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Memoirs of the Literary and Philosophical Society of Manchester. Vol. 1. & H. 8vo.
125. Boarvis. 1785. Cadell.
( Continued from Page 102.) Thoughts on the style and Taste of Garden. behind each other, make one think, Pliny
ing among the Ancients. By Dr. Fal. was rather describing a Vjia of king Wila coher, Read Dec. ii, 1782.
liam, or Louis XIV. than one of a Roman
taste our Author ; and years ago. kre we find our expectations fully gratified: “ Sonne circum'tances, in the abo:e Jea esen M. W pole is out-rhone (though hy scription, appear in many refpects absurd no meais me-- written), and Mr. Barriage, and exceptionatle. But let is not be too De lijn; we mean, as describers of bally in our censures; but consider, whether 2016 ent gardens. The garden of Eden- the nature of the clim::te and country may thu't alluded to in the Song of Solomon and noe vindicate them, in several respects, from in ipe book of the Prophet Ezekiel-the the imputations which might have been just. Garden of Alcinous—the hanging gardens of ly afcribed to them, under different cir. Babylon—the garden of Cyrus at Sardis - cumstances. The walks bordered with box, the park of Cyrus in Purygia (stocked with a tree of clofe growth, and said to A urith wili beasts for the purpose of hunting)—the extremely in that situation, formed a conve. Ai vemas of the Greeks, with the garden nient shelter from the corrid rays of an Itaof Pico and of Epicurus—the gardens of lian fun. The shearing of the trees conrri. Lucullus and of Pliny-respectively pass un- buted also to thicken their fhade, and to render review.-The Tuscan Villa of Pliny der them more commodius for this purpose ; with the garden and ground belonging to it though, I confess, it was not necessary, for are described with minuteners.--After this this end, that they should be cloped into recital of fiets relpeeting the gardens of the aukward imitations of animais, &c, whici: 20 ents, the Doctor proceeds to make this it is surprizing a man of the taste of Pliny own observations. In doing this, his good could approve.
Tlie fence to the garden fense and discerument are fully evin ed; his was, in Pliny's Villa, concealed by trees ituły, it is plain, has not been confined to an- improvement on the modern tatte referred ceut gardening alone, but has been ex- to; a long rauge of bare brick waliing hav. tendeu, and with considerable advantage, to mo- ing been often esteemed an object of beauty din gardening ;-án art which seems to be or magnificence. growing every day niore and more fashion. « Fountains, likewise, and jers l'ean, aile. No other apology we fatter ourselves however useless, and therefore absurd and will be requisite for taking an extract of un- unatural, in Great Britain and Holland, may asual length from this valuable paper. still be in perfectly good talte in Italy. The
" It is obvious, that the above descriptions dispersion of muilture coois che air, by the hear a striking resemblance to the latte in evaporation it produces; and the very mursrdens that prevailed in this country, and nior of the falling of water gives the idea of Incred throughout Europe, towards the be. coolness, by association of feníitions. They ginning of the present century. The walks seem here to have been difpoled with judy, bordered with box and rosemary ; the ter- ment, some of them being fitnated near the Täte planted with violets, at the Laurentine alcove, and resting places, as a refreshment Villa ; and the court divided into parteire to those fatigued with heat and exercise ; divifions, edged with box ; the figures of and others disperset through the graís, et animals Cult on in box trees, placed opposite to cause a fuxilih surprise, and to endanger each other, upon the flope ; with the fur. the health of those pathng that way, by walo Tunnding walk inclosed with tonsile ever- ting their cloaths, but to water the trees, greeris cut into shapes,, point out cool the ground, and refresh the verdure ; fame resemblance in the gardens at the circumstances indispensable to the beauty of Tuscan Villa. The circular amp sitheatre the scenery and puurpect, in a bot climate. o bax cut into figures, and the walk co- “ The same apulsy may, I think, bo vered with graduated thrubs, are all exactly made for the regularity of the walks in the in the Lime Pyle. The fountains overflow. Hippodrome, and the minute parts and dising; the marble basons, the little jets d'eau fions in which i: ws di pored, about the seats, and under the alcove ; the “ li is probable, the extent of ground it. fudden dappearance of the water ; the self was not iarge. Difant walks would he Aprits in the grass ; the regular disposition facigumg in an Italian summer, and would be of the trees in the Hippodrome, in lines too much trouble and expence to keep as straight, and regularly curved i' gather clofely thaded, as would render them fufficio with the arrangement of the different kinds endly agreeable. They were diercfu'e, in a EPROP. Mac.
manner compelled to make as much as por- to be very rationa!. Natural beauties, or fible out of the space of ground ; which they refembl.inces thereof, are chucfy alimpedi accomplifhed, hy dividing it into as many which are the more proper, as being more walks and paths as pollible.
conformable to the climate and situation of parterre likewise, parted into the country, and difpofition of the people, beds of varous fapes, was necellary for who are heft pleased with great and iub, nie howers, which were highly valued in warm objects, which are to be found only in naclimates for their perfume, but do not thrive, ture. The clofe wolk, however delightful unless kep: ditlindt and free from the proxi- in Italy, or Pursia, is here judicioufiy exmity or orner trees or plants.
changed for the open grove, and the mouture “ It is remarkable here, that the taste of of grais fer gravel. The insure of trees is the aut. r. for the heaut es of nature, breaks also laid aside ; not only as impairmng their out among his description of the most artifi- betury, but ollo as thickening their ihale, cial ornaments. inmediately after derrri- more thin would be necefiary ir agree.te, bing the fence of the garden, corertd with where a free intercourse of air is so requsite graduated box tites, le adus, that the ad. to di pel damps and exhalations. Firuntains, joining meadow was as beautiful iny nalulle, on the same acc unt, are laid aside, and we as the garden had b. 61. rendered by art ; and, are conten! with the natural
of in another pl..ce, mention the contrift of the Rreams, uluch exhale less moisture, and beauties of rural nature with those of art prouce lets cold, luan water sponted into the as one of the chief ornaments of his garden. air by the fantautie, but less beautiful distribuThe rime apology that has been made to the lion of it by a jet d'eau, The gardaix, or style in u hichi Pliny's gardens were did out, pleure-grounds, in our
ountry, are like. is applicable to the filtern guidins in gene. wise very pro;:ily of much larger extelit, rai, and holds full more firongly, as the than those in hoc climates. Pleature, in the heat becomes, more conitane and intense. Later, is alu ays conibined with fomen ilac We may farther observe, that this mode of indolence and inactirn; in the former it is fits the dipefition of the eaftern people, in connecled with exercile and activity. A many other refpccts. The seguidilly and large cope of ground, therefore, thai ferd. formality of their birer of nung, and ed opportunity for the latter, would he more manners, corresponds with their tale fur re- conform.ble to the genius of the people, as gular figuras, and unfirmany of operance, we! as to the cl mate, in which ite luxu ious in the laying out of gicurd. may not, indulgence, fo del htful wlien the heat is Hiperhaps, be too great a refinement to remark, le.ife, cull very seldom be tafriy praci.ted. that inch a taste is conformable also to a der- On the role, I am inclined to believe, that, potic governn eat, which is jealous of:ll in
wait oftlie onu..muis novations, and, of course, it us to oppor. proper for line climates, in our gardens and tunity for exertions of ginius, in any capaci- pieasure-grounds, Great Britain is capable of ty. It is wrthy of obientation, that the attorurg more real and currure beau'y a regul ur taste, al vi rtk rted to, pretailed in vielso! this kind, thani', perlaps, i Oy ulere this country at a time when our tylem of elit to lie nei uit!). T.e Invie und irgi iar moners, dress, anI leaviour 1:4 estrene Vertime when I havs cieties both stie tarih ly cremupiouis, fonal, and reserved, and and the tree! ; the ballery of the lierhrge, approaching to thote of the eaftern countries. and the size to which oki and other topit As this fıtness w ore (ff, the tatte aihe lites, congenial to the country, will arrive, people improved. Shakespeare wis 10 impart a bezoly and magnitudi.ce to cur prore long l centured for inter conto drn auc preis, a den opportunities for the judiciBridress; the turgid but regular bomb.ft of ous interpilitiesvi art, laiuserior lo u lat Blackmore fell into disrepute and ridicule, is to be met with, where licle avantages d'o and ,? more easy and natural livie was adepla ell, b. tli in lentinent and writing.
6.We are ftruck with cl.fic deferiptions, “ The general nethod of laying out and atiected by the circumstances utci, by grounds, in this country, feuns at present their connection, they recall to the retuy;
Javen al arrears to have prometed a grodi.fe in girdlening, and looking out gorua's, fiom w hot be 1..55 of the sotiinial grillion af Ancinun, and the ditmpt to ulikut te Wale ty fuldtutir's neribocin place of its natural bouncy of beitune.
1: Volem Logeniæ descendinitis, ei fpeluncas
lutelud, Saiyr. III. ..
but setting these asije, I make no doubt, a dern garden ; but we by no means think that grove of English oaks would be 2 more beau- a parterre, or any other unnatural receptacie, tful as well as a more magnificent object, is necellary tu their introduction. thin “ the olive grove of Acadcme," or that of plane trees in the Achenian Lyceum. On the Regeneration of Animal Substances. 4 After all, it is as potlinie tu err in too
By Charles White, Esq. F. R. S. &c. closely following Nature, as it is in neglect
Red Dec. 18, 1782. ing hier. There are beauties of the artificial We have here an ample collection of cases kind, as well as natural, which are proper
and other facis relative to this interesting to be introduced into scenes of this kind. subject. The collection is revidered the more Statues, buildings, and oiher urnaments, in
valuable, as being made by a man of Mr. gunsd Calte, and well executed, may unite
White's acknowledged abilities. The manwin great propriety with natural objects, and ner in which he introduces his hiftory of beighten their effect. I do not speak of these facts, and the observations he afterwards Oaments, as to any particular beauties they mikes upon them, du his head and his heart may individually ponie's, but merely as coin
equal credit Ciling with the general effect and nature of “ The great Author of the creation has enthe prospect. They are, however, to be dowed the animal world with a wonderful employed cautiously, since, if injudiciously, power of repairing and recruiting its various or even tvo frequently introluced, they give compound machines, and not only filling up an ar of frivolousncls and affcctation to the and making good lott subitinces, but in lume whole, which renvers it an object of cone
inftances, of even totally regenerating parts; tempi and ridicule, rather than of admira- but we must not from hence accule him of 1.0.1
partiality, in not doing it in every indiance ; “ Mure, I think, might be said against for the further we carry our researches into excluding parteries of flowers, which were the secrets of Nature, the more we thall be tu constant attendants upon the old gardens, convinced of the great and unbounded wir. asid ly rarely seen at prelcut. We all know, dom of God, and of the extraoruinary rethat several kinds of Howers are exquisitely sources he has placed in her poileilion ; beautiful, and that their beauty and perf: c.
"" The filt Almighiy cju'e ton depends on certam circumstances reid- Acts not by partial, but by general laws. Live to their culture. Great care is necessary,
Pope's Illay on Man. and a separacion from other plants, buth of " The Deity has drawn the line, bas fixwhich suggest the parterre as the most pro- ed the limits, and has laid tu Nature, Hither per and convenient way of producing treni. Thalt thou go, and no further. I conters, parterre divisions pofsels ou re- * If this order does not appear to us to markable beauties in themselves; but I think, be un fornily preserved, we must not conat the same time, that they have no.bing fu clude that it is not really so, bui that it is tocking, to the most delicte taite, that owing to our fiender capacities, that we are fhould hinder their being employed, when unable to trace his hand through all his they are the harbuigers of lucli beautiul pio. Ways: ductions of nature. A square, or an oblong bor- 6. Ste and confefs, one comfort ftill must der, has nothing obvioully absurd or dizut.
riie, ing in its appearance; and as to its being ar- " 'Tis thus, tho' man's a fool, yet God is inicial, it may be said in defence of it, that it
Loc. citat. is not an imitation of any thing in naruie, nor
" The ancients knew that a freth bioken meant to be lo, but solely calculated for uti. bone would unite by a cailus, this world's lity, as an inftrument neceifary to the pro- o the fie!h would fill up by wint is called duction of beauty; and, confidered in this incat nation, and would be healed over with view, we might with equal realun object skin hy what is called cicatrzation. Eut.l. agitt a house, as an unnatural, and there. vain-glorious building mand most not troin fore an improper object, as agaimit the di- hence pretend, that he can make . fingle fi. vions of a tower parterie.
bre grow : this is the act of Nature univ. * 1 grant, indeel, alat they have been The ablett surgeon living can do 10 more whimsically, and often abiurdly arranged, han utfitt her, remove the present obitatules, and fathioned; bu such I do not heie defend. and prevent others bemig that count in her way. I only maintain the case of parterres, on ac- “ Yes, Nature's road must ever be pretercount of the beauties which they are necuitry
red, to prendue; nui of any they then tulves poifeis.” Realon is here no guide, but still a guard." We perfeally coincide in opinion to ith our
Lyc. cit. aullur, chat a collection of flowers is a beau- " The moderns have carried this matter ty which ought not to be excluded the mu. further.”
A variety of cases are then enumerated, maging the joint, had not taken it wholly Thewing the wonderful efforts which Nature out, but he would diffect it out entirely, and frequently makes towards re-establithing then it would not return. He accordingly whicver art or accident has deranged or executed the plan he had described with displaced.-ile nitural history of the crab
great dexterity, and turned the ball fairly out and lobster,--the polypus,-the sea-ane- of the locket; not withitanding this, it grew mone,-the earth-worm, &c. &c. are next again, a fresh nail was formed, and the adduced, to place in a ftill stronger light che thumb remains in this itate. regeneration of animal subítances. Finally, the author presents us with two unpublished these facts, are, that, in the human species,
“ The conclusions I would draw from cafes which have occurred to his own expe. rience; closing his excellent performance
not only flesh, skin, and bores, may be rewith inferences and reflections, which, with generated, but membranes, ligaments, carthe experience and observation from which tilages, glands, blood vessels, and even nerves;
and this for the wiselt purposes, that every they are drawn, rhew him to be at once an able surgeon, a good philosopher, and a gieat
part may be repaired in its own kind, and minded man.
in some maner restored by the coagulable
lymph, which is poured out, and becomes " I shall now beg leave to lay before the
vascular, and forms organized parts. Society, two cases, that have not been put. lished, in order to prove ftill further the “ By this wise provision of nature, the doctrine I have been endeavouring to esta. many accidents to which we are continually blish.
wsex, are often more completely repaired
than art could be able to accomplih. “ Roger Nuttal, of Bury, twenty years of age, was admitted an in patient of the 16 In some animals, we see this regenera. Manchester Infirmary, under my care, on ting and living principle carried still wa the 2 3d of January, 1775, for a tumor on much greater length, where not only whole his back. Upon stripping off his shirt, to limbs, but even the more noble organs are Thew me the tumor, I was struck with a ve- reproduced. ry angular appearance of a stump of the
“ The study of nature is not only engaging rizlit nunierus. I asked him, if he was born
and pleasant to a high degree, but it inipu es with it in that form, or whether his arm had
us with such a relpect and admiration of the been taken off. He informed me, that Mr.
Almighty Being, that it is impossible either Kay Allen had taken his arm oft close to the
for a Naturalitt or an Anatomiit to be an ihoulder, when he was but four years old,
Atheift. and that the Itump was grown again to that jength, which seemed to be about eighe inches “ They have constantly before their eyes longer than he described it to have been, im- so many wonderful living machines, different. mediately after the amputation. I enquired ly wrought, yet so completely fashionedl, both of his mother and Mr. Allen, as to and all tending to one great point, the prethe truth of his relation, which they both servation of themselves and their species ; contii med ; and the latter with this addition, in which there are so many orders of yel. that the aim was taken off as near the sels, one depending upon another, yet comMoulder as the application of the tourniquet plete in themselves ; capable of repairing would perinit. The bone had every degree injuries they may sustain, and even of reitoof firmness and solidity, and the stump was ring loft substances; that men who daily lee warm to the extreme point, and he informed such objects, must be convinced, that these me, Wris perfectly sensible when touched, admirable fabrics cannot have proceeded from
“ Some years ago, I delivered a lady of chance, but must have been the work of an rank of a fine boy, who had ewo thumbs Omnipotent Creator, who has formed them
with the nioft perfect wisdom, and attention opon one hand, or rather, a thumb double
to their several interests and situations," hom the tirit joint, the outer une rather less thin the ocher, each part having a perfect nail. en lie was about three years old, I
An Essay on the Diversions of Hunting, was derived to take off the lefler one, which
Shooting, Fiting, &c. considered as comI did, but to my great astonishment it grew
patible with Humanity. Read Jan. 151 again, and along with it, the nail. The fa.
1783. mily afterwards went to relive in London, where his father Thewed it to that excellent This anonymous paper has given us great (caur, William Bromfield, Eki surgeon pleasure in the perufal. It is well-writen, iv) ile birear's household, who fail, he fup- and many of the arguments it contains are O. . * . ' BED esi si d of da- close and ingenious. The special argunient,
however, is wisely confined to HUNTING; much more to be dreaded ; and compared it cannot with equal force be extended to therewith, the fate of the partridge from the SHOOTING ;-a less natural diversion ;- gun of the fowler, or of the trout by the and by which we fear lingering deaths are rod of the angler, is mild and enviable. rather increased than prevented: buc bear " To recapitulate then what hath been wluit sur sensible author advances upon the advanced on this subject -We have seen the subject.
human mind, in every age, endowed with a • The tie of natural affection, il hath al- Itrong, natural inclination to these diversions. ready been observed, is not weak amongst In the favage ftate, we have seen, that the brute animals; but it may be remarked, that situation of nan renders fuch a propensity through in many cases it is fortrong in parents absviutely necessary; we have seen it become wwards their progeny, the reflscted attach- at once conducive to his convenience, and his ment seems to fubfitt, only whilft the young pleatures; we behold him emerge from a offspring are incapable of providing for them- Itate of uncivilization into polished life, felves. When they arcain to maturity, the This propensity still accompanies bin; it sticonnection is, in most cases, dissolved, and mulates him to exercise the efficient cause of elle relationship forgotten. How pitiable then health; it inspires him with a love of inmuft be the facuation of that animal, whom dustry and activity, the certain source of true age, with its attendants, weakness and dir- pleature ; he becomes habituated to fatigue taie, hath reduced to a feeble and helpless and exertion, despises dange: and difficulty, Bate, incapable of providing for itself the nor dreads exposure to those elements, from Decellary subsistence, a prey to couinual ap. whose severity he acquires strength of body, prehenfion from those wimals whose attacks with vigor and firmness of mind. We have it is unable to fly from or repel; and at seen, with respect to brute animals, that, length languishing to the period of its exif- being destined for the use of man, in depri. tebie, consumed by famine and wasted by ving them of existence, he disturbs not the ducafe i Compare with the face of such an order and intention of nuure; that in facri29 mal, that of the timid hare. She meets ficing them to his pleasures, he neither dethe opening moru in health and vigour, and stroys nor diminishes their portion of enjoywith playful frulic wancons on yon upland ment; and that, in exercising the prerogahill, enhvened by the beams of the rising tive with which he is invested, if he were jan. No feeble polle, or languid eye, in- not thus prompted by inclination, he would dicate a disordered frame ; no anticipation of be compelled by neceility. her approaching fate inspires her with appre. “ It may be urged, if not as an argiment ben (10n. All is gay and lively, like the in favour of theie diversions, yet as a cirprospect around her. On a sudden, how- cumitance which should incline us to caution ever, the scene is changed, the echoing of in condemuing them, that they are pursued che hora resounds from the adjacent valley, by m.iny individuals who are distinguished and the cry of the deep-mouibed hounds for those virtues of the heart, which seem thunders towards the hills. Sie becomes totally inconfittent with thoughtless or with motionless with fear, when a feco:id alarm intentional cruelty, and which are at once che Toures her from her trance; she flies, and ornament and the blesings of society." with eager steps seems to ouuitrip the winds. Men, horses, and dogs inttantly join in the
Observations on Longevity. By Anthony chace, and the forest echoes to the wild up- Fothergill, M. D. F. R. S. toar. The hare doubles the swiftness of 15, 1783. her speed abates---fear, more than fatigue, We are here presente:) with three Tables, retards her Alight-he faints at the noise of followed by some valuable observations, on the approaching hounds-redoubles to elude Longevity; a subject interesting to every their pursuit-her feeble limbs are unable to Having already laid before our readers perform their office--and now-breathless an extract from this valuable paper *, we and exhaufted, she is overtakers, and torn in Mall here only insert the concluding observapreces by her merciless purfuers.
tions : " Such a doom seems levere, and hard is “ That so complicated a machine as the the heart which doth not commiferace the human body, so delicate in its texture, and sufferer. Its apparent severity will, how fu exquisitely formed in all its parts, Thould ever, be much mitigated, if we consider the continue, for so many years, to perform its quick transition, from perfect tealth to the various functions, even under the most pru. expiring conflict. Death brought on by dent conduct, is not a little surprizing : but diseale, or the decay of nature, would be that it should ever hold out to any advanced