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each other, they pay one another the same (Economy has its peculiar abode in Japan'. compliment, and país ea in other in a posture It is a virtue aumiied as well w the empesomewhat bent. Upon enteriog a house, ror's palace, as in the meanest cotiags. It they fall down on their knees, and bow the makes those of smaid potletlions content with head; and when they rise to depart, the t'ieir little, and it prevents the abundance of same ceremony is repeated. Superftition is the rich from overtlowing in excess and voperhaps more general and extravagant here, luptuousness. Hence it happens that what than any where elle; which arises from the in other countries is called scarcity and famine, Title knowledge they have in most sciences, is unknown here, and that, in so very popu. and the absurd principles which their priests lous a fate, scarce a person in necefficy, or 2 implant in them. This imperfection appears beggar, should be found. The people in gein their worship, festivals, vows, use of cer- neral are neither greely, nor eager after richtain medicines, &c.

es, while at the same time they seem to Their curiosity is excessive; nothing im. avoid gluttony and drunkenness. ported by the Europeans escapes it. They Haughtiness is among the chief failings of aik for information concerning every article, the nation. They believe themselves to be and their questions continue till they become the facred offspring of the gods, heaven, fun wearifoo e. It is the plıyficials, among the and moon; an origin which many of the Li aders, that is alone regarded as learned, and Afiatic nations, with equal confidence, arroparticularly during ihe journey to court, and gate to themselves. They also believe them. the residence at Jedilo, the capital of the em- selves to be superior to other men. If a Japire, that he is regarded as the oracle, which panese should bear with patience all otiser they trust can give responses in all things, injuries, the pride of other men would be whether in mathematics, geography, playsics, totally insupportable to him. The haughtie chemitry, pharmacy, zovlogy, botany, me. ness of the Portuguese drove them from this dicine, &c. When the Dutch have their au.

country, and this alone would be sufficient to dience of the emperor, council, or gover- ruin the trade of the Dutch. nors, they consider, from head to foot, their Justice is much regarded by them ; the mohats, swords, clothes, buttons, trimming, narch never exceeds his bounds; nor is there, watches, sticks, rings, shoes, buckies, &c. either in ancient or modern bittory, any proof nay, they mult frequently wrice on paper, or that he has extended his ambition or his de. the peculiar fans of the Japanese, in order to mands to the territories of other people, Thew, them their manner of writing and their Their history abounds with heroic achieve. letters.

ments exerted in defending iheir country It is highly probable that this people were against external violence and internal fedia not always to suspicious. Disturbances or war lion ; but not a fiogle invasion of other counperliaps introduced them, but the deceits tries, or other men's property, occurs, practised by the Europcaps still more excited Voltaire says, that whoever shall desire and increased this vice; which at present, in that his country Mall he neither greater nor their trade, at least with the Dutch and Chic less, neither richer nor poorer, may be justly nere, exceeds al! bounds.

called a citizen of the world. Such are the I have often been a witness of the good Japanese : they with not to acquire the ter. disposition of the Japanese, even at a time ntories of others, nor will they luffer any uhen they have every realon to entertain all diminution of their own. They follow thie poilible contempt and hatred, and to use eve- usages of tijeir forefathers, ard never adopt ry precaution, on account of the bad conduct the manners of other countries. Justice is and cunning artifices of the Europeans who always seen in their courts; their suits are altrade thither. The nation is indeed haughty, ways finithed speedily, and without intrigue ; but ftill gentle. By mild measures and civic equity is observed even towards the Eurolity it may be led and affected, but by menaces peans; so that the contract entered into is it is altogether immoveable.

neither annulled, nor is i misinterpreted or Honesty and fidelity is observed in all the altered in a single letter, provided the Euro. country ; in few other countries perhaps is peans themselves do no: give occasion to such theft fo rare. Robbery is totally unknown. practices. Theft is feldom heard of : and Europeans, Liberty is the life of the Japanese; not induring their journey to court, are so lafe, that deed tuchy a kind of liberty as often degene'they take little care of the goods they carry rates into violence and licentiouinels, but a

along with them; though it is otherwise not liberty secured and limited by law. I cannot - considered as a crime, at least at the Dutch comprehend how it has happened, that some factory, and by the lower people, to steal biftorians have considered the common people from the Dutch fome of their wares, such as in Japan as Nuves. A fervant who hires lugar or corper, as they are carried w or himself for a year, is not on that account a from the quay.

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discipline, enlisted for a certain, often for a The Asiatic, on his return, complained to the conuderable term of years, is not on this ac. eniper or of his ill. treatment, as well as of et unt a flave, though he is contenteil to obey the 'affront which was offered to the sove. the striciest commands of his officer. The reign. His anger being the mure ronfed, as Japanese speak with borror of the Dutch the insult proceeded from defpiled foreigners, Have.trade. The liberty, both of high and and as he was incapable of avenging it, his low, is protected by law's; and the uncom. life-guard addrelled him in the following mon severity of those laws, together with

“ We will no longer guard yonr their certain execution, ketips every one with- person, if we are not able to protect your in his proper limits. With respect to foreign “ honour : nothing but the blood of the of. nations, there is no people, in all the extent “ fender can wath away this stain: com. of India, lo vigilant over their freecom, and " mand, and we will either cut off bis heul, none more exempt from foreign invasion, or bring him hither alive, that you may oppreiliou or fraud. The precautions used “ inflict punishment according to your good for this purpose are without parallel through- “ pleasure, and bis deserts : feven of us are on the whole globe ; for, fince all the na- “ enongh ; neither the danger of navigation, tives u ho were abro.gd were recalled, none " the strength of the fort, nor the number can leave the coasts of the empire, under the “ of his guaral, thall free him from our vengepenalty of death ; and no foreigner approach “ ance.” After receiving orders, and tathem, except a few Dutch and Chinese, who, king prudent measures, they arrive at Fordunng the whole time of their stay, are mía. Being admitted to an audience by the watched like prifoners of state. .

Governor, they draw their fabres, take him Almost every person in Japan has a ser- prisoner', and carry him off to their veffel. varit, who waits upon him in the house ; This audacions deed was atchieved at mid day, and, when he goes out, carries after him a in the presence of the guard anu domestics, none cap, shoes, umbrella, a light, or any thing of whom, astonished and dismayed as they of this kind which he needs.

were, durst move a step to the allistance of This nation has never been subdued by any their matter, whose head was cleft in the fame foreign power, not even in the most remote inftant by the adventurers. (Kämpfer,p. 479.) perio's; their chronicles contain such ac- He who mall consider their bauglitiners, counts of their valour, as one would rather spirit, equity, and courage, will not be sur. incline to consider as fabulous inventions, prised at finding them implacable cowards than actual occurrences, if later ages had not their enemies, They are not less relentful furnished equal striking profs of it. When and inexorable than intrepid and high-minded. the Tartars, for the first time, in -99, had Their hatred never appears in acts of viooverrun part of Japan, and when, after a lence, but is concealed under the utmost cool. considerable time bad elapsed, their feet was ness, till an occasion of vengeance offers itdestroyed by a violent storm, in the course of felf. I have seen 'no people fo little subject a single night, the Japanese general attacked, to vehement emotions. You may abuse and and to totally defeated, his numerous and insult them as much as you please, they brave enemies, that not a single person sur- make no reply, but merely Thew their survired to return and carry the tidings of such prife, by coolly exclaiming, ha! ha! They an unparalleled defeat. In like manner, conceive, however, in filence, the most when the Japanese were again, in 1281, in- deadly hatred, which neither satisfaction of vaded by the warlike Tartars, to the num- any kind, length of time, nor change of cir. ber of 240,000 fighting men, they gained a cumstances, can appease. They omit no victory equally complete. The extirpation mark of politeness, either in addrelling, of the Portuguese, and, with them, of the or on meeting their adversary, but they coun. Carittian religion, towards the beginning of terfeit as great regard for him as for others, the 19th century, was so complete, that till an opportunity of doing him some effential fcarte a reftige can now bę discerned of its damage occurs. ever having existed there. Many thousands The names of families, and of single per. of men were facrificed; and at the last fiege fons, are under very diferent regulations zone, not less than 37,000. Nor are there from ours. The family name is never changvictories, however figoal, the only ones ed, hut is never used in ordinary conversation, which display the courage of the Japanese. and only when they sign some writing; to Aurther mitance, which oceurred in 1630, is which they also, for the most part, affix their a further proof of it. The Governor of For- seal. There is also this peculiarity, that the mosd, which then belonged to the Dutch surname is always placed first; juit as in botanicompany, thought fit to treat with ill-advised cal books the generic vame is always placed beinfolence and injustice the master of a small fore the specific name. The prænomen is alJapanese veffel who came thither to traffic. ways used in addresling a person ; and it is

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changed several times in the course of life. A sleeves so long, that they reach down to the child receives, at birth, from its parents, a ground. Such is the simplicity of their habit, name,which is retained till it has itself a son ar- that they are soon dressed; and to undress, rived at maturity. A person again changes his they need only open their girdle, and draw name, when he is invested with any office; in their arms. There is, however, some as also when he is advanced to a higher truft; small variation in these gowns, according to fome, as emperors and princes, acquire a the sex, age, condition, and

The new name after death. The names of wo. very lower forts, as labourers, fishermen, men are less variable; they are, in general, and sailors, have, at their work, in summer, borrowed from the most beautiful flowers. either the upper part of the body naked, so

The dress of the Japanese deserves, more that the gown is fastened only by the girule; than that of any other people, the name of or tliey have only a girdle, which palles benational ; since they are not only different tween their legs, and is fastened behind. from that of all other men, but are also of the Men of better condition have a short gown same form in all ranks, from the monarch also, which reaches down to the wait, and to his meanest subject, as well as in both a sort of breeches. The short gown is some. sexes; and, what exceeds all credibility, times green, but generally black; when they have not been altered for at least 2444 they return home, or enter their office, they years. They universally consist of night- take it off and fold it carefully, if no fuperior gowns, made long and wide, of which seve- be present. ral are worn at once, by all ranks and all A dress which is only used on particular ages. The more distinguished, and the rich, occafions, iscalled the compliment dress; in have them of the finest silk; the poorer sort, this the inferior sort wait on the superior, and of cotton. Those of the women reach down go to court. It is worn on the long gowns, to the ground, and sometimes have a train ; which constitute the general dress of the nain the men, they reach down to the heels: tion. It consists of two pieces, made of the travellers, soldiers, and labourers, either same kind of cloth. The lowermoft piece tuck them up, or wear them only down to is the long breeches juft mentioned, which, the knees. The habit of the men is gene- for this purpose, are made of white ftuff, rally of one colour ; the women have theirs adorned with blue fowers. The upper piece variegated, and frequently with Aowers of is not very unlike the short gown lately degold interwoven. In summer, they are ei. scribed; it differs only in being widened ther without lining, or have but a thin one; behind, hetween the thoulders, and makes in winter, they are stuffed to a great thick- the wearer appear very broad-shouldered. nals with cotton or silk. The men seldom These dresses are partly of silk, partly of wear a great number, but the women thir- cotton, partly of linen, which is procured ty, fifty, or more, all so thin, that they from a species of nectle. The higher fort scarce together amount to five pounds. The wear the finest filk, which in thinness and undermolt serves for a shirt, and is therefore fineness exceeds every thing produced by Eueither white or blue, and, for the most part, rope, or other parts of Asia. But as this thin and transparent. All these gowns are cloth is seldom a foot in breadth, it is seldom faftened round the waist with a belt, which, brought to Europe as an article of commerce. in the men, are about a hand's-breadth ; in The lower ranks wear cotton, which is prothe women, about a foot; of such a length duced and manufactured here in the greatest that they go twice round the waist, and af- abundance. terwards are tied in a knot, with many ends Sometimes, though indeed only as a rarity, and bows. · The knot, particularly among the Japanese make a cluth from the mors the fair sex, is very conspicuous, and imme. papyriferus, which is either prepared in the diately informs the spectator whether they same way as paper, or else fpun or woven. are married or not. The unmarried have it The latter, which is very fine, white, and behind, on their back; the married, before, like cotton, is fometimes used for women's In this belt the men fix their fibres, fans, dress. The former, with flowers printed on pipe, tobacco, and medicine boxes. In the it, makes long gowns, which are worn only neck the gowns are always cut round, with by people advanced in life, such as old Jigniout a collar ; they, therefore, leave the neck caries, and that only in winter. bare ; nor is it covered with cravat, cloth, or In general, it may be faid of the Jaany thing else. The Deeves are always ill panese dress, that it is very large and warm; made, and out of all proportion wide : at the that it is easily put on and off; that it conopening before, they are half sewed up, so strains no limb ; that the fame habit suits that they form a fack, in which the hands all; that there is no loss of cloth; and can be put in cold weather; they also serve that it may be made with little art and for a pocket. Girls, in particular, have their trouble ; but that it is inconvenient in mo

ving,

cotton.

hing, and ill adapted for the execution The way of dresling the hair is not less peef most things which occur to be done. culiar to this people, and less universally pre

As 'the gowns, from their length, keep valent among them, than the use of their the thighs and legs warm, there is no occa- long gowns. The men have the head from foo for stockings; nor do they use them in the forehead to the neck; and the hair re. all the empire. Among 'poorer persons on maining on the temples, and in the nape, is a journey, and among foldiers, which have well beímeared with oil, turned upwards, not such long gowns, one sees buskins of and then tied with a white paper thread,

I have seen poor people, at Naga. which is wrapped round several times. The laki, with locks of hempen cloth, with fules ends of the hair beyond the head are cut of cotton, for keeping the feet warm in the crossways, about a finger's length being left. leverest weather of winter.

This part, after being pasted together with Shoes, or, more properly speaking, slip- oil, is bent in such a manner, that the point pers, are, of all that is worn by the japanese, is brought to the crown of the head, in which the simpleft, the meanest, and the most mi- situation it is fixed, by pafling the same thread serable, though in general use among high round it once. Great attention is paid to this and low, rich and poor. They are ma e of head-dress; and the hair is shaved every other interwoven rice-ftraw ; and sometimes, for day, that the sprouting points may not dis. perfuns of distinction, of reeds split viery thin. figure the bald part. Priests and physicians, They consist only of a sole, without upper- with interpreters that are not arrived at maleather or quarters. Before there palles over, turity, make the only exception to this rule, transversely, a bow of linen, of a finger's Priests and physicians shave the whole head, breadth : from the point of the Thoe to this by which they are distinguished from all other bow, goes a thin round band, which, run- ranks; and interpreters retain all their hair ning within the great toe, serves to keep the till the bearil begins to appear. Women, fhoe fixed to the foot. The shoe, being without excepe such as bappen to be separated from quarters, Aides, during walking. like a lip. their husbands, shave no part of their head. per. Travellers have three bands of twisted Such a person I had occafion to see at Jeddo. straw, by which they faften the shoe to the She was wandering about the country, anil, font and leg, to prevent its falling off. Some with her bald head, looked particularly ill. carry several pairs of Thoes with them when other women turn their bair upevards with oil they undertake a journey. Shoes may, and viscid subttances, sometimes quite close to moreover, be bought, at a cheap rate, in eve- the head, and at others spread out at the sides ry city and village. When it rains, and in the form of wings. The unmarried are when the roads are miry, these straw.hoes frequently diftinguished by these wings. Be. abford the moisture, and keep the feet wet. fore the knot is placed a broad comb, which, On the roads you may every where see worn- among the lower fort, is of japanned wood; out shoes thrown aside by travellers ; particu- but, among the higher, of tortoise-lhell. larly at the brooks, where they can wath Some wear flowers in their hair ; but vanity their feet when they change shoes. In rainy has not yet led them to load their ears with and dirty weather, lumps of wood, excavated in the middle, with a bow and a band The bead is never covered with hat or for the toe, are used instead of shoes ; so that bonnet in winter or in summer, except when they can walk without soiling their feet. they are on a journey; and then they use a Some have the common straw-shoes fastened conical bat, made of a sort of grass, and fix. on such pieces of woody three inches high. ed with a ribband. I have seen such a hat The Japanese never enter their houses with worn by fishermen. Some travelling wo. Does, but put them off in the entrance, or men, who are met on the roads, have a bon.

near the entrance. This net like a shaving-baron inverted on the head, precaution is taken for the sake of their neat which is made of cloth, in which gold is incarpets. During the time the Dutch reside terwoven. On other occasions, their naked in Japan, as they have sometimes occasion to heads are preserved, both from rain and the pay the natives visits in their houses, and as sun, by umbrellas. Travellers, moreover, they have their own apartment at the factory have a sort of riding-coat, made of thick pacovered with the same sort of carpets, they per oiled. They are worn by the upper fer

do not wear European shoes, but have, in vants of princes, and the suite of other travela tijeir stead, red, green, or black Rippers, lers. I and my fellow travellers, during our

which can easily be put off at entering in. journey to court, were obliged to provide fuch They, however, wear stockings, with shoes for our attendants, when we passed through of cotton, fastened by buckles. These fhoes the place where they are made. are made in Japan, and may be washed when. - A Japanese always has his arms painted on ever they become dirty,

one or more of his garments, especially on

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the long and thort gowns, on the sleeves, or wards serve for parting the rooms. TIX between the thoulders ; fo that rhody can whole house, at first, makes but a fogie ftcal; which otherwise might easily happen room, which can be parted into several, by in a country where the clothes are so much fliding-boards in the grooves of the crossalike in fluff, shape, and size.

pieces. They use, for this purpose, thin The houses are, in general, of wood and boards varnished over and covered with thick plafter, whitewashed on the outside, to as opake and painted paper. The ceiling is pe feclly to resemble a house built of stone. made of boards jointed close together; bus The beans are all perpendicular and hori. the floor, which is always elevated above the zemtal ; none go in an oblique direction, as ground, consists of loose planks. The run elsewhere is usual in houses conítructed of confifts of tiles, made in a peculiar manner, fucb materials. Between the picocs of wood, very thick and heavy. The meaner houses which are square, and but thin, bambous are covered with flabs, upon which an leap are ju!er woven, which are afterwards plaf- of stones is laid to fix them down. tered with a mixture of clay, rand, and The houses commonly consist of two ftochaik. Thus the walls are not very thick, ries, of which the upper is seldom inhabied: bai, when whitewathed, they make a tolera- it is very low, and serves for a lumber-root. bly good appearance. There are no parti- Tke houses of the rich and great are larger, tion-walls within the house ; it is supported and make a greater thew than those of by uprighe pieces, which, at the ceiling, others; but they are not above two itories, and at the floor, have cross-picces pail ng or at most twenty feet in height. between them with grooves, which after

[ To bi continued. ]

For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE.

FRAGMENTS by L E 0, No. VIII.
The CRITICAL CLUB.- -On the just STANDARD of Homer's MERITS.

Quardaque bonus dormitat Humerus.

AST night, at the Club, Tom Triplet substance which a dog leaves hehind him.

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cism. A few evenings before he had pro- think to make honey of that? But you thail duced an ode, which he said was written hy not spoil my hive; and inttantly he trampled a young man in the country; but which every the poor mistaken animal to death." Tom one present suspected to be his own. Our Triplet felt the allusion severely, and flipped Zaulus, Dick Diftichi, palled several cutting the ode into his pocket in profound blence, oblervations upon it, every one of which evi- which he preserved without one effort to dently cut Mr. Triplet to the quick. He speak during the rest of the evening. Dick then turned his tale, and, recovering him. Diftich, who is possessed neither of my friend self, faid he had only ascribed the ode to a Tom's ingenuity nor modetty, eagerly feszed young man that he might hear our opinions the opportunity of his deep filence, and wih on it, but that in reality it was written by a great triumph expatjated on the topics of dr. young taly, whese old maiden aunt, as it con- piite which had formerly been between them. tained a family compliment, was desirous Rhyme, faid Dick, is a vile monkith invento have a few copies of it printed, and had tion, as different from what the ancients called jert it to him to get it corrected for that pure rythinus, as Homer's exalted poetry is from the pole. He was under great obligations, he school-boy Itrains of Virgil. Blank verse is the aduer!, to the old lady, and would be happy to brightest glory of our Englih Muses ; and he ferve her : then archly turning to his old that cannot read it properly ought never to antagonist Dick Distich, and claiming his open his mouth, when taste and poetry are frientrip'from his former professions, begged the subjects of conversation. Mr. Pope ought bis athftance in correcting the young lady's to have been crucified for pretending to tranode, as he now called it. Dick was a little Nate Homer in rhyme ; and is certainly, at puzzled at this requeri--Rather than mend a this momen!, hung up in a bufket in Tartut live of it, he would have sat a uliole winter- rus for to doing, like Socrats in Arzíto. night on the cok ground.-- At last, looking phanes's comedy of the Clouds. As to Vir. very serious, Mr. Triplet, says he, I will tell gil's Eneid, Taffo's Jerufalem, and Voltaire's

A countryman who was very Henriade, it is impollible that any man who tond of his hees, took great pleasure in fceing can read and relith the Greek, can read sea them rove from fower to flower. While lines of them without unspeakable disgut be was this one day observing his little chy. Every thing that is tolerable in them is bor. miits, an unlucky bee lighted on a certain rowed from Homer ; but borrowed and re

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