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For the EUROPEAN MAGAZINE,
[ With an ENGRAVING of him. ] W WILLIAM EDEN, Eiq, is of the great ability ; and, in addition to the emolu
antiont and respectable family of the mients of his office, had the post of one of Edens, which has long been feated in the the Directors of Greenwich Hospital given northern part of this kingdom. He is the to him : He was also taken under the patro. Second brother of Sir John Eilen, and re- nage of the duke of Marlborough, and chofen ceived an excellent education ; which, heing member for Woodstock. In March 1776, employed on Lalents and industry feldom he was advanced to the dignity of Lord of to be met with, has already placed him ir. Trale and Plantations; and in 1778, when sicuations both of honour and profit, and we the too late adopted plan of creating with the hesitate not to predi&t, will elevare him softill Colonies was determined upon, he, with lord higher and more dignified employments in Carlisle and governor Johnstone, was nomithe state than he has bitherto filled.
nated to the important office of CommisAfter the elementary parts of his education fioner. were finished at Eton, he was placed at He ernbarked for America with his coada Chritt-Church, Oxford, where he took the jutors ; but their mission, as our readers will degree of M. A. June 2, 1768, and after, recollect, was not attended with any success. wards became a member of one of the Inos It seems, however, co have been the means of Court. He at firtt devoted his attention of introducing him to the friendship of lord to the law, with a design of following the Carlitle, whom, in December 1780, he açı practice of it, and actually went the northern 'companied to Ireland as Secretary. He cone circuit, beiog patronized and recommcoded inued in this station until the change of the by Mr: Wedderburne, in concert with whom minilliy, in April 1782, when he defended he is supposed to have planned and effected his patrou with a degree of warmth and fpithe Coalition. But having, in the courle of rit, which before had not been discovered to his studies, viewed his profession with rather form part of liis character. Deing in England more philosophical eyes than is common with at this juncture, he took a very decided part those who derive the greatest emuluments against the new administration. The follow. from practice, he was soon discovered to puse ing letter to lord Shelburne, at that time fefs abilities that might be riore profitably handed about, will thew how much be re. employed in affairs of Itate than in Westmin- fented the treatment his friend liad just then fer-Hall. ' In 1971 he published “ Prin experienced. ciples of Penal Law, 8vo.; a work consiste ing of detached observations, but without any
Doruning-firect, April 5,1782. regular chain of causes and effects. It, how- « My Lord, ever, discovered a considerable Thare of inge- " HAVING reconsidered the conference nuity and genius, and recommended its author with which your lordship, yesterday, indul. to the notice of the Minister, who foon af. ged me, I think that I ought specifically to terwards appointed him under-secretary of 1tate my reasons for having often declined flate for the northern department. In this your intimations to me to enter into opinions employment he conducted him?elf with and facts respecting the present circumstances
of Ireland, and the measures best to be pur. as fully as a weak voice will permit, what I sued there. When I arrived in London, I conceive to be the present circumstances of had come prepared, and disposed, and in. Ireland : I shall do this without any mixture structed, to serve most cordially in the criti. of complaint, and with the most anxious recal measure of closing the Lord Lieutenant's gard to facilitate any subsequent system for government, so as to place it with all practi. the publick tranquillity. I shall only with to cable advantages in the hands of whatever let it be implied by the world, from Irish perfon his Majefty's ministers might have facts, in contradiction to English treatment, destined to succeed to it.
that the present Lord Lieutenant of Ireland “ I pre supposed, however, that either his (I borrow his own words from his last letter Excellency would be recalled very soon, but to your lordship) “ has had the good fortune not without the attentions which are due to to conduct the business of Ireland, at a mott him, his station, and his services; or that critical period, without discrediс to his Mahis Maj-sty's ministers would allitt and in- jesty's goverument, and with many increasing Iruct him in first concluding the business of advantages to the interests of his kingdoms. the session, and the various publick measures “ I have the honour lo be, &c. and arrangements, of some difficulty and con
WM. EDEN." sequence, which are immediately connected with it, and which cannot be completed in In 1779 he published “ Four Letters to less than four or five months.
the Earl of Carlisle
Od certain perverFinding, however, to my extreme sur. Gons of political reasoning; and on the nature, prise, that the manner of giving the lieute. progress, and effect of party-fpirit, and of nancy of the Eaft Riding to lord Caermar- parties. – On the present circumstances of then had been such as to amount to a mark. the war between Great Britain and the comed and personal insult, when it is considered bined powers of France and Spain. - On the that the thing taken is merely honorary, and Publick Debts, on the Publick Credit, and on that the person from whom it is taken is an the Means of raising Supplies. - On the Reabsent viceroy ; and bearing also from your presentations of Ireland respecting a free Jordship, that the duke of Portland is not un- Trade." 8vo. In the next year he relikely to be made the immediate and actual published them with the addition of a fifth, messenger of his own appointmeut, I from “ On Population ; on certain Revenue Laws that moment declined any communication re. and Regulations connected with the Intereft specting facts and measures, because this line of Commerce; and on Publick Oeconomy." adopted towards the present Lord Lieutenant All these Letters are written in a very mastermust, in my opinion, be fatal to the ease of ly style, and thew consummate knowledge his successors for a long period of time, and and information on the subject. ruinous to all good government, and the con- In times like the present, a neutrality in sequent peace of Ireland,
politicks is impracticable, and the most mo. Your lordship has informed me, that this derate, by the versatility of the leaders of party, is not meant as a personal exertion of power have found themselves associated with thole against lord Carlitle, but that bis Majesty's whom they have most violentiy opposed. This ministers have adopted this mode of removing was the case of Mr. Eden, who, a few the Lord Leutenant, as a wise measure of go- months afterwards, was whimsically enough vernment. I differ fo totally in my judge connected with persons whose principles ment, that it would be idle in me to trouble and practices he had certainly no relpect for. them further respecting Ireland.
The short period of Mr. Fox's auminutra“ I Mall, as the duty of my situation requires, tion left him in an opposition to Government, wait on such of his Majesty's ministers as are from which be bas just emancipated himself, disposed to see me, and with that respect by accepting the employment of negociating which is due to them, shall submit what I a commercial treaty with France, which both have here stated.
parties acknowledge him peculiarly adapted “ My next anxiety is to act as I believe for by bis puríuits and abilities. lord Carlisle would wish me to act, for his
Mr. Eden's acceptance of this employhonour and the publick service; twó objects ment, which was negotiated by the Archwhich cannot at this monient be ieparated. bishop of Canterbury, who married his filter, I am ready this evening, or to-morrow morn- made him the subject of many fatirical epiing, at any hour, to attend the commands of grams, and laughable paragraplis in the pub. his Majelty's ministers, either separately or Jick prints ; nor did the puniters omit the collectively. To-morrow at tuo, I shall go fair opportunity his name afforded them of in:o the country', to make a visit of personal displaying their talents : but what was iufirespect and private friendship; and on Mon- nitely of more confequence, many reipedtable day, in the Houe of Commons, I shall state, pertons considered tus conduct, in this io.
Atance, as inconsistent with the just claims an first appeared to have been a desertion from old friend, patron, and benefactor had on his the principles of gratitude anu honour, will gratitude, and recent political a:liances were be found perfectly confitent with buth, supposed to have on his honour : but we ap. a word, we confider this itep of Mr Edeo's prehend the time is not far distant when his as part of a concerted plau between tutu and character will appear in a different point of his noble frıend, and as a prelude to Lord view; and we will hazard an opinion (not North's withdrawing bondit from an Uphastily adopted, or founded on mere con- pofition wluch experience has taught him jecture), that the behaviour of Lord North, mult be in vain dgamit au adunut auon lo whom, and to whom only, Mr. Eden was who lo induttriously and fuccefstully pursue any ways accountable, will 100 2 juttify the the wilcit meatures tur the public beuefit. political conduct of his friend, and what ac
THE POLITICAL STATE of the NATION and of EUROPE, for MAY 1786.
No. XXVII. N our last we left the East. India Gover- one House to the Minister's face, in one
of the mult masterly pomlad harangues that form of process, promising a termination by has been delivered, at least w as w seach our and by. This process was a hearing of both attention, this Sellion, without making the parties, by the prosecutor being enjoined to leatt impreliion upon his mind, or any visible bring forth his specific anticles of charge change in his countenance: it was not even against the defendant; and the latter coming honoured with the formality of a specch forth a voluntecr, by permillion of the House, from the Minister in reply. Well, tren, to answer to the charges in propria perjona, inay our humble planu lucubrations be ne without the aid of Countel, Attorney, or glected and despised. Sulic.tor, or other legal allittant. The ai- Some ftrenuous efforts were likewise ticles, which are numerous and voluminous, Made by some nobie Lords in the other with the answer, are both before the House House to open the eyes of Minutters to see and the Public; it would, therefore, ill be. the errors of their ways, and the weakness of come us to comment or criticile upon either, the foundation on which they are fuauly and or both, at the moment of writirg: we muit, vaioly building the ponderous fuperiu uciurc therefore, recur to our former observation, of national credit; but all w no purpose. that, in the event, someburly must lose hu- Hou thail we enter upon and urval a subnour or reputation, either the accuser or ac- ject which has occurred this month, tu tee cused : they could not even divide the guilt aitonshment of all niankind, except the acbetween them, without scaling both the cha- tors in the icene! A wild, vifionary, 100 racters with infamy. lo all cvents, may mantic Icheme of fortification, which wt nid unct impartial jultice take place to its the honour to reprobate in Februidy and extent!
March, which was reprobated by Parlament, We likewise noticed the splicting the which was reprubaled by the utale n.tion, amendment of the East-India regulating-act men and women of underttanding and reinto two parts, predicting that all ihree flection-was in this month rc-lutioduced would want amendment in the courie of two with lets ceremony than at the firit, as a piece or three years.
One-half of our preuiction of mere routine buline's, and a malter has been fulfilled in the course of this re- of indifference to the Nation !
-- was volving mouth : an amendment of the first infantiy met by the geutiensaa amendment ran through both Houics in one who atacked it to successfully in the firii inday! Of this we need say no more at ttance, and will equal or muie rapid surels present.
than before ; in burn wlich cales lie lias acNe binted at some apparent inconsistencies quired immortal honour. Will othing reach and palpable errors in the report of the Secret llie Minister, to bring conviction home to his Committee concerning the national revenue niind, that he is erroneous in his conduct, and expenditure, which we offered to point and, consequently, glow.ng daily more obe out on demand, on condition of our remon- noxious to the peopic, whule voice and spint Itrances being attended to. It is well we did whered ium into power? -- these inemene not give ourielves that trouble ; for true and tos will not ww, we know not what will folid informacion and correction of errors is Itrike conviciion upon los Callous muud: : not what our Ministers want.
We speak The Minder perteveres in putting thround not wantonly, or at random : fome, nay his Excile.ichicone, let wiat will be the clin: many, of thule errors and defects of the state. fequence! For the nuit pernicious, uncorement of finance and expenditure have been filutional, and oppressive measures, a miniinted out very clearly by a Member of the tter of tale never wanted a prelerce.
increase of the revenue is the present minister's ministers do not cise to publish, the pra. standing din, to answer all purposes. The gress of their money-bills on deals and bat.. revenue, the revenue ! is the only ohject he tens through the House has been retarded, and places before his eyes ; it absorbs all his fa. the impost considerably altered, enough to culties, and engrosses all his attention. To shew with what little judgment the business this he seems willing to sacrifice nien's liberty was first entered upon. and property, and even their lives, with every The Americans are going great lengths thing that is dear and valuable to freemen, to in contraband trade among our West India rational beings, to Englishmen! So madly Illands; and it is even said that the Cong bent is he on his revenue-Ichemes, his ex- gress, by their Ambassador here, is calling cife schemes, and stamping schemes, that he our Ministry to order upon that futject, wants to make it criminal in the subjects to This we must leave to future inveftigation, petition, to complain, to remonftrate, against when the fact is more firmly established, and the multitudinous, heavy, opprettive buidens the concomitant circumstances are more clear. he is daily heaping upon their shoulders, and ly deve'oped, the galling fetters and chains which he is contia The liith Parliament have been prorogued, pually rivetting upon their arms and limbs. after a inost gracious Speech from the Throne, To comfort them under the preffure, or ra- all pacific and calm, undisturbed with foreign ther to mock them, he gravely tells them, poli : :s or the commercial regulation wir their burden will be lighter a hundred years Great Britain. It does not appear from that bence, by the means of liis moon-Mine scheme Speech that there is any connection or mutual of paying the national debt GRADUALLY.- dependence between England and Ireland. Gradually indeed! by flow degrees ; the This puts a flat negative upon all the arguments benefit to be felt a hundred years hence ; of Ministers and their friends, adduced to et. that is, if Frenchmen, and ail their force the famous Propofitions being carried friends and followers, mall continue so long into a law. The fears and tremblings of cor peaceable neighbours, and staunch friends to courtiers on that score are all completely done Englishmen; and these latter shall have an away, and we hope such arguments will ne. uninterrupted run of prosperity all that time, ver be taken up again, to terrify or precipio and provived the Minister and his select com- tate our legiNators into any national compact mittee have made no blunders in their calcu- whatsoever. lations of Debtor and Creditor of the publick The face of Europe appears at present very money. - Not one of these data, however, calm and serene. The Durch seem disposed do we subícribe to, In the mean time, to settle their internal differences among Rockjobbing acquires an additional spring to themselves, without calling in foreign Powers its motion, and gainbling will rise in the to the aid of either of the contending parties: Alley to a greater piech than ever, under the this is one great step towards preserving the auspices of the Right Hon.the new Superine public tranquillity undisturbed.
The little tendants of that illustrious branch of traffick, progress made openly in the Emperor's
To this rapacity of revenue che poor haw. schemes is another circumstance which conkers and pedlers have fallen a totsi sacrifice, tributes to the same falutary purpose. But and are literally finking under their burden! the precarious state of the health of the King Lively emblem of their brethren burden-bear- of Pruitia seems to be the key-stone of the ers, the tradesmen all over the kingdom. It is present pacific state of Europe : whenever what they are all destined to come to,aecord, that drops out, the political ftate of Europe ing to our most excellent Miniiter's plan, in will probably affume a new aspec. If td their several turns, one body of men after that should be added the demise or deposition another, by partial pointed taxation.
of the Grand Seignior, the scene would be Owing to fome secret obstruction, which come gloomy and dangerous indeed.
For the EUROPE A N MAGAZIN E. DESCRIPTION of the CHATEAU of FERNEY, the Seat of the late M. DE VOLTAIRE
[ Illustrated by an ELECANT EXORAVING. ) WHEN Voltaire quitted a rented houle land bounding out the south-west fide of the
whide he is habited on the territory of lake. Genevt, lvecause he was prevented by the At Ferney, his place of residence, he gares from exhibiting a play there io the found a large old French chateau, which he Mathal Duke de Richelieu, he purchased a razed to the ground, and in its stead he vait tract of land in that part of Burgundy erected a very noble feat-like house ; but by properly called the Pais de Gex, which preserving some awkward gateways and ter ftretches almost to that gore of Geneva which rets, the beauty of the building is much