rewith inferences and reflections, which, with generated, but membranes, ligaments, carthe experience and observation from which tilages, glands, blood vessels, and even nerves;

and this for the wisest purposes, that every they are drawn, rhew him to be at once an able surgeon, a good philosopher, and a gieat

part may be repaired in its own kind, and minded man.

in some manner restored by the coagulable

lymph, which is poured out, and becomes “ I shall now beg leave to lay before the

vascular, and forms organized parts. Society, two cases, that have not been pub. lished, in order to prove ftill further the “ By this wise provision of nature, the doctrine I have been endeavouring to esta. many accidents to which we are continually blith.

expuses, are often more completely repaired

than art could be able to accomplish. “ Roger Nuttal, of Bury, twenty years of age, was admitted an in patient of the " In some animals, we see this regenera. Manchester Infirmary, under my care, on ting and living principle carried still wa the 2 3d of January, 1775, for a tumor on much greater length, where not only whole his back. Upon stripping off his shirt, to limbs, but even the more noble organs are Thew me the tumor,

I was struck with a ve- reproduced. ry fingular appearance of a stump of the

“ The study of nature is not only engaging rizlit nunierus. I asked him, if he was born

and pleasant to a high degree, but it inipu es with it in that form, or whether his arm had

us with such a retpect and admiration of the been taken off. He informed me, that Mr.

Almighty Being, that it is impotlible either Kay Allen lad taken his arm oft close to the

for a Naturalitt or an Anatomiit to be an Thoulder, when he was but four years old,

Atheist. and that the stump was grown again to that length, which seemed to be about eight inches “ They have constantly before their eyes longer than he described it to have been, im- so many wonderful living machines, different. mediately after the amputation. I enquired ly wrought, yet so completely fashioned, both of his mother and Mr. Allen, as to and all tending to one great point, the prethe truth of his relation, which they both servation of themselves and their species; contii med ; and the latter with this addition, in which there are so many orders of ver. that the arm was taken off as near the sels, one depending upon another, yet comTouker as the application of the tourniquet plete in themselves ; capable of repairing would permit. The bone had every degree injuries they may sustain, and even of reitoof firmness and solidity, and the stump was ring loft subítances; that men who daily ice warm to the extreme point, and he informed such objects, must be convinced, that there me, was perfectly sensible when touched. admirable fabrics cannot have proceeded from

" Some years ago, I delivered a lady of chance, but must have been the work of an rank of a fine boy, who had (wo thumbs Omnipotent Creator, who has formed them

with the niuft perfect wisdom, and attention opon one hand, or rativet, a thumb double

to their several interests and situations." hom the first joint, the outer one rather less thu the other, each part having a perfect nail When lie was about three years old, I

An Essay on the Diversions of Hunting, was denied to take off the lefler one, which

Shooting, Fishing, &c. considered as comI did, but to my great aitonishment it grew again, ind along with it, the nal. The fa.

patible with Humanity. Read Jan. 150

1783. mity a cerwa:d's went to reside ja London, where his free Thewed it to that excellent This anonymous paper has given us great ($exor, William Bromfield, Esp. surgeon pleasure in the perusal. It is well-writen, Entre bren's household, whofail, he fup- and many of the arguments it contains are OM WW. ' titty bene ei si d of da- close and ingenious. The special argument, however, is wisely confined to HUNTING; much more to be dreaded ; and compared it cannot with equal force be extended to


therewith, the fate of the partridge from the SHO0T ING ;-a less natural diversion;- gun of the fowler, or of the trout by the and by which we fear lingering deaths are rod of the angler, is mild and enviable. rather increased than prevented: but bear " To recapitulate then what hath been wliat sur sensible author advances upon the advanced on this subject -We have seen the fuhject.

human mind, in every age, endowed with a • The tie of natural affection, il hath al- strong, natural inclination to these diversions. ready been observed, is not weak amongst In the lavage state, we have seen, that the brute animals ; but it may be remarked, that situation of nian renders fuch a propensity though in many cases it is fu trong iu parents absolutely necessary; we have seen it become towards their progeny, the reflected attach- at once conducive to his convenience, and his ment seems to fubfilt, ooly whilft the young pleasures; we behold him emerge from a offspring are incapable of providing for them- state of uncivilization into polished life. felves. When they attain to maturity, the This propensity still accompanies bin; it sticoanection is, in most cases, diffolved, and mulates him to exercise the efficient cause of ctie relationship forgotten. How pitiable then health; it inspires him with a love of inmult be the facuation of that animal, whom duitry and activity, the certain source of true age, with its attendants, weaknels and dir- pleure ; he becomes habituated to fatigue tue, hath reduced to a feeble and helpless and exertion, despises danger and difficulty, Hue, incapable of providing for itself the nor creads exposure to thuie elements, from necellary labsistence, a prey to continual ap. whose leverity he acquires strength of body, prehenfion from those amals whose attacks with vigor and firmaels of mind. We have 1 is unable to fly from or repel; and at seen, with respect to brute animals, that, length languishing to the period of its exif- being destined for the use of man, in depri. leie, consumed by famine and wasted by ving them of exiitence, he disturbs not che ducare i Compare with the fate of such an order and intention of nuure ; that in facrian mal, that of the timid hare. She meets ficing them to his pleasures, he neither dethe opening morn in health and vigour, and struys nor diminishes their portion of enjoywith playful frulic wancuns on yon upland ment; and that, in exercising the prerogabill, enlivened by the beams of the rising tive with which he is invested, if he were fun. No feeble palle, or languid eye, in- not thus prompted by inclination, he would dicate a disordered frame ; no anticipation of be compelled by necetlicy. ber approaching fate inspires her with appre. " It may be urged, if not as an argiment ben Gon. All is gay and lively, like the in favour of theie diverfiol, yet as a cirprofpect around her. On a sudden, how- cumitance which should incline us to caution ever, the scene is changed, th: echoing of in condemuing them, that they are purlued che hora resuunds from the adjacent valley, by m.iny individuals who are distinguished and the cry of the deep-mouilled hounds for those virtues of the heart, which seem thunders towards the hills. Sie becomes totally inconfittent with thoughtless or with motion'els with fear, when a second alarm intentional cruelty, and which are at once che Toures her from her trance; the flies, and ornament and the blessings of society.” with eager steps seems to outitrip the winds. Men, horses, and dogs mitantly join in the

Observations on Longevity. By Anthony chace, and the forest echoes to the wild up- Fothergill, M. D. F. R. S.

Read Jan. Toar. The hare doubles--the swiftness of 15, 1783. her speed abates---fear, more than fatigue, We are here presente:: with three Tables, retards her flight--the faints at the noise of followed by some valuable observations, on the approaching hounds-redoubles to elude Longevity; a subject interesting to every ttier pursuit-her feeble lints are unable to man. Having already laid before our readers perform their office and now-breathless an extract from this valuable paper *, we and exhausted, she is overtaken, und corn in Mall here only insert the concluding observapreces by her merciless puifuers.

tions : “ Such a doom seems levere, and hard is “ That so complicated a machine as the the heart which doth not commiserate the human body, so delicate in its texture, and sufferer. Its apparent severity will, how- fo exquisitely formed in all its parts, should ever, be much mitigated, if we consider the continue, for so many years, to perform its quick tranfition, from perfect tealth to the various functions, even under the most pru. expiring conflict. Death brought on by dent conduct, is not a little surprizing : but disease, or the decay of nature, would be that it should ever hold out to any advanced * See page 145, et seq.


Own tale,

period, under all the rude shocks it so often By Dr. Barnes. Read Feb. 12, 178;. meets with from riot and intemperance, This is an interesting subject ; and the p3-which lay ii open to al the various “ills that

per with which we are here prelented upon fleth is heir to," is still more truly miraculuas ! But here, perhaps, it may be alledged, doctrine advanced ; namely, “ that an ener

it is the belt proof we could nude liad of the that it never can be supposed, all the long lirers pursued one uniform, regular course of mind will often communicate a degree of

sy imparted to one power of the human life, since it is well known, that some of the

energy to the rest;"—for this paper appears most noted ones were furnetimes guilty of

to have been written in consequence of a great deviations from strict temperance and dispute, which, it is ha.ghly probable, kindied regularity. Let not this, however, encou

“ a degree of warnith and senfib.lity*—'0 rage the giddy libertines of the present age

which, it is more than probable, we owe to hope to render their continued scenes of

this admirable dillertation. But we think R intemperance and debauchery compatible

our duiy to let this admirable writer tell t.es with heltis and longevity. The duties and occupations of life will not, indeed, permit the generality of mankind to live by rule, tion several evenings ago, in this plice,

A sentiment was advanced in conversaand subject themselves to a precise regimen. which, to some Gentlemen, appeared ftrange, Fortunately, this is not neceifary : for the Divine Architect huis, with infinite wisdom, Society, and above all to Truth, obliges me

or rather fuife. The respect I owe to this rendered the human frume lo vutile, as to

to endeavour to defend a point, which ap. admit of a very considerable latitude of belih;

pears to me to be not only just, but very yet this has its bounds, which none can long

important. transgress with impunity. For, if old Parr,

" In the conversation before alluded t.), notwithtanding some excelles and irregulari- it had been alierted, “ That an energy inties, arrived at to attonithing an age, yet we

parted to one power of the human mind, wil have reason to suppołe, that there were four

often communicate a degree of energy to de from being hubicual; and may also conclude, that had it not been for these abafes, his life rejl

, and thus allift and quicken ibeir opera

tion." might have been itul contiderably procractul.

“ In proof of this, it was maintained, - On the whole, though some few ex

“ That in many cases, the vigour of ima ceptions may occur to what has been alrea

nation will give correspondent vigour to the dy observed, yet it will be found, in


judgment ;” and, “ That a degree of warmth ral, tbat ali extremes are unfrien ily to health and Sensibility will be greatly favourable to and longevity. Excessive hat enervates the

the clournejs, as well as to the oileriiy, of the body ; extreme cold renders it torpid : fluch

perceptions of the understanding." and inactivity clog the neceilary moventuts

“ This sentiment will, probably, alarm of the machine; inceffunt lab«ur foon wears

those who have implicitly received whit ta l0 it out. On the other hand, a temperate clim.le, miderate exercise, pure country air, iruth has nothing to do with imagination

generally allerted, “That pure and simple and itrićt temperance, together with a prudent regulation of the pallions, will prove

feelings, or pailions; and, that he will b:d

the savest for successful inquiry into any lubthe most efficacious means of protracting life to its utmont 1.mits. Now, if any of these jeći, who can divent his mina molt entres

of all affertions, and bring it into a stale ui require more peculiar attention than the reft,

absolute indifference and apuiby." it is, undoubtedly, the latt: for the social

" It is not uncommon to hear the Im3paifions, like gentle gades, fan the brittle

gination condemned as a criminal of the niu? veilel calmly along the ocean of life, while,

dangerous nature, whose province is, at bile on the other band, rough, turbulent ones

beft, only to anjule, who is a worn elenti, dath it upon rocks and quicklunds. Hence,

to truth, and whom Rcatou wishes to bawith perhaps, it may be explained, why the cul

as far as poflible from bei chione. How ole tivation of philosophy, matic, and the tine

teu have we known, what was very hain arts, all which malefiy tend to humanıza the soul, and to calm the rougher paifions, fupposed to be, for that rcaton, sury app

for want of some reason ogs vi imagitation are so highịy conducive to longevity; and, wbiilt, on the other hand, what was enke finally, why there is no lure method of se

vened by the animation of an active fancy, curing that habitual calmneis and serenity of

was censured as flimiy and irrational ? ** mind, which cunstitute true happiness, and

if a brilliant imagin.cion could not poslible which are, at the same time, to esential to

become the companion and altistant of the health and long life, without virtue.”

purelt understanding !- That it may, 15 blic On the Influence of the Imagination, and point which this paper attempts to prove

the Pathons, upon the Underttanding. “ In Tupporting this by pothefis, I beg


have to hazard a description of the human Aster producing several ingenious argumind, which fome may noc very readily ad. ments in support of this position, our author mil. In judging of the mental powers, it proceeds to enquire more particularly into does not appear to me philofophically juít, to the nature and office of the Imagination. Wescribe the soul as confilling of leveral “• Imagination,” says he, “ is that power, Jiitinct and difcordant facuities, of which or. more properly, that all of the mind, fone are commithioned perpetually to oppole which allembles, compounds, divides its ideas, and contradict the others. The proper idea not in the order in which they first come wito of human nature seems to bi, " That it is the mind, for that is the province of memory, 6X 48001 pounded illence, continually in mo- but in any order, and upon any principles it lail, and receiving different denominations, chooses.

It ranges abroal, through the im2cording to the different modes and circum- menre magazine and repository of ideas tresAtances of its movement." luftead of cono- Tured up there, and joins together, or sepa. dering the underitanding, memory, patlions, rates, at pleasure, ideas, qualities, and forms. and will, as diflinet and opposite pouers, or It may be called the fervant or labourer of as unconnected tenants umer the same roof, the mind, continually employed to bring be#oad it not be more jutt, to consider them fore it, from its amazing itorehouse, materiall as wides of the mind itjelf, and as eacii of ali, with which to build up its conclusions. them bearing the common nature and cha- It is the ever busy, patient, indefatigable ract r of the whole united spirit? We Thould drudge, toiling for the common benefit and then Chilider the mind itself as underliand- atliti.ince of all the other powers; and does ng, the mind isfilf as judging, remembering, not defive the indignities and reproaches it 13:11, willing. And this idea would be

is contually receiving. How often is it Exictly consonant to many fats, and pheno. forced to be present, and even to give affmena of burnu nature, which will be here- tanci, in the condemnation and execution of after mentioned.

itself ? How many, with declamation moft * However the common representation extravagant, with ideas mult deranged, with oi hunan nature, as confitting of several apprehensions moft funciful, have abused the italending powers, may have been togu atively p.xor Imagination, whilft all their cenfure and 2 led, in order to solve some appearances ; alarm bave had no better than an imaginary fuh us, the experience of conflicting pajjions, foundation ? * of of spoglie icndencies in be foul; yet it is A mind to imaginative does, indeed, nx founded in philosophical truth, and, if often join its ideas together in wild and ridic Dx properly guarded, by being always con. culous atrociations. One who is called a fatred merely as a figure, it may lead to wit, joins only those which appear odd and hal ehood and absurdity.

fantastic. But he whole judging are exactly « The full elucidation of all these posi- poised by his imaginative powers, who is tions would swell this paper to a length far according to our scheme, at once, lively to bevind the limits wisely appointed for our conceive, and fober to judge, collects togecommunications, which, being intended only 'ther only ebose ideas, wiich are proper to set 25 tublidiary to conversation, lhould rather the subject before him in such a light, as to contain bints, than a regular composition of form an exact Jeermination. The power of tothed and artificial sentences. Inty ade, imagining is, therefore, in its place, as neIstobject would have received its beft illus- celiary as the power of judging. Suppore train and support from morals and religion. a mind which coulloniy reptember--it would But as there would lead me too much into a full, at once, into the track muked out by prof ffonal line, 1 thall endeavour to draw others, and would never employ its own pow. the arguments from those lower subjects, of els, by reatoning and determining for i seif. 4.9e, eticilm, and polite literature, by which, Accordingly we find, that persons of the it appears to me, to be unanswerably sup- strongest memory have generally the weakest pored.

judgments. • The points we undertake to defend, are If these principles are just, a mind these; “That the imagination and patlions which could not imagine, could not renfor, #3y, within proper linuts, be of the utmost It would have no materials before it, on se vice in giving strength and clearners to the which to form its decision.

Its view of any taiderstanding. And, that this arises,—from fubjeét would be narrow and defective. Obthe nature and office of the imag'nation, - ferve, on the other hand, a mind keen and and from the principle before-mentioned, that fervent in the protection of a favourite subthe energy of ore power may be communi- ject, viewing it attentively on every side, Caied to the rifi, with the greatest advan- catching every ray of lighit wlich can illuc."

minite, and every kindred sentiment which

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.'" turbida terret imago.“ Virgil. An. IV. 353.

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