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whence he proceeded to Abysania, by way of Afronomer Royal. The first of these obseJejda,* Mazavant and Arquico s

vations was made on the joth of January Whilft Mr. Bruce was ar Jedda, he was 175,, and the last, on the sth of October met by fome English gentlemen returning 1772, from 30 to 38 degrees of E. longifrom the East Indies, among whom was tude from Greenwich, and from 12 to 28 Mr. Newland, who hath published a map of degrees of N. latitude. It need scarcely be the Red Sea, and who availed himself of Mr. faid, therefore, that there observations, whicha Bruce's observations to fix the situation of include lo large an extent of almost unknown that port. Il

country, must prove a valuable addition to It is supposed that Mr. Bruce did not stay geography; and the more fo, because the long at Jeuda, as he is faid to have explered Portuguesc, who first visited Abyssinia, give the coast on the E. fide as low as Mocha, neither longitude nor latitude of any place in during which drawings were taken of many that empire ++; and Poncet only two laticurious fith in the Red Sca. Mr Bruce muft iudes, viz. those of Sennar and Giefum. II also have entered Abyffinia, either at the lat- As Mr. Bruce made the last of his oble. ter end of 1763, or the very beginning of vations on the 5th of October 1772, it is 1769, as he made an observation on that part probable that he might then be on his return of Africa on the igth of January of that to Cairo, through Nabia and Upper Egyp, year. ||

where he arrived on the 15th of January In this perilous enterprize he was accom- 1773, after an absence of more than four panied by a Greek servant (named Michael) years; bringing back with him his Greek and an Italian painter, who probuhly affitted servant, named Michael. in the numerous articles which might deserve Mr. Bruce continued at Cairo four months, representation, and who died of a flux before during which time he had daily intercourse Mr. Bruce's return to Cairo in 1773.

with Mr. Antes, the substance of a letter Mr. Bruce must at times also have been from whom will contain the principal confuaflifted by many others, as his instruments, tation of Baron Tott, and others, who have apparatus for drawings I, and other neceffa- . been incredulous with regard to Mr. Bruce's ries, from their weight and bulk could not be expected narrative. easily transported from place to place, and Mr. Antes was born of German parents, perhaps required beats of burthen.

To who were poflefied of lands in the back festhere likewise must be added several media tlements of Pennsylvania ; and having themed cines which enabled him to perform several early abilities as a mechanic, removed to cures on the inhabitants, and probably occa- Europe, 'where he distinguished himself Fored the good reception lie afterwards met in the art of watch-making, which he learnt with.

without apprenticeship. Being a member of I fall leave such other particulars as hap- the church known by the name of Unitas pened to Mr. Bruce during his long residence Fratrum, and commonly called Moravian, in this unfrequented country, to his own su. he wilhed to be employed in their mifions, perior narrative, and thall therefore only state, and nwore especially that of the same persuathat he made a large nu.nber of obfervations fion establifhed at Cairo, who always have to fix the fisuation of places, out of which 31 desired to procure opportunities of instructiag have been exanımed and computed by the the Abyilinians. 4

Or Giedda, the port to Mecca and Medina. + A imali illund on the W. coast of the Red Sea, N. lat. 15. the most southern part of the Turkish dominions in Africa.

ģ A port to the S. of Mazava. The neighbouring district is under the dominion of an Arabic Shick. The Portuguese entered Abytiinia by ihe same route. # I have this information from that distinguished Geographer Mr. Dalrymple, F. R. S.

Mr. Bruce carried with him so many black lead pencils for this purpose, that he prefented several to Mr. Antes on bis return to Cairo. Who Mr. Antes was will hereafter appear.

** Or the eclipses of Jupiter's Satellites.—1 am obliged to Vice-Admiral Campbell for this communication.

++ * Many of the countries in Ethiopia are diverfly placed by divers, which Alvarez, in " his so many years travel in Ethiopia, might well have acquainted us with, had he accus. us tomed himself by rules of art to have observed by instruments.” Purchas.

of These two latitudes were fixed by Father Benevent, who accompanied Poncet, and dicu whilst in Abyíliniz.

4 Dr, IIcker, who was a physician, and ordained minister of the same church, was sipe wrecked not many years bace on the Red Sea, in making this attempt, and obliged to retina

Mr. Bruce had left Cairo '15 months be- " which was not less than four months, no fore Mr. Antes came there ; and the inter-' “ day paired without their seeing each other, course, therefore, between them first took «. which gave Mr. Antes frequent opportuplace on Mr. Bruce's return in 1773. nities of inquiring with regard to Ahyffi

Having given this account of Mr. Bruce “ nia, concerning which he was particularly and Mr. Antes's being first known to each “ interested from a reason before Itated $. other, I thall now itate the substance of " That Mr, Antes frequently conversed some information received from the latter, “ with Michael, Mr. Bruce's Greek servant, who is now established at Fulneck near " who is stated to have by no means had a Leeds, after having resided eleven years at “ lively imagination, and who always agreed Cairo.

« with the circumstances mentioned by his " That Mr. Brace left Cairo in 1768, • master, and more particularly in relation " and proceeded thence, by way of Jeuda, to their having visited the sources of the " Mazava, and Arquico, into Abyffinia. “ Nile, which the Baron Toit doubts of, from

“ That in 1771, a Greek came from “ having had a conversation with this same " Gondar in Abyffinia, who had a draft

“ Greek servant." * from Mr. Bruce on a French merchant Mr. Antes adds, “ That Baron Tott staid " at Cairo (named Rose) t for some hun. “ but a few days at Cairo ; and, from his « dreds of German crowns, which were « short refidence in that country, hith given paid immediately. This draft was accom

< several crroneous accounts relative to " panied by a letter from Mr. Bruce, and “ Egypt. Mr. Antes, on the other hand, " was the first time that he had been “ had almost daily converfations with Mi" heard of at Cairo fince his departure in "chael for several years, and often in relation

« to the sources of the Nile **" That after Mr. Bruce's return to Cairo Lastly, " That after Mr. Bruce left Cairo, " in 1773, Mr. Antes faw a young Arme. “ Mr. 'Antes had conversed with others + + a nian and his father (who came likewise " who had known Mr. Bruce in Abyfinia, * from. Gondar) at Mr. Pini's, an Italian " and that he was there called Maalim ja. * Merchant of Cairo, where they aud Mr. “ kibe, or Mr. James." « Bruce conversed in the Abyssinian lan

Arter this state of facts, I conceive that no guage ll, and seemed glad to meet him one can enter tain a reasonable doubt with reagain.

gard to Mr. Bruce's not only having visited, " That Mr. Bruce returned to Cairo from but refided long in Abyssinia ; though it is “ Abyfiinia, by way of Nubia and Upper remarkable that the Jesuits expreised the

Egypt, which can be fully attested by the Tame doubts in relation to Poncet, who had * Franciscan Friars who are established at continued there nearly as long as Mr. Bruce. * Ife, near Asyuwan, which latter is the Poncet happened to be a lyman, and the " highest town of Upper Egypt.

Jeruts, perhaps, would not approve of any " That during Mr. Bruce's Itay at Cairo, narrative that did not come from father Bene

6 1768.

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to Cairo.- am obliged to the Rev. Mr. Latrone for this communication, as likewise feveral ottars, and more particularly, the letter from his brother-in-law, Mr. John Antes, extracts from which will soon be ftuicd.

* Generally considered as the capital.

† li hath before been stated, that Mr. Bruce established himself in a French house at Aleppo, from which most probably be obtained credit upon a house of the same nation a: Cairo, and was thence supplied with a power of drawing from Abyffinia.

His name was Paolo. The Armenians are the most enterprising of any inland merchants -Their religious notions also agree with those of the Abyssinians, which is a most material poist.

4 Mr. Antes does not speak the Abyssinian language himself, but was informed by Paola, the Armenian merchant, who had long reflued at Gondar, that their conversation was in that toogue.

Viz. his belonging to the Moravian mission at Cairo, who have always wished to visit the country.

*. Mr. Antes's peculiar curiosity with regard to Abyssinia, hath before been accounted for.

+ + There is an intercourse between Cairo and Ahvslinia, as the Patriarch of the Copts refides at the former, from whom the Archbishop of Abyftinia receives his confecration. The Copes are said to be a branch of the Easterii church, who botti circumcise and baptize. Their Patriarch always alumnes the aame of Mark. The present Patriarch is Mark be ic.th

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vent, who accompanied Poncet to Abyssinia, cet's narrative, who was prevented by illness but unfortunately died there I.

from visiting the very spot, but hath given an Driven however from this hold, the ob ample relation from an Abyssinian, who had jectors will possibly retain their incredulis often been there. Poncet, moreover, had ty as to many particulars to be related, which obtained leave from the Emperor to make I will shortly endeavour to answer, at least this journey, which he states as not being a in regard to two of the principal ones, which distant one, and that the Emperor hath a are often much dwelt upon.

palace near the very sources. The first of these is, the having visited the If it be doubted, whether Mr. Bruce hath sources of the Nile, which, from claffical visited every source of the Nile, I answer, education, we cannot easily believe, as they that perhaps no Englishman hath taken this were unknown to the ancients, though they trouble with regard to the sources of the had so great curiosity with regard to this dif. Thames, which, like most other rivers, is cuvery *.

probably derived from many springs and rills Many things, however, have been accom- in different directions. plished by travellers in modern times, which The other objection which I have often the ancients never could archieve, and which heard, is, that Mr. Bruce hath mentioned in may be attributed to their want of enterprise + conversation, that the Abyflinians cut a Nice (as travellers, at least), of languages, and from the living ox, esteeming it one of their Lastly, the not being able to procure credit greatest delicacies. when in a distant country. Mr. Bruce could This sort of dainty indeed is not so considernot have continued so long as he did in Abys- ed in other parts of the globe ; but every naImia, unless he had drawn from Gondar up- tion almost hath its peculiarities in the choice on a merchant established at Cairo.

of their food. The difficulty, however, with regard to Do not we eat raw oysters within a second reaching the sources of the Nile, ariles prin. of their being separated from the shell ? And cipally from the uncivilized state of sibyilinia, do not we roalt both them and lobsters whilst unless the traveller had a proper introduction . alive, the barbarity of wbich practice seems When once this is procured, all difficulties to equal that of the Abyflinians ? Do not cooks seem to cease, as we find by Lobo's || account fkin eels whilft alive? and do not epicures of this fame discovery, and likewise by Pon- crimpfith for the gratification of their appetites?

It must be admitted, however, that we owe to the zeal of the Jesuits, the best accounts we have both of China and Paraguay. Few laymen have been actuated so strongly for the promotion of geography and science as Mr. Bruce; and we must, therefore, (upon the order of Jesuits being aholished) look up chiefly to the Milliouaries from the Church of the Unitas Fratrum, who, though ittening to totally in other respects, seem to have an equal arvour with the Jefuits for instructing the inhabitants of countries unfrequented by Europeans. Such missions are already established in W. Greenland, the coast of Labridor, N. lat. 56, the back settlements of Carolina and Pennsylvania, in India, Bengal, and the Nicobar Inands. Those established on the coast of Labrador fend over yearly meteorological journals, which are commun.cated to the Royal Society. As for the dispute between Poncet and Maillet, the French consul at Cairo, see Mod. Univ. Hift. vol. VI.

* We canpot be surprized that the Greeks and Romans should have had this curiosity, the Nile not only overflowing during the summer, but receiving no tributary stream through so large an extent of country. The not being able to reach the source, however, argues a greke want of enterprise in them, especially as both of these nations were masters of Egypt.

+ Perhaps also of curiosity. How little do the Romans seem to have known of the Pg. renees or Alps ; I had almost fait, of their own Appenines.

Some of the most accompl.shed Romans could indecu speak Greek, but the Greeks no language except their own.

Š The profeting the knowledge of medicine was Pencet's introduction, and seems to have been th:t of Mr. Bruce. Even in our own civilized countiy, how are quacks and mounte. banks resorted to ? And what an impression must Mi. Bruce, with his mazaificent and scientific apparatus, have made upon the inhabitants of such a country as Ahytiinia.

ll In Father Telles's compilation. See also Ludolf, who describes the sources from Gregory, who was a native of Abytlinia. Father Payz was the first who visited them, A. D. 1622. His account of this is said to be in the archives of the College de Propaganda Fide at Rome. It is believed that there many of her curious particulars for the illustration of geograplıy, to be found in the same depository. Dr. Shaw mention, moreover, fome papers of Lippi (who accompanied the French embarly into Abydlinia, A. D. 1704) which are to be found in the Botanical Library at Oxford.

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our own.

That the Abyssinians eat beef in a raw flesh, never could obtain any credit f afterftate, is agreed by both Lobo and Poncet ; wards from his brother-fellows of the same and the former says reeking from the be.ft. college, though many of them were learned Mr. Antes moreover was told by a Francis- men. can Monk, who went with the caravan from It is well known, however, thongh Dr, Abyssinia to Cairo *, that he was witness of Shaw states this same circumstance in the an ox being killed, and immediately devoured publication of his Travels, that he is cited by the band of travellers.

with the greatest approbation in almost every One reason, perhaps, for this usage may be part of Europe. the great heat of the climate, which will not The natural cause and progress of the in permit meat to be kept a fufficient time to credulity which a traveller generally experie make it tender (as with us); and it is gene- ences, feems to be the following: rally allowed, that a fowl, dressed immedi- When he returns from a distant, and little ately after it is killed, is in better order for frequented country, every one is impatient eating, than if it is kept four and twenty hours. iu hear his narrative, from which, of course,

Is it therefore extraordinary that an Abys- he selects the more striking parts $, and parfinian epicure may really find (or perhaps fan- ticularly the usages which differ most from cy) that a piece cut from the beast whilst

Some of the audience disbelieving alive, may be more tender, or have a better what the traveller had mentioned, put querreldh than if it is previously killed by the tions to bim which shew their distrust. The butcher? To this I must add, that according traveller by this treatment becomes irritated, to the information which I have received on and answers some of them peevishlys, others this head, Mr. Bruce's account of this practice ironically, of which the interrogators afteris much misrepresented by the objectors, warus take advantage to his prejudice. who suppose that the ox lives a considerable I have been at the trouble of collecting time after these pieces are cut from it, these facts, and which I have endeavoured to When these dainty bits, however, have been enforce by such observations as occurred, from sent to the great man's table, (and which are being truly desirous of seeing Mr. Bruce's probably taken from the fleshy parts) the account of Abyffinia, who is certainly no beast soon afterwards expires, when the first common travelier, nor can the publication artery is cut, in providing fices for the nu. be a superficial one, as he refided there so metuus attendants,

long. l'pon the whole, the not giving credit to That Mr. Bruce hath great talents for the a traveller, because he mentions an usage information of his readers appears by his disa which is very different from ours, (and 15 sertation on the Theban harp li, which Dr. undoubiedly very barbarous) seems rather to Burney hath inserted in the first volume of argue ignorance, than acuteness.

his History of Mufic, and in which Mr. Bruce This brings to my recollection the incre- also mentious several of the Abytiinian inftrudulity which was shewn to another diftin. ments. Mr. Bruce moreover is said to have guilbed traveller, Dr. Shaw, who having a great facility in learning languages, and mentioned, in an Oxford common room, that talenes for drawing, ** nor perhaps was any fume of the Algerines were fond of lion's other traveller furaished with lo large and

* This points out another channel, by which a traveller of enterprise may visit Abyslivia.

+ Sir William Temple somewhere mentions that a Dutch Governor of Batavia, who lived much with one of the most considerable inhabitants of Java, could never obtain any credit from him, after having mentioned, that in Holland water became a folid budy.

I Quanto mi giovera, narrare altrui
Le cose verdute, e dire to fui ?

Ariosto. The traveller who first saw a flying fishi, probably told every one of this extraordinary circunstance as soon as he let his fout on thore, and was as probably difcredited with regard to the other particulars of his voyage.

Nothing is more irritating to an ingenuous person than to find his affertions are disbe. lieved. This is commonly experienced in the cross examinations of almoit every witness. To the distresses of the traveller, on his return, I may add, the being often teazed by very ignorant questions. # Thebes in Egypt.

some of the incredulous have expressed their doubts with regard to this, but ample proof could be produced were it at all neceifary.

** Mr. Bruce is said to have spoken the Arahic when he firft entered Abyssinia, but afterwarda acquired the language of the country. Evrop. Mao.


feien ifi.

scientific an app: ratus of inftruments. This I other person in Europe, who ever was is will add, that Mr. Bruce's spirit and enter. Abyssinia. prise will not be easily equalled.

If a traveller describes a country frequent • If I can therefore be the least instrumen- ed by others, he is liable to contradiction, tal in the earlier production of so interesting and may be foon detected by the cross examian account of an almost unfrequented part of nation of those who have been equally eyeAfric., my pains wili be amply repaid. witnesses as himself. But where is the tra

As this is my fole view in what is here laid veller to be found, who hath braved the before the public, I am not under the obli. dangers that must have surrounded Mr, Bruce gation of making apclogies to any one but during four years residence in a barbarous Mr. Bruce himself, who perhaps may not empire ? have occasion to thank me, for undertaking Mr. Bruce himself, moreover, hath not his defence, to which he is so much more the means of refuring the groundless infinu. equal in most refpects.

ations of Baron Tott, which I have happened A defence, however, from himself merely, to procure, and which indeed have been the will never be a complete one with those who principal cause of my entering into this cosare mcredalous, becauic it must depend upon troversy. his own affertions, as there is perhaps no





Quid fil surps, quid urile, quid dalec, quid non. Letters concerning the Northern Coast of the County of Antrim, By the Rev. William

Hamilton, A. M. Fellow of Trinity College, Dublin. 8vo. 4s. Robinsons. 1786. THE learned and ingenious author of these fcribed as being a simple, laborious, and how

entertaining Letters, after giving a gene- neft race of people, possessing a degree of ral sketch of the northern coat of Anim, affection for their iDand, which to a stranger and making some observations on its struc- may appear surprising. They speak of liecure and the arrangement of its fossils, as land as of a foreign kingdom, and have scarce likewise of the illand of Raghery, which lies any intercourse with it. fix or seven mies off the northcoast of An- “ The tedious processes of civil law, trim oppofite to Ballycastle Bay, concludes, Mr. Hamilton observes, are little known in froin the same kind of materials being limi Raghery; the fimplicity of their manners relarly arranged at equal elevations on the ders the interference of the civil magistrale maio-land and the island that they were ori. very unnecessary. The seizure of a cow, or a ginally united, but separated by fume violent borse, for a few days, to bring the defaulter to convulsion of nature.

a ser:se of duty; or a copious draught of faltThe land is near five miles in length, water from the surrounding ocean, in crimiand three quarters of a mile in breadth ; it nal cases, form the greatest part of the fanc. contains about 1200 inhabitants, and is ra- tions and punishments of the Band. If the ther over-peopled, as there is no confiderable offender he wicked beyond bope, banishinanufacture to employ any fuperfluous ment to Ireland is the dernier resori, and hands. The cultivated part of it produces frees the community from this pe&ilential excellent barley ; tix liundied pounds worth member. Hi this grain have been exported from it in “ In a requestered inland like this, ose a plentiful season; and upwards of an bun- would expect to find bigotted superstition cred tons of kelp have been manufactured in fourish under the auspices of the Roman a year from the sea-weed found on the rocks. church; but the fimplicity of the islanders 'The horses as well as sheep are small but ex- does not foster any uncharitable tenets; they treidely serviceable. The inhabitants are de. are neisber groslly superstitious, nor rank bs


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