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fcure accounts which are given of the two great had unquestionably learned these arts in Egypte Egyptian philosophers, Hermes the elder, fup. and there is great reason to suppose, not only posed to be the same with Mizraim, grand- that learning of every kind first fourished in son of Noah ; and Hermes, surnamed Trisme. Egypt, but that chemistry, in particular, was giltus the younger, from whom chemistry has mucli cultivated in that country when other by some been affectedly called the Hermetic sciences had passed into other parts of the art.

world. Pliay, in speaking of the fouir periThe chemical skill of Moses displayed in ods of learning which had preceded the times his burning, reducing to an impalpable pow. in which he lived, reckons the Egyptian the der, and rendering potable the golden calf in first : and Suijas, who is thought to have the wilderuess, has been generally extolled by lived in the tenth century, informs us, the writers on this subject ; and constantly ad. the Emperor Diocletian ordered all the books duced as a proof of the then flourishing state of chemistry to be burned, left the Egyptians, of chemistry amongst the Egyptians, in whose learning from them the art of preparing gold learning he is said to have been well versed. and silver, should thence derive resources to If Mofes nad really reduced the gold of which oppose the Romans. It is worthy of nothe calf confitted, into alhes, by calcining ic tice, that Suidas uses the word chemistry in a in the fire, or made it in any other way folu- very restricted sense, when he interprets it by ble in water, this instance would have been -the preparation of gold and silver ;-buc greatly in point; but neither in Exodus nor in all the chemists in the time of Suidas, and for Deuteronomy, where the fact is mentioned, many ages before and after him, were alcheis there any thing faid of its being dissolved in mists. The edict of Diocletian in the third water. The enemies of revelation on the century, had little effect in repressing the arother hand, conceiving it to be possible to dour for this ftudy in any part of the world, calcine gold, or to render it potable, have pro- fince we are told that not less than five thouduced this account as containing a proof of the land books, to say nothing of manuscripts, want of veracity in the sacred historian. Both have been publithed upon the subject of alfides seem to be in an error : Stahl and other chemy fince his time ll. chemists have shewn, that it is possible to At what particular period this branch of make gold potable ; but we have no reason chemistry, respecting the transmutation of to conclude that Mofes either used the process the baser metals into gold, hegan to be distinof Stahl, or any other chemical means for ef. guilheu by the name of alchemy, cannot be fecting the purpose intended--be took the calf determined, An author of the fourth centuswbicb obey badmude, and burnt it in the fire, and ry, in an astrolog.cal work, speaks of the ground is to powder, and firecved it upon the science of alchemy as well underitood at that walır, and made !he children of Ifrael to do iné time ; and this is laid io be the first place in of is. Here is not the leatt intimation gi. which the word alchemy is nice. Bu: Vorven of the gold having been diffolved, chemi- fius asserts, that we ought, in the place here reCally speaking, in water; it was stamped and ferred to, instead of alchemia to read chemicza ground; or, as the Arabic and Syri..c versions Be this as it may, we can have no doubt of have it, 'filed into a fine duft, and thrown in. akbemir being compoundd of the Arabic al to the river of which the children of Israel (the) and chemid, to denote exceilence and luD'ed to drink : part of the gold would re- periority, as in al-manack, al-koran, and main, notwithstanding its gre.ter specific gra- other woris. Wiecher the Greeks invented, vity, suspended for a time, (as bappens in the or received from the Egyptians, the choctrine washing of copper and lead ores) and night concerning the transmutation of metals, or be (wallowed in drinking the water; the rest whether the Arabians were the first who would fink to the bottom, or be carried away proteiled is, is uncertain. To change iron, by the Alux of the stream.

lead, tin, copper, quicksilver, into gold, Nevertheless, though nothing Satisfactory seems to be a problem more likely to animate can be concluded concerning the Egyptian mankind to attempt its folution, than either chemistry from what is said of Mofes in this that of syuaring the cirile, or of finding out instance, yet the Itructure of the ark, and the

a perpetual motion ; and as it has never yet tathion of Aaron's garments, clearly indicates been proved, perhaps never can be proved, to us that the arts of manufacturing metals, of to be an impofble pochlein, it ought not to be dying leather red and linen blue, purple, and esteemed a matter of wonder, that the first icarlet; of diftinguishing precious Itunes, and chemical books we meet wills, are almost eigraving upon them, were at that time prac-' intirely oployed in alchemical ioquia tised in a very eminent degree f. The Israelites ries.

* Txod. xxxii. 20,

+ Exod. xxvi, and xxviii.

Chem, Waller, p. 40.

Lexicon, Vox XT,justa,

Cheniltis Chemistry, with the rest of the sciences, mineral fell into the hands of interested em. being banhed from the other parts of the pirics) to many pernicious noftr*s. To this, world, took refuge among the Arabians. rather than to the arrogant severity with which Geber in the seventh, or as lome will have it Bafile Valentine treats the physicians his coin the eighth, and others in the ninth century, temporaries, may we attribute the cenfure of wrote several chemical, or rather alchemical, Buerhaave, who, in speaking of him, fays, books in the Arabic. In these works of Ge. " he erred chiefly in this, that he commend. ber are contained such uletul directions con- « ed every antimonial preparation, than which cerning the manner of conducting distillation, nothing can be more foolish, fallacious, and calcin.cion, sublimation, and other chemical " Jangerous ; but this fatal error has infected operations, and such pertinent observations every medical school from that time to respecting various minerals, as juftly seem to " this." entitle him to the character, which some have The attempting to make gold or silver by given him, of being the father of chemistry; alchemical processes had heen prohibited by a thoug), in one of the most celebrated of his conftitution of Pope John XXII, who was eleworks, he modestly acknowledges himself to vated to the pontificate in the year 1316; and, have done little else than abridge the doctrines within about one hundred and twenty years from of the ancients concerning the tranimutation the death of Friar Bacon, the uobility and gentry of metals. Whether he was preceded by of England had become so infatuated with the Mesue and Rhiazes, or followed by them, is notions of alchemy, and wasted so much of not in the present inquiry a matter of much their substance in search of the philosopher's importance to determine, since the fore-mene stone, as to render ti e interposition of guveretioned physicians, as well as Avicenna, who, ment necessary to restrain their folly. The from all accounts, was posterior to Geber, following act of parliament, which Lord Cukie Speak of many chemical preparations, and thus calls the shortest he ever met with, was pailal thoroughly establish the opinion, that medi. 5

Hen. IV. “None from henceforth thall cal chemistry, as well as alchemy, was in " sue to multiply gold or silver, or use the craft those dark ages well understood by the Ara- “ of multiplication; and if any the same do, be biaus.

Thall incur the pain of felony." It has Towards the beginning of the thirteenth been sugseíted, that the reason of paffing the century, Albert the Great in Germany, and act was slot an apprehension left men shovid Roger Bacon in England, begau to cultivate ruin their fortunes by endeavouring to make chemistry with success, excited thereto, pro- gold, but a jealousy left government should be bably, by the perusal of fome Arabic books, above asking aid of the subject. “ After Rar. which about that time were tranflated into mond Lully and Sir George Ripley had to Latin. Thele two monks, especially the lat. largely multiplied gold, the Lorus and Com. ter, seem to have as far exceeded the com- , mons, conceiving tome danger that the Regency, mon standard of learning in the age in which having such immense treafure at command, they lived, as any philotophers who have ap. would be above aiking aid of the sub;cet, ad peared in airy country either before their time mi ht become tro arbitrary and tyrannica', or fuce. They were succeeded in the four- made an act against multiplying gold and til. recoth and hiteenth centuries, by a great ma. ver *.” This act, whatever might be the oc. by eminent mer, both of our own country casion of passing it, though it gave some ob and forcisners, u ho, in applying themselves to Ili uction to the public exercite of alchemy, alchemy, made, incidentally, many uteful dir. yet it did not cure the difpofition for it in in. coveries in various parts of chemistry. Such dividuals, nor remove the general credulity; were Arnoldus de Villa Nova in France ; our for, in the 35 Hen. VI. letters patent were countryman George Ripley ; Raymond Lully granted to several people, by which the of Majorca, who fuft introduced, or at leait were permitted to investigate an univer's more largely explained, the notion of an uni- medicine, and to perform the tranimuts. va verfal medicine ; and Balile Vălentine, whose of metals into real gold and silver, wha excellent book, inti uled, Currus antimonii tris non oftante of the fore-mentioned ftatuite, whipbulis, has contributed more than any thing which remained in fu!l force all the year 165.. elle to the introduction of that useful mineral when, being conceived io operate to the d.:into the regular practice of most physicians in couragement of the melring and retang ai Europe : it has given occasion also to a va- metals, it was formally repealed t. riely of beneficial, as well as (a circumstance

[To be combinatia.] which might be expected, when so ticklich a

• Opera Mineralia explicata, p. 10.

+ Mr. Boyle is said by his int rest to have procured the repeal of this fingular Atatute, sed to have been probably induced thereto, in consequence of his having been perhuuled of the polibility of the transmutation of metals into gold. See his life prefixed to the foiso edir.ai his works, p. 83.


SOON after the Count's arrival at Paris, the


[ Concluded from Page 2 31.]

full grown innocent creature of fifteen. After Cardinal de Rohan, who honoured him composing his features, and Atifling a laugh, with occasional visirs, offered to introduce him he asked Mademoiselle La Tour the youung lato a lady named VALOIS DE LA MOTTE. dy whether me was truly innocent ? To this

“ The Queen,” said the Cardinal, addres- question the more boldly than ingenuously fing himself to the Count, “ is a prey to the answered in the affirmative. The Count redeepest melancholy, in consequence of a pre- plied, " I fall know the truth of it in an indiction that she is to die in child-bed. It Itant. Commend yourself to God and your would be the highest satisfaction to me, if hy innocence, step behind the screen, shut your any means I could undeceive her, and restore eyes, and think within yourself on any obje&t her peace of mind. , Mitdame de Valois is you most wish to see : if you are innocent, it every day with her Majesty ; and you will will appear to you; if not, you will see 10greatly oblige me, by telling her (if she should thing. alk your opinion) that the Queen will be safe. “ Mademoiselle de 11 Tour," continues ly brought-to-bed of a Prince.”

the Counc, “ followed my directions, and I To this proposal the Count, wishing to remained on the other side of the screen witha oblige the Cardinal, and pleased with the pror- tho Cardinal, who stood near the fire-place, pect of conta buting, though indirectly, to the not wrope in exlacy, as Madame de la Morte preservation of the Queen's health, readily as- thinks proper to express it, but holding his sented.

hand to his mouth, for fear of interrupting the On visitiog the Prince next day at his house, folemn scene by an ill-timed laugh." he there found the Counters de la Motte, who, Having made some mystic gesticulations, after the u/ual civilities, opened the business I desired the young lady to stainp on the floor to him as foilows :

with her innocent fuot, and tell


whether the I am acq iainted with a lady of great dir. saw any thing.-She answered in the negative tinction at Vertailles, who has been fore. - Then, Miss," said I, Itriking the skreen warned that fe and another lady were to die smartly, “ you are not innocent."—This obin child-bed. The prediction has been veri- servation piqued the lady's pride" Hold," fied on one of the parties, and the survivor cried the, methinks I see the Queen."'- I was awaits the fatal minute in the utmost uneas. then convinced that this innocent niece had ness. If you know what will happen, or if been properly instructed by ber artful aunt, you think you can by any means find it out, I “ Defirous to know how the would go Tall goto Versailles to-morrow and make my ihrough her part, I requested her to describe report to the person concerned, who, (auded the apparition : the said the lady was pregthe Countess) is the Queen berself.".

nant, and dresied in while : The then proceedThe Count's answer to Madame de la Motte ed to describe her features, which exactly rewas, that all predictions were mere nonsense ; íembled the Queen's. I then desired her to but advised her to tell the Queen, to recom. alk the lady whether the would be broughtmend herself to the divine protection, that her to-bed safely. She replied, she should. I first lying in had been fortunate, and that her then ordered her to kiss the lady's hand reapproaching one would be equally so. spectfully. The innocent creature killed her

The Countess not seeming satisfied with own hand; and came from behind the screen, this answer, the Count, in consequence of his perfectly fatisfied to think he had convinced promise to the Cardinal, assuming a serious us of her innocence. countenance, told the lady, “ Madam, as an The ladies eat some sweet meats, drank adept in the science of Nature, and acquaint. Some lemonade, and in about a quarter of an ed with the arcana of magnetism, I am of opio hour retired by the back stairs. nion, that a being perfectly innocent may, in Thus ended a farce, as harmless in itself this case, operate more powerfully than any as it was laudable in its motive. other. If therefore you are defirous of know- The Cardinal, having thus brought me acing the truth, you must, in the first mitance, quainted with the Counte!s, asked me what I find out foch an innocent creature.

thought of her ? I, who have always pretenu" If that be the only difficulty," replied ej to some skill in phisiognomy, fincerely de. Madame de la Motte, “ I have a niece who clared, that I believed her to be a deceitful inanswers the description : I will bring her with trigiiing woman. The Cardinal differed in me to-morrow."

opinion from me, and soon after set out for The next day the Count was much fur. Saverne, where he remained a month or fix prised at being introduced, 1100, as he hall ima- weeks. On his return, his visits to me br. sioed, to a child abuse fix years old, but to 3 came more frequent, and I observed him io you's

be uneasy and thoughtful ; and whenever the months confinement, he underwent an examiCountess was mentioned, I with my usual nation; in which he invariably persisted in defrankness, told him, “ibat woman deceives claring his innocence. During this interroga.

tory the following question was put to him : About a fortnight before he was arrested, Q. “ Your manner of living is expensive ; he one day said to me," I begin to think you you give much away, and accept of nothing in are right in your conjectures, and that Madame return ; you pay every body; how do you conde Valois is tbe woman you have described." trive to get money :" He then, for the first time, related to me the A. “ This question has no kind of relation transaction about the necklace, and communi. to the case in point; however, I am willing cated his suspicions and fears that it had not to give you some satisfaction. Yet, of what been delivered to the Queen. This corrobo. importance is it to have it known, whether raied my former opinion.

I am the son of a monarch, or the child of a The next day the Princeinformed me that haggr; why I travel without making my. the Counters and her husband had, fearing the fell known, or by what means I procure the consequences of the above affair, fed for thel. money I want ! As long as I pay a due reter to his house, and that they requested letters spect to the religion and laws of the country, of recommendation for England or Germany. discharge every obligation, and am uniformi The Cardinal alked my advice in the bufiness. doing good to all around me, the quettion you I told bim there was but one way left, viz. to now put to me is improper and unbecoming. deliver her into the hands of the Police, and go I have always taken a pleasure in reluing to directly to Court, and lay the whole matter gratify the curiosity of the public on th.s ac. open to the King and Iris Ministers. This count, not withstanding all the calumnies ma be objected to as repugnant to his feelings and lice has invented againtt me. I will nevergenerofity. “In this case," laid I,“ God is theless condescend to tell you what I never your only resource.” The Cardinal, however, revealed to any one before. Know then, that having refused giving them the leiters of re. the principal resource I have to host of is, commendation, they set out for Burgundy, that as soon as I let my foot into any country, and I have heard nothing of them fioce." 1 there find a banker who supplies me wib

On the 15th of August the Cardinal was every thing I want : thus in France, Sardo arrested. Several perfous observed to the fin de Bajle, or Mons. Sancolaz at Lyons Count, that as he wis among the Prelate's would give me up their whole fortunes, were friends, he might poflibiy share the same file. I to ask it; but I have always requested thele But conscious of his innocence, he replica gentlemen not to buy they were my bankers. that he was perfectly religned, and would In addition to these resources, I derive farther wait with patience whatever God or the go. alitance from my extensive knowledge." vernment thould ordain.

The Count seems determined to ke-phes le. Accordingly, at half past seven o'clock in cret ; and for reasons best known to his judges, the morning, on the 22d of August, a Com- has not yet recovered his liberty. As matters, miflary, an exempt and eight myrmidons of however, seem drawing near a favourable con. the Police entered his house, and after rum- clusion with the principal in this mytteries maging his scrutoires, drassed biin on foot in business, it is more than probable tie will be ilie molt opprobrious manner, till a hackney- permitted to wander about Europe again, alcorch bappening to pass by, he was permited ter suffering a punishment sufficieut in hes to pocerit, and was conducted to the Pastile; opinion “to expiate the greatest crimes"-10 ubich place his wife was likewise commit. a confirxement of several months in the Ba

On the 3cth of January 1786, after five file.





the lonthly Review, Vol. XL. 1769, cert.in reflections of M. Morand on that fub

an ähitract is given of the History of the jeet. The Comt in his relation gave the Royal Academy of Sciences of t aris, for the history of Bebé, a Dwarf kept by the late ver 1504, in which we read the following StaniNaus, King of Poland, and who died in pilares.

1704, at the age of twenty-three, when he "Under this class of the Memoirs, the His- meatured only thirty-three inches. At the torian of ile Academy has drawn up an Eilay time of his birth, he measured only between on Divas, founded on a relation read at the eight and nine inches. We have there taken Acidemy by the Couso de Treilail, and on avlice of the capt'ners of Bebe's realoning fa

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culties, which do not appear to have been fu. but of French extraction, and the middle size, perior to those of a well-caught pointer ; but They have three children, all giid., and none that the size and strength of the intellectual of them likely to be dwarfs. powers are not affected by the diminutiveness To provide for a famıly now became an or tenuity of the corporeal organs, is evident object big with difficulty, requiring all the ex. from a ftill more striking instance of littleness, ertion of his powers (which could promise given us by the same nobleman, in the person but little), and his talects, of which music of Monsieur Borulawski, a Polith gentleman, alone afforded any view of profit. He plays whom he saw at Luneville, and who has since extremely well upon the guittar, and by habeen a Paris, and who at the age of cwenty ving concerts in several of the principal cities two measured only twenty-eight inches. in Germany, he raised temporary supplies. This miniature of a man, considering him on- At Vienna he was persuaded to turn liis ly as to his bodily dimensions, appears a giant thoughts to England, where it was believed with regard to his mental powers and attain. the public curiosity might in a little time bements. He is described by the Count as pofe nefit him fufficiently, to enable him to live selling all the graces of wit, united with a independent in ro cheap a country as Poland. sound judgement and an excellent memory; He was furnished by very respectable friends so that we may with justice say of M. Boru. with recommendations to several of the most lawski, in the words of Seneca, and nearly in diftinguished characters in this kingdom, as the order in which he has used them, Polle the Dutchess of Devonshire, Rutland, &c. &c. ingenium fortiffimum ac beatissimum fub quolibet whose kind patronage he is not backward to corpufculo latere,'' Epift. 66.

acknowledge. He was advised to let himThere are several curious circumstances re- self be seen as a curiosity, and the price of adlative to Count Borulawski left unnoticed in million was fixed at a guinea. The number this account. He was the son of a Polish no. of his visitors, of couríe, was not very great. bleman attached to the fortunes of King Sta. After a pretty long stay in London lie went nislaus, who lost his property in consequence to Bath and Bristol, visited Dublin and some of that attachment, and who had six children, other parts of Ireland ; from whence he rethree dwarfs, and three well-grown. What turned by way of Liverpool, Manchester, and is fingular enough, they were born alternate- Birmingham, to London, where he now is. ly, a big one and a little one, though both pa- In every place he acquired a number of friends, rents were of the common size. The little In reality the ease and politeness of his manCount's youngest fifter was much less than ners and address please no less than the dimi. him, but died at the age of twenty-three. nutive, yet elegant, proportions of his figure The Count continued to grow till 'e was

astonish those who visit him. His person is about thirty, and has at present attained his pleasing and graceful, and his look manly and 47th year, and the height of three feet two noble. . He speaks French fluently, and Enginches. He never experienced any sickness, lith tolerably. He is remarkably lively and but lived in a polite and affluent manner w. chearful, tho' fitted for the most serious der the patronage of a lady, a friend of the fa- and rational conversation. Such is this wonmily, till love at the age of forty-one intruded derful little man—an object of curiosity real. into his little peaceful borom, and involved ly worthy the attention of the philosopher, bim in matrimony, care, and perplexity. the man of taste, and the anatumist. The lady he chose was of his own country,


To the PHILOLOGICAL SOCIETY of LONDON. GENTLEMEN, Tattempt to interweave the scattered ly publications of the plan of the writer, of

threads of Grecian history into one con. the diligence with which he has laboured it: rected narrative, and to incorporate the pro. I leave to the learned the care of collating his srefs of arts with that of arms, is undoubtedly authorities, and confine mylelí to a topic that a very commendable design. Should the av. lies more open to common observation. thur succeed, he will be chosen as the guide There is, from obvious causes, a strong of the young, and the companion of the ad- tendency in modern authors to adorn their vancel, scholar. But the importance of such works as highly as posible ; and if it mult a work needs no other proof than the efforts be allowed that this care has produced gold which have been made at different times to exquisitely wrought, it is certain that much archieve it, and the interest taken by the pub- gaudy and glittering, but worthless, tinej lic in a late undertaking of this kind. I do has been obtruded upon the world. But not mean at present to dispute the favourable nothing can supply the want of substantial opinion which has been given in some month. value. He who unwarily feeds too greedily EUROP. MAG.



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