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ins of that free. Nevertheless, if it stood fore-fathers, merely from the magnitude ana in the days of King John, fix centuries ago, majesty of its appearance, the veneration due and was then called the Great Chesnut *, we to its age, and gratitude perhaps for some my venture to suppose it not much less than few economical uses they mighe apply it to, ne thousand years of age ; and further, if paid divine honours to this tree; how much we consider the quick growth of the Chelmut more behores it us, circumstanced as we are, Compared with that of the Oak, and at the to pay due homage to this our national saviour ! same time the inferior bulk of the Tortworth How could our Kings he invested with the Chesnut to the Cowthorp, the Beatley, and enligns of royalty, or our Creator receive at the Boddington Oaks; may we not venture stared times the gratitude and praise which to isler, that the existence of these truly ve- we owe to him, with greater propriety than nerable trees commenced some centuries prior under the shadow of this sacred tree Acts to the era of Christianity?
like these would stamp it with that respec" The root of the Oak strikes deep. tability and veneration which is due to it : especially the middle or tap-root, which has and to corroborate these ideas, as well as to heen traced to a depth nearly equal to the institute such laws as might be found neces. height of the tree itself: nor do the lateral fary, the state of the growth of Oak in rodes run fo Thallow and horizontal as those Great Britain ought to be a standing enquiry of the Ath and other trees; but perhaps the of the British Legislature. It is far from bericts of very few trees range wider than ing impracticable to have annual returns of those of the O.k. The item the Oak is Oak fit for thip-building in every parish in Liturally short, and if left to itself, in au the kingdom ; with the distance it stands spa fituation, it will generally feather to from water-carriage. It avails but little our the ground. It has not that upright tendency making laws of police, or forming foreign as the Ash, the Esculus, and the Pine-tribe: alliances, unless we take care to secure in Devertheless, by judicious pruning, or by perpetuity the defence of our own coast. It planting in close order, the Oak will acquire is idle to think of handing down to posterity a great length of stem : in this case, how. a national independency, if we do not at Etet, it rarely swells to any considerable the same time furnith them with the means girt. Mr. Martham indeed mentions one in of preserving it. the Earl of Powys' Park near Ludlow, “ The Propagation of the English Oak. which in 1957 measured, at five feet, fix. We do not purpose in this place to give diteza feet three inches, and which ran quite rections for raising woods or plantations of Araght and clear of arms near or full fixty Oak : this we reserve until we come to feet. But, as has before been observed, Oaks treat of plantations in general, under the tiwhich endure for ages have generally Mortfle Woodlands; for by collecting the more Items; throwing out, at fix, eighi, ien, or useful trees into one point of view, we shall twelre feet high, large horizontal arms ; be better able to judge of their comparative thickly set with crooked branches; termi- value ; and the methods of raising the seve: nating in clubbed abrupe twigs ; and closely ral species for the purpose of timber (shipcovered with smooth gloffy leayes; forming timber excepted) being nearly :he same, we the richest foliage, irregularly swelling into shall be enabled to give our directions more the boidest outline we know of in nature. fully, yet upon the whole much more conThe Pine-tribe and the Esculus may be called cisely, than we could have done, had we elegant or beautiful ; hut the general assemblage retailed them separately under each article : of a lofty full-furnished Oak is truly sublime. therefore, we mean to abide by the fame
" It is somewhat extraordinary, that the rule under the present head that we have obmoft ernanen;al tree in nature should, at the served throughout this part of our work; same time, be the most useful to mankinil. namely, to treat of the plant under considera 1's very leaves haye been lately found to be cion merely as a nursery plans." of etsential use to the gardener ; the husband- The choice of acorns the preservation of man is well acquainted with the value of acorns-time of fowing method of sowing its scorns; and every Englishman experi. -the operations of transplanting into, and ences daily the useful effects of its bark. It training in the nursery, &c. &c. are distinctly is wholly unneceffary to mention the value of laid down. The varieties of the species is timber ; it is known to the whole world. Quercus Robur are then described ; which The Oak raised us once to the summit of na- done, the Section English Oak is closed. The torial glory : and now we ought to hold in willozu-leaved oak and the other deciduous remembrance that our existence as a nation kinds are next described; but the mode of depends upon the Oak. If therefore our propagating the several species of deciduous
* " As Tradition says it was."
foreign oaks being the same, a repetition of it “ We do not deliver the foregoing sketch becomes unnecessary; and we accordingly as a perfectly correct account of the applicafind it placed in ample terms at the close of tion of woods in this country : The attempt this Clais of Quercus: finally, the ever-green is new, and that which is new is difficult. species pass under description, and the article We have not omitted to consult with profelcloses with general directions for their pro- fional men upon the subject ; and we believe pagation.
it to be sufficiently accurate for the purpose Having, in a fimilar way, gone through of the planter. If we have committed any the entire Alpbabet of Plants, (containing material error, we ask to be set right. We several hundred species) the author proceeds do not wish to descend to minutix: it would to treat generally of the subject of plantations ; be of little signification to the planter, to be but previous to his entering upon this impor. told what toys ar:d toothpicks are made from: tant subject, he endeavours to ascertain the it is of much more importance to him to Species of TIMBER most proper to be raised. know, that, of English Woods, the Das is
« Timber (he says) is the great and primary most in demand, perhaps three to one,object of planting. Ornament, abstracted perhaps in a much greater proportion ; that from utility, ought to be confined within the Ah, the Elm, the Beecb, and the Bax, narrow limits. Indeed, in matters of plant- follow next ; and that the Chesnut, the Wal. ing, especially in the taller plantations, it nul, and the Prunus and Pinus tribes are were difficult to separate entirely the idea principally valuable as substitutes for Oak and of ornament from that of use. Trees in Foreign Timber. It likewise may not be imgeneral are capable of producing an orba- proper in this place to mention, that the mental effect; and there is no tree which Oak, though of Nower growth than the Anh, may not be said to be more or less useful. the Elm, the Beech, the Larch, the Firs, But their difference in point of value when and the Aquatics, is nearly of twice the va. arrived at maturity is incomparable ; and it lue of any of these woods at market ; there. would be the height of folly to plant a tree fore, in a private and pecuniary point of whose characteristic is principally ornamen- view, the Oak is the most eligible tree to be lal, when another which is more useful and planted : in a public light, it rises above equally ornamental may be planted in itsstead. comparison."
“ Therefore, previous to our entering at The business of the live-bedge, bedge-row Jarge upon the business of planting, it will timber, the wood, timber-grove, ceppice, ozier be proper to endeavour to specify the trees bed, woody-waste; together with the selling most useful to be planted. In attempting and falling of timber, are all distinctly, fully, this we must look forward, and endeavour and practically treated of. As a specimın, to ascertain the species and proportional we will lay before our readers the author's quantities of Timber which will hereafter method of pruning hedge-row timber-trees, be wanted, when the trees now to be plant- a work which appears to us to be less uned shall have reached maturity. To do this derstood than any other department of ruwith a degree of certainty is impossible ; ral economy. customs and falhions alcer as caprice and “ The method of training the young plants necessity dictate. All that appears capable has already been described ; it now only reof being done in a matter of this nature is, mains to say a few words as to the pruning to trace the great outlines, and, by observing and setting-up Hedge-row timbers. what has been permanently useful for ages Low-headed trees have been already conpaft, judge what may, in all human proba- demned, as being injurious to the Hedge, as bility, be also useful in ages to come. well as to the Corn which grows under them. Ships,
Machines, and To remove or alleviate these evils without Buildings, Utensils,
injuring the tree itself, requires the best skill have been, are, and most probably will con- of the woodman. The usual method is to tinue to be, the consumers of Timber in this back off the offending bough; no matter country. We will therefore endeavour to how nor where; but, most probably, a few come at the principal idaterials made use of inches from the body of the tree, with an in the construction of these four great con- axe ; leaving the end of the stump ragged, Toniences of life.”
and full of difts and fissures, which by receiEach article is then taken separately un- ving and retaining the wet that drips upon der consideration-analysed into its several them, reuder the wound incurable. The hianches and the proportional consumption mortification in a short time is communicated of cach branch ofcertained with confiderable to the stem, in which a recess or hollow beexaineis; the writer closing this novel, ing once formed, so as to receive and retain but neceflary, article in a Treatise on Plant- water, the decline of the free, though other. ing with the flowing obleryations ;
wile in its prime, from that time muft be has swelled over the Atump, or the pump dated; and, if not presently taken down, its has rotted away to the item ; and, either properties as a timber tree will, in a few way, a mortification is the probable conseyears, be changed into those of fire-wood quence. Even supporing the stump to live, chly. How many thou and timber-trees either by means
of fome twig being iind at this hour in the predicament here de. left upon it, or from fresh shoots thrown fcribed, merely through injudicious Jopping. out, the cicatrization, even in this case, will It is this vile treatment which has brought be Now (depending entirely upon the fecble Hedge-row timber into a disrepute otherwise efforts of the bark of the stump); and beundeferved.
fore it can be accomplished, the Tree itsele # There is a wonderful similarity in the may be in danger. But, had the amputation operations of Nature upon the Vegetable and been made it a difiance from the stem, and Animal Creation. A night wound in the immediately above a tvig, strong enough to Animal Body soon heals up, and skins over, draw up a supply of sap, and keep the stump whāit the wound succeeding the amputation alive upon a certainty, no risque would have of a limb is with difficulty cicatrized. The been incurred ; especially if the end of the effects are similar with respect to the Vege- stump had been left smooth, with the Dope table Body : a twig may be taken off with on the under-side, so that no water could safety, whilst the amputation of a large hang, nor receís be formed. baugh will endanger the life of the tree. “ From what has been said, the followAzan, pare off a small portion of the outer bark ing general rules with respect to setting up of a young thriving tree, the first summer's low-headed trees may, we humbly conceive, lap will heal up the wound: if a small twig be drawn with safety : small boughs fhould be had been taken off with this patch of bark, cut of close to the jier : but large ones at a the effect would have been nearly the same; distance from it, and above a lateral branch the wound would have been cicatrised, or large enough to keep the jump alive. Thus, barked over, in a similar manner ; and the supposing the item of a tree in full growth bady of the tree as safely secured from out- to be the size of a man's waist, a bough the ward injury, as if no such amputation had thickness of his wrist may be taken off with taken place. Even a considerable branch safety near the stem ; but one as thick as his may be taken off in this manner with impu- thigh should be cut at the Jittance of a: least Day, provided the surface of the wound be two feet from it ; leaving a lide branch at laht (mooth and Aush with the inner k of least an inch in diameter with a top in prethe Tree ; for, in a few years, it will be portion, and with air and head-room enough completely closed up, and secured from inju- to keep it in a fourishing state. For this 57; though an eschar may remain for some purpose, as well as for the general purpose years longer. But if a large bough be thus of throwing light into the head, the Itanding fevered, the wound is left so wide, that it bouglis should be cleared from their lower requires in most trees a length of time to branches, particularly such as grow in a bak it over ; during which time the body of drooping direction. In doing this no great the tree having increased in fize, the parts caution is required ; for in taking a bough immediately round the wound hecome turgid, from a bough, let their sizes be what they slidst the face of the wound itself is thrown may, little risque can be thereby incurred upback into a recess; and, whenever this be- on the main body of the tree. comes deep enough to hold water, from that " There is another general rule with retre the wound is rendered incurable : Na- gard to pruning trees. The bough should be ture has, at least, done her part ; and whe- taken off either by the upward stroke of a ther or not, in this case, affistance may be sharp instrument and generally speaking, at given by opening the lower lip of the wound, one blow), or with a law : in the latter care femains yet (it is probable) to be tried by it should previously be notched on the underIperiment : until that be ascertained, or side, to prevent its splitring off in the fall, forme other certain method of cure be known, If the bough to be taken off be very large, is were the height of imprudence to risk the the fale? way (though somewhat tedious) is welfare of a tree on such hazardous treat- first to cut it off a few inches from the stem
with an axe, and then to clear away the stump Further, although a branch of confiderable close and level with a law, doing away the fize may be taken off close to the body of roughnesses left by the teeth of the law with the tree with safety; yet if the same branch a plane, or with the edge of a broad-mouthed be cut a few inches from it, the effect is not axe, in order to prevent the wet from hangthe same ; for, in this case, the stump gene- ing in the wound. A saw for this purpose rally dies; confequently the cicatrization should be set very wide ; otherwise it will cannot take place, until the stem of the tree not make its way through the green wood'.
“ The fittest opportunity for pruning and Antients were admirers of Nature in a fare setting up young timbers, as well as for ta- of wildness ; for, whenever they attempted king down pollards and docard timbers, and to embelli, h Nature, they appear to liave been clearing away other incumbrances, is when guided by a kind of Oraheitean talte ; as tlie the Hedge itself is felled ; and it were well gardens of the Greeks and Romans, like thie for landed individuais (as for the nation at of the modern nations (until of late years in large) if no Hedge was suffered to be cut this country), convey to us no viher idea down without the whole business of the than that of Nature latood. Hedge.row being at the same time properly “ Mr. Burghi, in a Noie to his ingenious executed."
Commentary upon Mr. Mason's beautiful As we have already protracted this article poem The English Garden, confirms us in to an unusual length, we must now take our these ideas; and, by a quotation from the leave of the more useful part of this perform. Younger Pliny, shews the just notions the ance, and proceed to give some account of Anticists entertained of the powers of human that part which treals of ornamentai gardening, invention, in associating and polithing the at present a fashionable subject, and must for rougher scenes of Nature : for, after giving ever be a subject honourable to this country. us a beautiful description of the natural scene.
* Mankind no sooner find then selves in ry round his Tuscan villa, upon the banks of fast poffeffion of the naseljaries of life, than the Tiber, he acknowledges “ the view be. they begin to feel a want of its convenicncies ; “ fore him to resemble a picture beautifully and these obtained, seldom fail of indulging " composed, rather than a work of Nature in one or more of its various refinemenis. “ accidentally delivered." Some men delight in the luxuries of the ima- “ We have been told that the English gination ; others in those of the senses. One Garden is but a copy of the Gardens of the man finds his wants supplied in the delicacies Chinese : this, however, is founded in Gaiof the table, whilst another dies to perfumes lic envy rather than in truth; for though and effences for relief : few men are infenfi. their style of Gardening may not admit ofia. ble to the gratifications of the ear; and men sooings and sopiary works t, it has as little to in general are susceptible of those of the eye. do with natural scenery as the garden of air The imitative arts of painting and sculpture ancient Roman, or a modern Frenchman: have been the study and delight of civilized -The Art of affling Nature is, undoubí. nations in all ages ; but the art of embellish: edly, all our own. ing Nature herself has been reserved for this Is It cannot fail of proving higlily interesting age, and for this pation !
to our Readers, to trace the rise of this delightA fact the more astonishing, as orna- ful art. mented Nature is as much superior to a Paint- “Mr.Walpole, io his Anecdoles of Painting ing or a Statue, as a “ Reality is to a Repre- in England, has favoured the public with sentation ; "— as the Man himself is to his The History of modern Tafie. ir Gardening. A Portrait. That the striking features the pen guided by lo masterly a hand must ever beautiesm-of Nature, whenever they have be productive of information and entertainbeen seen, have always been admired by men ment when employed upon a subject fo truly of sense and refinement, is undoubtedly true; interesting as that which is now before us. but why the good offices of Art, in difclosing Desirous of conveying to our Readers all the these beauties, and setting off those features information which we can compress with to advantage, mould have been so long con- propriety within the limits of our plan, we fined to the human person alone, is, of all wished to have given the fubftance of this vaother facts in the History of Arts and Sciences, luable paper ; but finding it already in the the moft extraordinary.
language of fimplicity, and being aware of " The Tranflator of D'Ermenoville's Elly the mischiefs which generally ensue in medo on Landscape has attempted to prove, in an dling with the productions of genius, we introductory discourse, that the art is nothing had only one alternative ; either wholly to new, for that it was known to the Antients, transcribe, or wholly to reject. This we though not prairised But the evidences he could not do, in ftrict justice to our readers ; produces go no farther than to shew, that the for, besides giving us, in detail, the advance
* " The inhabitants of Otaheitee, an ifland in the Southern hemisphere, ornament their boe dies by making punctures in the skin with a sharp-pointed instrument, and call it latowing: The African Negrocs are still groffer in their ideas of ornament, gashing their cheeks and temples in a nianner fimilar to that practised by the English Butcher in ornamenting a houlder of mutton, or a Dutch gardener in embellishing the environs of a mansion.'' + " Trees carved by a Topiarius mto the form of bcalls, birds, &c."
ment of the art, it throws considerable light every thing may be natural, and every thing upon the art itself; and being only a small adapted to the place; the degree of refinement purt of a work upon a different subject, it is constituting the principal difference. the less likely to fall into the hands of those 6 We do not mean to enter into any arguto whom it cannot fail of proving highly in- ment about whether a state of rusticity or a teresting. We are, therefore, induced to state of refinement, whether the forest or exceed our intended limits in this respect, the city be the state for which the Author of by making a literal transcript ; and hope, in Nature intended the human species : manthe liberality of the author, to be pardoned kind are now found in every state and in for to doing."—We have it in our power to every stage of savageness, rufticity, civiliza. kid, from the best authority, that the honoura- tion, and refinement; and the particular be author, with a liberality peculiar to him- style of ornament we wilh to recommend is, fall, gave his permitlion for the republication that which is best adapted to the state of reer this admirable paper.
finement that now prevails in this country ; Having thus introduced his subject, the leaving individuals to vary it as their own writer proceeds to treat of the article Grounds peculiar tastes may direct.” onder the following heauls: General princi,
Under the head General Application, we ples,-fi:.,-ground,waler, rood, -natu- find among many others, the following general ra! accorpuniments, -artificial accompanimenes, rules of practice. -general application, bunting byx,-orna- “ It is unnecessary to repeat, that where. perted cellayevilla,-principut residence ;
ever Nature or accident has already adapted concluding his performance with a descrip- the place to the intended purpose, the aftstion (and proposed improvements) of Peric. tance of Art is precluded: but wherever field. (See Vol. VIII. page 15.)
Nature is improveable, Art has an undoubted Under the head General Principles, we right to step in, and make the requisito im. meet with the following observations: provement.' The diamond, in its natural “ Arts merely imitative have but one prin. State, is highly improveable by art.
« In the lower classes of rural improvecple to work by, the nature or actual state
ments, Art should be seen as little as may be; of the thing tu be imitate. In works of
and in the more negligent scenes of Nature, design and invention, another principle takes the led, wlich is lufte. And in every
every thing ought to appear as if it had been
done by the general laws of Nature, or had work in which mental gratification
grown out of a series of fortuitous circun:tie only object, a third principle arises,
tances. But, in the higher departments, ly, or the concomitant purpose for which
Art cannot he hid; and the appearance of the production is intended.
design ought not to be excluded. A human * The art of Gardening is subject to the e
production cannot be made perfectly natural ; terte principles: to nature, as being an imi- and, held out as such, it becomes an impowarte art; io ucility, as being productive of ficion. Our art lies in endeavouring to adapt objects which are wseful as well as ornamen
the productions of Nature to human talle and tal; and to Calte, in the choice of fic objects
perceptions; and, if much art be used, do w be imitared, and of fit purposes to be pur
not allemps tu hide it. Who confiders an ised, as alio in the composizion of the leveral
accomplished well-dressed woman as in a ohjects and ends proposed, so as to produce state of Nature ? and who, se ing a beautia the degree of gratification and use heft suited
ful ground adorned with wood and lawi), to the place and to the purpose for which it is with water, bridges, and buildings, believes about to be ornamented: thus, a Hunting.
it to be natural production ? Art seldom Byx and a Summer Villa,--an Ornamented fails to please when executed in a masterly Cottage and a Manrion, require a different
manner: nay, it is frequently the design and pole or ornament, a different choice of objects, execution, more than the production itself, a Jitterent rafte. Nor can cafte be confined that strikes us. It is the artifice, not the In 13ure and utilicy,--the place and the pur- design, which ought to be avoided. It is the pue, alone ; the object of the Pulse Arts labour, and not the ars, which ought to be is the gratification of the human mind, and
coucealed. A well-written poem would the state of refinement of the mind itself must be read with less pleasure, if we knew the be considered. Men's notions vary, put only painful exertions it gave rise to in the comin different ages, but individually in the same position; and the rural artist ought, upon age: what would have gratified' inau kind a
every occasion, to endeavour to avoid labour ; century ago in this country, will not please
or, if indispensibly necessary, to conceal it, them now; whilft the Country 'Squire and No trace should be left to lead back the mind the Fine Gentleman of the present day re. to the expensive toil. A mound raised, a quire a different kind of gratification : never- mountain levelled, or a useless temple built, Speless, under these various circumstances,