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An impartial acconnt (so it is called) of Dr. « the representation, of disease and poverty ; Jabnfox in the European Magazine t, faid to " and, in the hours of affluence, his purse was be written by the ingenious Miss Seward, “ever open to relieve them. He was a fu. fets forth, that he was indeed a man of very "rious Jacobite, wbile one hope for the Stuart great parts, and of many good qualities, which “ line remained ; and his politics, always leanit is far from our intent to deny or detract "ing towards despotism, were inimical to lifrom ; but that his character was a very mixed “ herty, and the natural rights of mankind. and (she might have added) a very imperfect “ He was punctual in his devotions ; but his GRE. His writings are represented as excellent “ religious faith had much more of bigot-fierceand fine, where not “ disgraced as iu his cri- “ nefs, than of that gentleness which the gof. « ricisms, with the faults of his disposition. pel inculcates,” &c. “ He had strong affections," it is faid," where If this representation be in any degree juft,
literary envy did not interfere; but that en- and I have never heard of its being either dif“vg was of such deadly potency, as to load ownd or contradicted, what are we to think « his conversation, as it has loaded his biogra- of panegyrists, who ascribe to him such troue « phic works, with the rancou of party-vio greatness and such true goodness, as were never
jence, with national averfion, bitter sarcasm, before encomposed by one mortal body ? 6 and unchriftian-like invective. He turned We are far from meaning to depreciate “ from the compositions of rifing genius with Dr. Johnson ; our aim in this paper is only
a visible horror, which proved too plainly, to disc "untenance those extravagant eloges, so " that envy was the bosom serpent of this lin frequently and so blindly given to an ima « terary despot. His pride was infinite; yet, gined perfection, which human nature, when « amidtt all the over bearing arrogance it pro. cultivated in the best and happiest manner, * duced, his heat melted at the fight, or at never was, nor ever will be able to attain.
To the PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY of LONDON.
is the peculiar privilege of inferiority to In 1785, Mr. Reichardt had several ophate fuperior excellence, and it is observed, portunities to display his musical talents at the that thole who are mtt eger to censure Opera House and Panchcon. others, are lealt capable of julging.
The public papers having announced the These reflections have arisen from the pe- intended performance of so great a composer roak of two volumes, written and published and suppos'd scientific critic, the profeskors of in German by the celebrated Mr. Reichardt, music naturally expected composicions of fafarit composer w the King of Prullia, and perlative excellence, where genius, art, and mufic.maiter of the Royal Chapel. The pre- science, were judiciously united. How were ceiling work is called Musical Travels ; and they disappointed in hearing Mr. Reichardt's it houkl be naturally expected, that the ruyal choruses ! Nothing appeared striking; no fue Dafter liad cholen some great genius as mas. ges, either in fimple or double counterpoints, ter and conductor of his musical band : whe. or at least with one or two subjects. There ther this bias buon the case, will be fully ex- are the master-pieces of great composers, and emplified by the succeeding observations. might reasonably be expected from the first
The author has treated our excellent mu- composer of so great a monarch. It seems, fical biftorian Dr. Burney with the greatest Mr. Reichardt is totally unacquainted with Dliberalily ; for instead of considering our the counterpoint ; for which purpose we regreat mufical luminary as a critic in the commend him to recommence his studies ; hy kience of music, instead of animadverting on this means he may understand something more tise Dexter's literary production, Mr. Reichardt of musical compositions, and the sublime ef. descends to personal scurrility and infamous fect of the counterpoint. ahute. Such conduct merits no answer from In hearing Mr. Reichardt's five or fix a mulical professor, fo universally esteemed hy choruffes exhibited publicly, it would have the first judges in Europe, and who, perhaps, been difficult to have determined, whether fileutly smiles at the puerile malevolence of it was church, theatrical, convivial, or ele. fuch impotent malice. There scarce, indeed, gant domeftic music. The style, after the requires any stronger proof of Dr. Burney's ' most impartial criticism, seemed to be ille. Doble asid candid sentiments, than what has gitimate, the mere baftard offspring of a been reported, of his kind reception and pro- distempered brain ; where rash pallion broke tean of this Pruffian censurer, Many through the bounds of decency, and produced frienalty fervices it is well known Dr. Burney a monstrous birth, crude, immature, and dedemonstrated to Mr. Reicha, di, while he re. void of all harmonious refinement. It muit wwned in England.
be observed, that one idea was tolerable: this + For May, 1785
was the kettle-drum crescensi, which would ment, it is feared he has lost his labour; his have produced an excellent effect, had the peregrinations will prove useless to his counwhole band, under Mr. Reichardt's direction, try, and degrading to his excellent monarch. performed in exact time. This part was fre- The Berlin music has been frequently and quently introduced, but always failed; per. juftly censured ; because it was defective, de. haps more owing to the ill performance of the void of taste, and unharmonious. The only band, Chan Mr. Reicharde's skill. While these composer who has received approbation is performances were proceeding for Mr. Salo- Graun. Berlin music in general is only apmoa's benefit, one musical professor, with proved by Prullians in their own country; furprise, interrogated another, Whose compo. for one stupid person always finds another Sition is this? Mr. Reichardt's, answered a more ftupid to admire him. All the compothird. What ! the first composer to the King sers and musicians who have unfortunately of Prussia? Yes. God defend our ears from lived in Berlin have their taste so much vitithe second composer, says the enquirer. ated by bad exainples, that they fail of success In Paris, at 11 Concerto Spirituale
, Mr. Rei- in all other countries. If fulemn gravity, chardt's performances received universal dif- felf-importance, pedantry, distinguish men as approbation ; his compositions gave general learned, they possess the le qualities to the utdiíguft; and that very police people, ever rea- most degree ; but pedantry raiely possesses dy to countenance and protect (rangers, hil- genius or taste. It only extends to the rudi. fed his music off the stage.
ments of knowledge, and therefore fails in This composer not only wants knowledge real life, amongst polite and civilized luciery. of the grounds of the true principles of har. School-boy knowledge is commonly peit, mony, but likewise genius ; without which vain, full of disputation, obstinacy, and ablurno mufical composer can ever fucceed. He dicy; which nothing but refinement and is advised, therefore, to consult some able mal- comparative views of superior excellence will ters, who will frankly, and in a friendly man- eradicate from the mind. Rousseau has truper, expose his defects; for inclination, how. ly represented French music with all its de. ever warm, is not sufficient to produce ori. fects: he was hung in effigy at Paris, at the ginal and scientific composition. It would be very time they performed his opera : his muadvis ble, in order to avoid appearing ridicu. fic was approved, and refined the French taste. lous, to withdraw lis compositions from the It is certainly no crime to write againt the public car, and not celebrate, or become the musical taste of nations ; it is a happy circumherald of his own unfortunate vanity and fol. Itance, when improvement ensues from just ly, by what he calls his musical inventions ; censure. It is sincerely hoped this will he or racher whimsical indigested crudities; the case amongst the Pruflian composers, and which title is more applicable.
particularly with Mr. Reichardt. Critics and Mr. Reichardt was present at Westminster censurers, however impartial and scientific, are Abbey, and heard the grand compositions of commonly rewarded with ingratitude ; for the great, the immortal Handel. This circum- mankind enjoy the improvements, but hate stance, above all others, demonftrates his want the improvers. Instead of public thanks, they of taste, genius, fill, and even common sense ; commonly experience private malevolence for he presumed to produce in public his and calumny. One pretended friend Aatters quaint gingle of founds to an audience whose another on his production, but leaves him igcars were refined by the harmony of Han- norant of his defects : this may be polite, but del and the greatest composers in Europe. nothing can be more unfriendly or infamous. How little mankind know themselves! If
I amn, Sir, *Mr. Reichardt travelled for musical improve- A FRIEND to INJURED MERIT. SOME PARTICULARS CONCERNING the LIFE and CHARACTER of
CAPTAIN COOK. [By DAVID SAMWELF, SURGEON to the Discovery.] CAPTAIN Cook was born at Marton, in wing in that neighbourhood, with whom the mall village, distant five miles south-east labourer in the fields. However, though from Stockion.' His name is found in the places in this humble station, he gave lis fou parish register in the year 1729 (fu that Cap. a common school education, and at an early Lain King was mistaken, in placing the time age placed him apprentice with one Mr. of his birth in the year 1727). The cottage Saunderson, a shopkeeper at Stailla, (always in which his father formerly lived, is now de pronounced Steers) a small fishing town on cayed, but the spot where it ftood is still the Yorkshire coast, about nine miles to the pewn to ftrangers. A gentseman is now li nurthward of Whithy. The business is now EJ *27. MAG.
carried on by the son of Mr. S. underson, in furvey, that Inand and the coast of Labradore, the same hop, which I had the curiosity to and gave him the Greaville brig for that purvisit about a year and half ago. In that situa- pose. How well he perfermed that service, tion young Cook did not continue long, before the charts he has published afford a sufficient he quitted it in disgust, and, as often happens testimony. In that employment he continu. in the like cases, betook bimself to the sea. ed till the year 1767, when the well known Whitby being a neighbouring sea-port, readi- voyage to the South Sea, for observing the ly offered him an opportunity to pursue his in- tranfit of Venus, and making discoveries in clination ; and there we find he bound him. chat vast ocean, was planned. Lord Hawke, self apprentice, for nine years, in the coal who then presided at the Admiralty, was trade, to one Mr. John Walker, now living strongly folicited to give the command of that in South Whithy. In his employ he after- expedition to 'Mr. Alexander Dalrymple ; wards became mate of a thip; in which fta- but through the interest of his friend Sir Hugh cion having continued some time, he had the Palliser, Captain Couk gained the appointment, offer of being matter, which he refused, as it logether with the rank of lieutenant. It was seems he had at triat time turned his :houghts Itipulated, that on his return he should, if he towards the navy. Accordingly, at the break- chose it, again hold the place of surveyor in ing out of the war in 1755, he entered on Newfoundland, and that his family should be board the Eagle, of fixty-four guns, and in a provided for, in case of any accident to bimShort time after Sir Hugh Palliser was ap
self. pointed to the command of that ship, a cir- He sailed from England in the Endeavour, cumstance that must not be palled unnoticed, in the year 1
"1768, accompanied by Mr. Banks as it proved the foundation of the future faine and Dr. Solander, and eturned in 1771; and fortune of Captam Cook. His uncom. after having circumnavigated the globe, made mon merit did not long escape the observation several important discoveries in the South Sea, of that discerning officer, who promoted bim and explored the islands of New Zealand, to the quarter-deck, and ever after patronized and great part of the coast of New Holland. him with such zeal and attention, as muft re. The skill and ability with which he conduci. flect the ligheft honour upon his character. ed this expedition, ranked his name high as To Sir Hugh Palliler is the world indebted, a navigator, and could not fail of recommend. for having first noticed in an obscure situation, ing him to that great patron of naval merit, and afterwards brought forward in life, the the Earl of Sandwich, who then presided at greateft nautical genius that ever any age or the board of Admiraity. He was promoted country has produced. In the year 1758, we to the rank of matter and commander, and a find him master of the Northumberland, then thort time afterwards, appointed to conduct in America, under the command of Lord Col. apother expedition to the Pacific Ocean, in ville.' It was there, he has been heard to say, search of the supposed fouthern continent. that during a hard winter he first read Euclid, In this second voyage he circumvavigated the and applied himself to the study of aftronomy globe, determined the non-existence of a and the mathematics, in which he made no fouthern continent, and added many valuable inconsiderable progress, atlifted only by bis discoveries to those he had before made in the own ingenuity and industry. As the time he South Sea. His own account of it is before thus found means to cultivate and improve this the public, and he is no less admired for the mind, and to tupply the deticiency of an ear- accuray and extensive knowledge which he ty education, he was conttanily engaged in the has displayed in that work, than for his skill most busy and active scenes of the war in and intrepidity in conducting the expedition. America. At the liege of Quebec, Sir Hugh On his return, he was promoted to the rank Palliier made him known to Sir Charles Saun. of post-captain, and appointed one of the capders, who committed to his charge the con- tains of Greenwich Hospital. In that retireducting of the boars to the attack of mount ment he did not continue long : for an active Morenci, and the embarkation that scaled the life best luiting his difpofition, he offered his heights of Abraham. He was also employed services to conduct a third expedition to the to examine the pallage of the river St. Lau. South Sea, which was then in agitation, in or. rence, and to lay buoys for the direction of the der to explore a northern pafinge from Europe men of war. In short, in whatever related to 10 Alia: in this he unfortunately lost his life, the reduction of that place in the naval depart. but not till lie had fully accomplithed the obment, he had a principal share, and conduct. ject of bis voyage. ed himself to well chroughout the whole, as The character of Captain Cook will be best to recommend himself to the commander in exemplified by the services he has performed, chief. At the conclusion of the war, Sir, which are universally kiwwn, and have rankHigh Palliser having the command of the ed his name above that of any navigator of Newfoundland Itation, he appointed him to anciens or of quodern tinies. Naturs bad es.
him with a mind vigorous and comprehensive, we placed in him was unremitting ; our adwhich in his riper years he had cultivated miration of his great talents unbounded; our with care and industry. His general know. esteem for his good qualities affectionate and ledge was extensive and various : in that of fincere. his own profeffion he was unequalled. With In exploring unknown countries, the dana clear judgment, strong masculine sense, and gers he had to encounter were various and the most determined resolution ; with a ge- uncommon. On such occasions, he always nius peculiarly turned for enterprize, he pur- displayed great presence of mind, and a fteasued his object with uolhaken perseverance : dy perseverance in pursuit of his object. The -vigilant and active in an eminent degree ;-. acquisition he has made to our knowledge of cool and intrepid among dangers; palie and the globe is immense, besides improving the firm under difficulties and distress; fertile in art of navigation, and eoriching the science of expedients ; great and original in all his de- natural philosophy. figas ; active and resolved in carrying them He was remarkably distinguished for the into execution; these qualities rendered activity of his mind : it was that which enahim the animating spirit of the expedition : bled him to pay an unwearied attention to in every situation, he stood unrivalled and every object of the service. The strict æcoalone ; on him all eyes were turned; he was nomy he observed in the expenditure of the our leading star, which at its setting left us ship's stores, and the unremitting care be eminvolved in darkness and despair.
ployed for the preservation of the health of His constitution was strong, his mode of his people, were the causes that enabled him living temperate : why Captain King Thould to prosecute discoveries in remote parts of the not suppose temperance as great a virtue in globe, for such a length of time as bad been him as in any other man, I am unable to guess. deemed impracticable by former navigators. He had no repugnance to good living ; he al. The method he discovered for preserving the ways kept a good table, though he could bear health of seamen in long voyages, will tranf-. the reverse without murmuring. He was a mit his name to posterity as clie friend and hemodeft man, and rather bashful ; of an agree- nefactor of mankind : the success which arable lively conversation, sensible and intelli- tended it, afforded this truly great man more gent. In his temper he was somewhat haf. satisfaction, than the distinguished fame that ty, but of a disposition the most friendly, be- attended his discoveries. nevolent, and humane. His person was England has been unanimous in her tribute above fix feet high, and though a good-louk- of applause to his virtues, and all Europe has ing man, he was plain both in address and ap- borne testimony to his merit. There is liard pearance. His head was small ; his hair, ly a corner of the earth, however remote and which was of a dark brown, he wore tied savage, that will not long remember his bebehiod. His face was full of expression; his nevolence and humanity. The grateful 11a nore exceedingly well shaped; his eyes, which dian, in time to come, pointing to the herds were small and of a brown caft, were quick grazing his fertile plains, will relate to his and piercing; his eye-brows prominent, children how the first llock of them was inwhich gave his countenance all together an air troduced into the country; and the name of of aufterity.
Cock will be remembered among those beHe was beloved by his people, who look. nign spirits, whom they worship as the fource ed up to him as to a father, and obeyed his of every good, and the fountain of every bleicommands with alacrity. The confidence fing.
ESSAY on the RISE and PROGRESS of CHEMISTRY.
cor ed either to supply the necessities, or to ing the properties of bodies, and to investigace alleviate the more preiling inconveniences of by the strength of natural genius the various human life, were probably coeval with the relations of the objects surrounding them; or first establishment of civil societies, and pre- were, in the very infancy of the world, superceded by many ages the invention of letters, naturally alfiited in the discovery of matters of liieroglyphics, and of every other mode of effential, as it should seem, to their existence transmitting to posterity the memory of past and well-being, must ever remain unknown transactions. In vain should we enquire who invented the first plough, baked the first bread, There can be little doubt that in the space Chaped the first pot, wove the first garment, of, at least, 1636 years, from the creation of or hollowed out the first canoe. Whether the world to the deluge, a great variety of me were originally left, as they are at pre. æconomical arts must have been carried in a
very confiderable degree of perfection. The trio antediluvians. It is said, indeed, that knowledge of many of these perished, in all some tribes of Hottentots (who can have no likelihood, with the then inhabitants of the pretensions to be ranked amongit the cultiva. earth; it being scarcely potřible for that fin. tors of the arts) know how to melt both iron gle family which escaped the general ruin to and copper ti but this knowledge of theirs, trave either práctifej, or been even fuperfici. if they have not derived it from an intercourse ally acquainted with them all.
When men with the Europeans, is a very extraordinary have been long united in civil societies, and circumstance, fince the melting and manufachuman nature has been exalted by a recipro- turing of metals are justly considered, in genetal communication of knowledge, it does not ral, as indications of a more advanced state of often happen, that any ułeful invention is in- civilization than the Hottentots have yet ar. tirely lost: but were all the preļent inhabi. 'rived at. But not to dwell upon this; Cain tants of the earth, except eight persons, to be we know buil: a city, and some would thence destroyed by one sudden calamity, who sees infer, that metals were in use before the time not that most of those serviceable and elegant of Tubal Cain, and that he is celebrated prinarts, which at present conit.tute the employ- cipally for his ingenuity in fabricating them ment, and contribute to the happiness of the for domestic purposes. History seems to greatest part of the human race, would pro- support our pretenfions thus far. As to the bably be buried in long oblivion! Many cen- opinion of those who, tou zealously contend. turies might Nip away before the new inha- ing for the dignity of chemistry, make the dił. bitants of the globe would again become ac- covery of its mysteries to have been the pretie quainted with the nature of the compass, with um amoris which angels paid to the fair daughthe arts of painting, printing, or dying, of ters of men, we ia this age are more dispos. making porcelain, gin-powder, livel, or brass. ed to apologize for it than to adopt it. We
The interval of time which elapsed from may lay of arts what Livy the Roman histothe beginning of the world to the first deluge, rian has said of states-- datur hæc venia auti. is reckoned by profane historians to be whol- quitati, ut, miscondo humana dizinis, primordia ly uncertain as to the events which happened artio n auguftiora facias. in it : it was antecedent, by many centuries, For many ages after the food we have do not only to the æra when they suppoied his certain accounts of the state of chemistry. tory to commence, but to the most distant The art of making wine indeed was known, ages of hiervilm and fable.
The only ac
if not before soon after the deluge: this may count relative to it, which we can rely on, is be collected from the intoxication of Noah , contained in the firtt 11x chapters of the book there being no inebriating quality in the un. of Genesis ; three of which being employed fermented juice of the grape. The Egyptiin the history of the creation, and of the fall ans were skilled in the manufacturing of me. vi man ; and a fourth containing nothing but tals, in medicinal chemistry, and in the art of a genealogical narration of the Patriarchs from embalming dead bodies, long before the time Avam to Noals; it cannot reatonably be ex- of Mofes, as appears from the mention male pected, that the other two mould enable us to of Joseph's cup 5, and from the physicians be. trace the various lteps by which the human ing ordered to embalm the body of Jacob). mtellect adv.unced in the cultivation of arts They practised also the arts of dying and of maand sciences, or to ascertain, with much pre. king coloured glass at a very early period, as cution, the time when any of them was first has been gathered not only from the testima. introduced into the world. It was some- ny of Scrubo, but from the relics founderich what remarkable, that from this account, their mummies, and from the glass beads with invit as it is, the chemifts should be authori. wbich their mummies are sometimes ftudded. zed, with iome propriety, to exalt the anti, But we cannot from these instances conclude quity of their art to the earliest times. Tis.' that chemistry was then cultivated as a sepabilocair is there mentioned as an instructor of rate branch of science, or distinguished in its every artificer in copper and iron *. This application, from a variety of other arts which arcumitance proves beyond dispute, that ono must have been exercised for the support and
part of metallurgic chemistry was well known convenience of human life. All of these had at that time ; for copper and iron are, of all probably fome dependence on chemical printhe metals, moftdifficult to be extracted from ciples, but they were then, as they are at pretheir ores, anul cannot, even in our days, be sent, practised by the several artists withoue rendered malleable without much skill or their having any theoretical knowledge of 1:01.ble; and is proves also, that the arts in their respective employments. Nor can we Several were in an improved state amongst pay much attention in this inquiry to the ob
(ien. iv. 22.
** Forster's Voy. vol. i. p. 81. Gen. xliv. bet
# Gen. I. 2.
Gen. ix. 21.