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CHARACTERS, ANECDOTES, and OBSERVATIONS, by the late

Dr. SAMUEL JOHNSON.
[From Mr. BOSWELL’s “ Tour to the HEBRIDES," lately published.]
LORD ORRERY.

YOUNG,
SPEAKING of the noble family of Boyle, He told us, the first time he faw Dr.

Dr Johnson said, that all the Lord Young was at the house of Mr. Richardson, Orrerys, till the presen', had been writers.

the author of Clarissa. He was sent for, that The first wrote several plays; the fecond was

the Doctor might read to him his Conjectures Bentley's antagonist; the third wrote the

on Original Composition, which he did, and Life of Swift, and several other things ; his

Dr. Johnson made his remarks; and he was fon Hamilton wrote fome papers in The Ad- surprised to find Young receive as novelties ventærer and World. He told us, he was well acquainted with Świst's Lord Orrery. He said he believed Young was not a great

what he thought very commom maxims. He said, he was a feeble-minded man; that, scholar, nor had studied regularly the art of on the publication of Dr. Delany's Remarks writing; that there were very fine things in on his book, he was so much alarmed that he was afraid to read them. Dr. Johnson ewenty lines together without some extrava

his Night Thougbıs, though you could not find comforted him, by telling him they were

gance. He repeated two paliages from his both in the right; that Delany had seen most

Love of Fame the characters of Brunetta of the good ide of Swift - Lord Orrery most

and Stella, which he praised highly. He said of the bad.-M.Leod asked, if it was not

Young pressed him much to come to Wellwrong in Orrery to expose the defects of a

wyo. He always intended it; but never men with whom he lived in intimacy.-

He was sorry when Young died. Johnson. " Why no, Sir, after the man is

The cause of quarrel between Young and his desal; for then it is done historically." He son, he told us, was, that his son infifted Young wided, “ If Lord Orrery had been rich, he would have been a very liberal patron. His

should turn away a clergyman's widow, who

lived with him, and who, having acquired conversation was like his writings, neat and elegant, but without strength. He grasped the fun. Dr. Johnfon said, she could not con

great influence over the father, was saucy to & more than his abilities could reach ; tried

ceal her resentment at him, for saying to to pass for a better talker, a better writer, Young, that “ an old man should not resign and a better thinker, than he was. There was a

himself to the management of any body."quarrel between him and his father, in which

I asked him, if there was any improper conhis father was to blame ; because it arose from

nection between them."No, Sir, no more the son's not allowing his wife to keep com

than between two statues. —He was past pany with his father's mistress. The old fourscore, and she a very coarse woman. Lord Thewed his resentment in his will- She read to him, and, i luppose, made his leaving his library from his fou, and affigning coffee, and frothed his chocolate, and did as his reason, that he could not make use of it.” such things as an old man wishes to have

I mentioned the affectation of Orrery, in dune for him.” coding all his letters on the Life of Swift in ftodied varieties of phrase, and never in the common mode of “ I am &c. an observation

DR. DODDRID CE, wtuch I remember to have been made several years ago by old Mr. Sheridan. This spe. Dr, Doddridge being mentioned, he ob. cies of affectation in writing, as a foreign served, that “ he was author of one of the Lady of distinguished talents once remarked finest epigrams in the English language. Ic to me, is almost peculiar to the English. I is in Orton's Life of him. The subject is his taok up a volume of Dryden, containing the family - motto,--Dum vivimus,

vivamus ; Concaeli of Granada, and several other plays, - which, in its primary signification, is, to be of which all the Dedications had such studied sure, not very suitable to a christian divine ; conclusions. Dr. Johnson Taid, such conclu- but he paraphrased it thus : frons were more elegant, and, in addressing « Live, while you live, the epicure would persons of high rank, (as when Dryden dedi- say, cated to the Duke of York) they were like- " And seize the p!easures of the present day. wife more respectful. I agreed that there it « Live, while you live, the sacred preacher was much better : it was making his escape cries, from the Royal presence with a genteel sud- “ And give to God each moment as it flies. dea timidity, in place of having the resolution Lord, in my views let both united be; to itand still, and make a formal bow. “ I live in pleasure, when I live to the:."

D EUROP, Mac,

ARABS.

His Lady

It was

Goldsmith, rather than not speak, will talk ARAB S.

of what he knows himself to be ignorant, At Fort George we dined at Sir Eyre which can only end in exposmg him.”—“ / Conte's, at the Governor's house, and found wonder, said 1, if he feels that he expoles him a most gentleman-like man.

himself. If he was with two taylors"-" Or is a very agreeable woman, with an uncom.

with two founders,” said Dr. Johnsen, (inmonly mild and sweet tone of voice. There terrupting me,)

“ he would fall a talking on was a pretty large company: Mr. Ferne,

the method of making cannon, though buih Major Brewse, and several officers. Sir

of them would foon fee that he did not Eyre had come from the Ext-Indies by land, know what metal a cannon is made of.". through the desarts of Arabia. He told us, the Arabs could live five days without vicine

PENNAN T. als, and fubfift for three weeks on nothing

It was wonderful how well time passed in else but the blood of their camels, who could Jore so much of it as would suffice for that

a remote cattle, and in dreary weather. Aftime, without being exhausted. He highly objected that he was superficial. Dr. Jolinson

ter supper we talked of Penuant. praised the virtue of the Arabs; their fidelity, if they undertook to conduct any person ; and

Jefended him warmly. He said, Pennant faid they would sacrifice their lives rather

has greater variety of enquiry than almost any

man, and has told us more than perhaps than let him be robbed. Dr. Johnson, ulje is always for maintaining the superiority of time that he took. He has not faid what he

one in ten thousand would have done, in the civilized orer uncivilized men, faid, “ Why, Sir, I can see no superior virtue in this. A

was to tell; so you cannot tud fault with him for what he has not told.

If a man Terjeant and twelve men, who are my guard,

comes to look for fishes, you cannot blame will die, rather than that I shall be robbed."

him if he does not atend to fowls.” — But, --Colonel Pennington, of the 37th regiment, took up the argument with a good deal of reasonable rise of rents in the Highlands, and

faid Colonel MóLeod, “he mentions the infpirit and ingenuity.- Penningtou. " But

says, “ the gentlemen are for emptying the the foldiers are compelled to this, by fear of

• bag, without filling it?' for that is the punishment."--- Johnson. “ Well, Sir, the Arabs are compelled by the fear of intány." plurie he uses. Why does he not tell --- Pennington. “ The soldiers have the same

how to fill it?- Johnson. “ Sir, tivere fear of infamy, and the fear, of punithment te is what he observes, and as much as hechu

here is no end of negative criticism. He berides ; to have leis virtue, because they act

ses. If he teli, what is not true, you may lets voluntarily."'--Lady Coote observed very

find fault with hini; but though he tells that well, that it ought to be known if there was

the land is not well cultivated, he is not not, anong the Arabs, fome punishment for not being faithful on such occafious.

obligal to tell how it may be well cultivated. If I tell that many of the Highlanders go bare.

foored, I am not obliged to täll how they GOLDSMITH.

m.1y get shoes. Pennant tells a fact. lle I talked of the officers whon we had left need go no farther, except he pleases. He to-day ; how much service they had seen, and exwandts nothing ; and no lubject whatever how little they got for is, even of fame.- has yet been exhausted. But Pennant has surely Johnson. “ Sir, a soldier gets as little as any told a great deal. Here is a man six feet man can get."'--Boswell. “ Goldsmith has high, and you are angry because he is not acquired more fame than all the officers litt sleven.” Notwithstanding this eloquent Ora. war, who were not Generals,”—Johníon. tio pro Pennantia, which they who have read “ Why, Sir, you will tind ten thousand fit this gentleman's Tours, and recollect the Sato do what they did, before you find one wlio vage and the Shopkeeper at Monboddo, will does what Goldsmith has done. You must con- probably impute to the spirit of contradiction, fider, that a thing is valued according to its i fill think that he had better live given rarity. A p.bhle that paves the street is in more attention to fewer things, than have itlelf more uteful than the diamond upon a thrown together such a number of imperfect lady's finger."--I wish our friend Goldsmith accounts. had heard this.

He said, he was angry at Thrale, for fitting at General Oglethorpe's without speak

LEIBNITZ and Dr. CLARKE. ing. He censured a man for degrading him- After breakfast, Dr. Johnson and I, and felf to a non-entity. lobserved, that God. Jofep'i, mounted horses, and Col and the smith was on the otlier extreme; for he Captain walked with us about a Mort mile fpuke at all ventures, Jounion, “ Yes, across the island. : We paid a visit to the Re

verend

verend Mr. Hecior M'Lean. His parish own blood, or feeling a little pain from a collits of the islands of Col and Tyr-yi. wound. I think the beavy glaymore was an He was about seventy-seven years of age, a ill contrived weapon. A man could only recent ecclefiaftick, drelled in a full suit of Itrike once with it. li employed both his hack, and a black wig. He appeared like hands, and he must of course be suon fatigued a Ditch paftor, or one of the Assembly of Di- with wielding it ; so that if his antagonilt tines at Weltminster. Dr. Johnson oblerved could only keep playing a while, he was lure to me afterwards, that he was a fine old man,

of him. I would fight with a dirk against and was as well drefled, and had as much Rorie More's sword. I could ward off a dizaily in his appearance, as the dean of a blow with a dirk, and then run in upon my catedral. We were told, that be bayl a va- enemy. When within that heavy sword, I 1.he library, though bu: poor accommoda- have trim; he is quite helpless, and I could cca far it, being obliged to keep his books ftab him at my leisure like a calf. It is in large chelts. It was curious to see liim thought by sensible military men, that the and Dr. Johníon together. Neither of them English do not enough avail the.nfelves of their heard rery distinctly; so each of them talked superior ftrength of body against the French; n his ok 1) way, and at the same time. Mr. forehat must always have a great advantage in M'Leand, he had a coufutation of Biyle, puihing with bayonets. I have leard an offi. ty Leibnitz. Johnson.“ A confutation of cer fay, that women could be made to Barie, Sir! What part of Bayle do you mean? stand, they would do as well as men in a The greatest part of his writings is not confuta- mere interchange of bullets from a distance; be; it is hiftorical and critical.” -Mr. M.Lean but if a body of men should come close up to fast, " the irreligious part ;'' and proceeded them, then to be sure they must be overbidk of Leibnitz's controversy with Clarke, come : now, said he, in the same manner the oling Leiboitz a great

man.-- Jonnfon. weak bodied French mult be overcome by, Why, Sir, Leibnitz persisted in affirming

our strong foldiers.” tha: Newton called space jenjerium numinis, nithstanding he was corrected, and de.

TRADE. ferred to observe that Newton's words were After breakfast he said to me, “ A High(CAD penjar um

um numinió. No, Sir, Leibnitz land Chief should now endeavour to do every ** 25 paltry a fellow as I know. Out of thing to raise his rents, by means of the inrepet to Queen Caroline, who patronised duity of liis people Formerly it was right Tim, Clarke treated biai tvo well."

for him to have his house full of idle fellows; During the time that Di. Johnson was they were his defenders, his scivants, his dethis going on, the old mimitter was itanding pendants, his friends. Now they may be win his back to the fire, cresting up erect, better employed. The system of things is piling down the front of his perriwig, and Dow so much altered, that the family cannot Liking ubat a great man Leibnitz was. To have influence bu: by riches, because it has ure an idea of the scene, would require a no longer the power of ancient feucal times, juge with two columns; but it ought rather An individual of a family may have it; but it

be repreiented ty two good players. The C.:Noot now belong to a family, unless you old gentleman taid, Claske was very wicked, could have a perpetuity of men with the fame fit gung so much into the Arian Sufo view's. Milevol las four times the land

" I svil not say he was wicked, that the Duke of Bedford has. I think, with 1.) Dr. johnfun; he might be mistaken."- li's spirit, lic my in time make himself the Mlean." He was wickcu, to shut his eyes greatest man in the king's dominions ; for at the Scriptures; and worsv men i land may alu ays be improved to a certain deFinland have since con'uted ivim to all in- gree. i would never have any man sell land, toes and purposes.” — Johnson. I know to throw money into the funds, as is often netako has confused him to all intents and done, or to try any other species of trade, tutors."-Here again there was a double Depend upon it, this rage of trade wil dietriking, each cout.nuing to maintain his own Itroy itself. You and I thall not ite it ; argument, without hearing exacily what the but the time will come when there will be an other laid.

end of it. Traile is like gaming. Ji a whole

company are gamefters, play mult ceale; fur MILITARY OBSERVATIONS. there is nothing to be won. When all naAfter fupper he said, " I am rry that tions are traders, there is nothing to be gained prize.fighting is gone out; every art thould by trade, and it will top first where it is be preferved, and the art of defence is sure. brought to the greatest perfection. Then the la important. It is absurd that our foldiers proprietors of land only will be tho grest fearad tave swords, and not be taught the men."--l observed, it was hard that M.Leod pfe of them. Prize-figheing made people ac. Thould find ingratitude in so many of liis peocitoned not to be alarmed as seeing their ple.-Johnion. “Sir, giacitude is a fruit of

D2

great

great cultivation ; you do not find it amorg ble to explain. He never wears a night-cup gross people.”—I doubt of this. Nature as I have already mentioned; but he puts seems to have implanted gratitude in all living handkerchief on his head in the night. -Th creatures, The lion mevtioned by Valerius day that we left Talisker, be bade us ride on Maximus, had it. It appears to me that He then turned the head of his horse back culture, which brings luxury and selfiffness towards Talisker, stopped for some time": with it, has a tendency rather to weaken than then wheeled round to the fame direction promote this affection.

with ours, and then came briskly after us

He sets open a window in the coldest day or MATRIMONY.

night, and stands before it. It may do with

his constitution ; but most people, among At breakfast Dr. Johnson said, “ Some whom I am one, would say, with the frogs cunning men choose fools for their wives, in the fable, “ This may be spore to you thinking to manage them, but they always but it is death to us."-- li is in vain to try to fail. There is a spaniel fool and a mule fool, find a meaning in every one of his particuThe spaniel fool may be made to do by beat- larities, which, I suppose, are mere habits, ing. The mule fool will neither do by words contracted by chance; of which every man nor blows ; and the spaniel fool often turns has some that are more or less remarkable, mule at last : and suppose a fool to be made

His speaking to himself, or rather repeating, do pretty well, you must have the continual is a common habit with studious men accuf. trouble of making her do. Depend upon it, tomed to deep thinking ; and, in consequence no woman is the worse for sense and know of their being thus sapt, they will eyen laugh ledge."—Whether afterwards he meant by themselves, if the subject which they are merely to say a polite thing, or to give his

musing on is a merry one. Dr. Johnson is opinion, I could not be sure ; but he added,

often uttering pious ejaculations, when he “ Men know that women are an over-match

appears to be talking to himself; for somefor them, and therefore they choose the weak.

times his voice grows stronger, and parts of eft, or most ignorant. If they did not think

the Lord's Prayer are heard. I have fat beso they never could be afraid of women fide him with more than ordinary reverence knowing as much as themselves."--In justice on such occasions *. to the sex, I think it but candid to acknow

In our Tour, I observed that he was difledge, biat, in a subsequent conversation, lie

gusted whenever he met with coarse mantold me that he was serious in what he had

He said to me, “ I know not how said.

it is, but I cannot bear low life: and I find

others, who have as good a right as I to be STRIKING PECULIARITIES OF DR. JOHN- fastidious, bear it better, by having mixed SON.

more with different forts of men. You would He has particularities which it is impoßi. think that I have mixed pretty well too." PEMARKS on the DIFFERENT SUCCESS, with RESPECT to HEALTH, of SOME

ATTEMPTS to pass the WINTER in HIGH NORTHERN LATITUDES. By

JOHN AIKIN, M. D. (From the “ Memoirs of the LITERARY and PHILOSOPHICAL Society, at Manchester."] THOUGH the cure of difeases may where to be met with, has been afforded by

perhaps, most safely be confined to the that celebrated and much-regretted navigator members of a profession, devoted hy educa- Captain Cook; an account which was justly tion and habit to this sole object, yet the pre- thought worthy of the most honourable apfervation of health must be in some measure 'probation a philosophical society could be. committed to the care and judgment of every stow. From similar sources, relations of individual. The discullion therefore of any voyages and travels by plain unprejudiced means to obtain this end, divested as it may men, I have collected some other facts prohe of technical language, and abftrufe specula- bably at present forgotten or disregarded, tjun, cannot fail of being generally interesting. which appear to me capable of suggesting leThe most remarkable and useful account of veral striking and important observations refuccess in this important point perhaps any lative to the preservation of health in parti.

ners.

* It is remarkable, that Dr. Johnson should bave read this account of some of his own pectildi habits, without laying any thing on the subject, which I hoped bic would have

Colle,

çular

calar circumstances. These, with a brief and all became grievously affiliated with the commentary and some general reflections, I scurvy, except the Captain, Master and Surbeg leave to submit to your consideration, geon. Weak and sick as they were, how

Towards the beginning of the last century ever, it was necessary for them to labour several voyages of discovery were made in hard out of doors during the greatest inclementhe Northern Seas; and the Greenland whale- cy of the season ; for believing their ship so da. fishery began to be pursued with ardour hy maged as to be incapable of carrying them various European nations. These two cir. home, they undertook the laborious task of cumstances have given rise to various instances building a pinnace from the timber growing of wintering in the dreary and desolate laruls on the INand. At the return of spring the of high northern latitudes ; and the surprize young greens sprouted up much sooner and ing difference of success attending these ac- more plentifully here, than where Monck tempts must strike every reader.

wintered; and it became very hot before The firit remarkable relation of this kind they left the place. They loft only two men that I have found, is that of the wintering of out of a crew of twenty-two. Captain Monck, a Dane, in Hudson's B:ly, In the year 1633, two trials were made kaitode 63o. 20. He had been sent on a by the Dutch of establishing wintering places voyase of discovery with two thips well at their northern fisheries ; the oire at Spitze provided with neceffaries, the crews of which bergen, the other on the coast of Greenland, amoanted to fixty-four persons. The ships in latitudes about 77 or 78. Seven sailors being locked up in the ice, they landed and were left at each, amply furnished with eveerected huts for paffing the winter, which ry article of cloathing, provifion, and utenthey occupied in September 1619. At the fils thought necessary or useful in such a situbeginning of their abode here, they got ation. The journals of both companies are abundance of wild fowl, and some other fresh preserved. provisions; but the cold soon became so in- That of the men in Greenland takes noteníe, that nothing further was to be pro- tice, that on September 18th, the allowance cored abroad, and they were obliged to take of brandy began to be served out to each perto their thip-stores. The severity of the cold son. On October 9th they began to make a may be conceived, from their seeing ice three constant fire to fic hy. About this time, it hundred and fixty feet thick ; and from their is remarked, that they experienced a considerbeer wine and brandy being all frozen to able change in their bodies, with giddiness in the very centre. The people foon began to their heads. They now and then killed a be fickly, and their fickness encreased with hear; but their chief diet was falt meat. In the cold. Some were affected by.gripes and March they were all very ill of the scurvy : woleness, which continued till they died. and on April the 16th the first man died, and At the approach of fpring they were all high- all the rest were entirely disabled, but one ly scorbutic, and their mouths were so ex- person. This poor wretch continues, the tremely sore, that they were unable to ent journal to the last day of April, when they ay thing but bread soaked in water, At were praying for a speedy release from their La their bread was exhausted; and the few miseries. They were all found dead. furvivors chiefly subsisted on a kind of berry The journal of those who were left at dug our from beneath the snow. When the Spitzbergen recites, that they fought in vain {pring was far advanced, no fresh vegetables for green herbs, bears and foxes, in that de. could yet be found. In June the Captain solate region ; and killed no other garae than crawled out of his hut, and found the whole one fox, the whole time. The scurvy arcompany reduced to two men befides bimself. peared among them as early as November These melancholy relicts supported them- 24ch ; and the first man died January 14th. ieves in the best manner they were able, The Journal ends February 26th; and there and recovered their strength by feeding on a too were all found dead. ceraia root they discovered, and some game Not many years after these unfortunae caught in hunting. At length they embark- attempts, an accident gave rise to an experia ed on the smaller ship, and after undergoing ment, the event of which was for eritirely umberlefs dangers and hardships, returned the reverse of these, that it meriis very partitoge in safety.

cular notice. On the fame five of SpitzberIn the same immense Bay, but as far fouth gen, between lat. 77 and 78, a boat's crew * 12. 52, Captain James, an Englishman, belonging to a Greenland Mail, confilting of intered with his crew. His residence was eight Englishmen, who had been ient adhore op aa ifland covered with wood; but the to kill deer, were lo behint, in consecold was, notwithstanding, most intense. In quence of some mildes, and reduced to the the depth of winter they were able to pro. deplorable neceffity of watering in that are very little fresh provision by the chase, dreadful country, totally wüprovided withi

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