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or negative) repel each other; and, when clouds, or the superabundant quantity in the electrified by the different powers, that is, air, will electrify those black clouds, by which the one plus and the other minus, attract means the particles of vapour will be exeach other : on coming into contact, an equi« panded, raised higher, and the air become librium is restored, and neither of them will clear. Clouds may be melted away, even thew any signs of electricity.

when we are looking at them, by another e Prom this it follows: If two clouds are cause, that is, by the heat of the sun. We ele&trified by the same power, they will re- know, that transparent bodies are not heated pel each other, and the vapour be suspended by the fun, but opaqué ones are : the clouds in both; but when one is positive and the being opaque bodies, are warmed by the rays other negative, they will attract each other, of the sun shining on them, and any additionand restore an equilibrium. The electric al quantity of heat will rarify the vapour, and power by which the vapour was suspended, occasion its expanding in the air, which will being now destroyed by the mutual action of foon become transparent. When vapour is the clouds on each other, the particles of wa. made to expand more than it would otherter will have an opportunity of running to wise do, a certain quantity of absolute heat gether into each other, and, as they augment is necessary to keep it in the form of vapour ; in fize, will gain a greater degree of gravity, therefore, when the receiver of an air-pump descending in small rain, or a heavy shower, is exhausting, it appears muddy, and a numaccording to circumstances.

ber of drops are found within it: the moi“ A cloud, highly electrified, passing over sture contained in the air, in the form of vaa high building or mountain, may be attracted pour, being made to occupy a greater space by, and be deprived of its electricity, without than what is natural to it, and receiving no or with a violent explosion of thunder. If addition of heat, a part of it is condensed. * the cloud is electrified plus, the fire will “If, therefore, the air is suddenly rarified, descend from the cloud to the mountain ; a few drops of rain will descend, as may but if it he eletrified minus, the fire will often be observed in the summer season." ascend from the mountain to the cloud. In

The Doctor concludes his paper both cases, the effect is the fame, and ge. a short summary of the whole. nerally, heavy rain immediately, or foon 1. That heat is the great cause by after, follows: this is well known to the which water is converted into vapour, which inhabitants of, and travellers among moun- is condensed by cold. tains.

2. That electricity renders vapour spe« From this we can easily account, why cifically lighter, and adds to its absolute heat, thunder - Ihowers are often partial, falling repelling its particles ; which particles would near, or among mountains, and the rain in be condensed by cold: and that electricity such quantities, as to occasion rivers to be is the great agent by which vapour ascends overflowed; whilft, at the distance of a few to the upper regions. miles, the ground continues parched up with

3. That when the electric power by drought, and the roads covered with duft. which vapour is suspended in the atmosphere,

" It often happens, that one clap of thun- is destroyed, a heavy mist, small rain, or der is not sufficient to produce rain from a thunder-showers, will be the consequence. cloud, nor even a second: in short, the

Had the advocates for the doctrine of folution, claps must be repeated, till an equilibrium is made heat and electricity the solvents, their restored, and then the rain mult, of conse

theory would have been less exceptionable.” quence, fall. Sometimes we may have vi. olent thunder and lightning without rain, and on the Comparative Merit of the Ancients the black appearance of the heavens may be and Moderns with respect to the Imitative changed to a clear transparent lky, especially Arts, By Mr. Thomas Kermaw. Read in warm weather. To account for this, it

Feb. 19, 1783 must be rememhered, as I lately said, that Modesty has ever been the companion of one or more claps of thunder are not always true courage: that Mr K. is a man of spirit, fufficient to produce rain from the clouds : bus to lift bis voice among a host of learned fu, if an equilibrium be not restored, little Doctors, must be confeffed. or no rain will fall, and in a short time the

“ This short essay, he says, is intended to point electric matter, passing from the earth to the out the excellencies of the ancients in the imi.

* « On this principle, we can readily account for the mist, which appears on discharging an air-gun: the condensed air in the s'ramter of the barrel, on being lec free, will expand suddenly, occupying a larger space, anu no id litional heat being acquired, the vapours must necessarily be condensed in the form of mift." EUROP. MAG.



tative arts; yet, at the same time, to allow the “ That part of the art termed keeping moderns their due thare of fame, in having the ancients seem to have been but little acnot only made some improvements, but in- quainted with, and without a due manageventions, of which the ancients were entirely ment of this, every picture would be filled ignorant.

with confufion. Instead of a proper subor. « That the ancients bear the palm from dination, each group or figure would seem the moderns in sculpture, will not be conteft. to contend for precedence. This want of ed: their religion sanctified and encouraged order destroys all dignity, and prevents the that branch of science. Gods, Demigods, artist from forming an agreeable whole. and heroes, all conspired to bring it into the

Any attempts in antique landícape highest sepute : and their images were often with which we are acquainted, are executed deposited in buillings of the mult exquisite wretchedly. In that part of the art, the taite, to commemorate particular occur. fuperiority of the moderns is manifest. rences, The rage for highly ornamented “We have the authority of Fresnoy † to edifices, perhaps, never rose to a greater say, that Michael Angelo surpassed not height than amongst the Romans. These only all the moderns, but the ancients in sons of fortune acquired so much wealth, architecture : he quotes the St. Peter's at and, by plundering distant climes, had so Rome, the Palazzo Farnese, and she St. collected the riches of whole kingdoms into John's at Florence, as proofs of his opione city, thas there was no way left to diffi. nion.” pate such immense sums, but by engaging in

“ Etching, engraving, mezzotinto, and the most expensive works of art. Each am. aquatinta are all of modern invention, and bitious conqueror, desirous to transmit his of greas utility. They deliver down to us own actions and those of his ancestors

accurate copies (rom the works of eminent to pofterity, called in to his aid the sculptor

men at a small expence; and diffuse abroad and the architect, whose utmost skill was the bright flame of science, fo that even those, exerted to blazon their atchievements in the

who are far Jiftant from the centre of the folidity of stone and mai ble.

arts, may rouse their souls to action, and " This thews, in some measure, why enlighten that spark of genius, which might sculpture outstripped her fifter art; for the hitherto have lain dormant." specimens of ancient painting are much infe.

Having spoken of these and some other rior to modern productions. They are de plain truths, the author . very prudently ficient in colouring, chiaro - obscuro, and makes his retreat under cover of the Socie. keeping. Several of the Claßics * tell us, ty's candour. there were but four colours or pigments in “ From the candour of this learned socieuse amongst the ancient artifts, viz. black, ty, the writer of this essay claims protection, white, yellow, and red. Now, it is impor. and hopes, an attempt to investigate truth fible to produce from those colours only, will not be deemed audacity." the variety of tints necessary to equal even a tolerable colourist of the moderns. Although this evinces nothing against the abilities of the

On the Impropriety of allowing a Bounty ancients, we may fairly conclude, that the

to encourage the Exportation of Corn, &c. rich and luxuriant descriptions handed down

By Jotëph Wimpey. Read Feb. 26, 1783. to us, are infiated with hyperbole, sufficient This paper was written in consequence to make us doubt the veracity of some of of one read priorly on Economical Re. their authors. Unfortunately for these warm gifters :-it not confined to the exportation advocates, the discoveries of Herculaneum of corn, but extends to the oceanly subjecthave spitefully contradicted their assertions, free ports. The writer's arguments, how. and furnished us with means to draw our ever, are too long (though by no means own conclusions. It is very possible they loose) for our insertion ; nevertheless, they might admire, and be surprised at a sight of, are such as merit an impartial perusal by what appeared to them the ultimalum of every landed and commercial man in the perfection."

kingdom.--Suffice it for us to say, Mr. “ Chiaro-scuro, or the art of diftributing Wimpey maintains, that allowing a bounty the lights and thadows in a picture advan- on the exportation of corn, is " execrable na. tegevully, as well for the repose and satisfac- nagement :”—and that as to throwing open tion of the eye, as for the etfect of the whole the ports, “nothing could sooner reduce this together, seems to be a modern invention.” country to the deepest poverty and distress."

* Pliny, Cicero.
+ Fresnoy, a French artist well known for his Latin poem de Arte Graphica.

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viz. that the sea was originally created salt On the Natural History of the Cow, so in support of this theory, and in objection to far as it relates to its giving Milk, particu- the others, especially to that which asserts larly for the Use of Man. By C. White, Esq. the origin and supply from the land, it has F. R. S. &c. Read March 12, 1783. been advanced, that a great part of the fiony

All that this little essay attempts to coninhabitants of the occan cannot exist in fresh vey is, that the cow having a larger and more

water, and therefore it is not to be supposed, capacious udder, and longer and thicker teats

that they should ever have been placed in a than the largest animal we know;"--allo, ha- fituation unsuited for their fupport. It might ving“ four ceats, whilft all other animals of the also have been added, that there is as same nature have but two ;-also, because much difficulty in accounting for the origin

yields the milk freely to the hand, of the falt which the rivers are supposed to whilft most animals refuse it, except their wash down, as for its formation in the sea. goung, or some adopted animal be allowed to

But might not the grea: Creator, by whoće partake ; "_" was, by the omniscient Author Fiat all things were produced, accommoof nature, intended to give milk, particularly date the first inhabitants of the sea to their for the use of man.”

temporary situation ; and gradually produce

such changes in their constitutions, as to On the Natural History and Origin of make the saltness of the water necessary for Magnesian Earth, particularly as connected their support ? Changes equally great, apwith those of Sea Salt, and of Nitre ; with pear to have taken place in the human habit. Observations on some of the Chemical Pro. The duration of life, in particular, was properties of that Earth, which have been, hi- tracted, in the earlier ages, to a length contherto, either unknown, or undetermined. venient for the speedy population of the By Thomas Henry, F. R. S. &c.

world; and when that end was accomplished This is a masterly differtation on magne- to a certain degree, Providence affigned li. fian earth, which this excellent Philosopher mits to the existence of mankind, at the ute has pursued to the lowermust depths of che- most of which we feldom arrive, and beyond mistry ;-e-nay, followed to the lowest abyss which we never pass. of ocean's self!

« Notwithstanding what I have here adThe main subject of this paper, how im- vanced, I must confess myself inclined to portant foever it may be to the profeffionalist join in the opinion, that the sea was origiand the philosopher, is, in a manner, unin. nally created falt. But all faline substances teresting to readers in general ; nevertheless with which we are acquainted, are subject it must not be passed over in silence. It to gradual decay, decomposition, or volatili. would be dificult perhaps to produce a zation, in long process of time, and when more striking instance of the power and uti- exposed to the action of air, moisture and lity of the imagination, (so well defended in heat. Nature has established an universal a former paper) than is to be found in the system of alternate aestruction and recompaper before us. It is by means of this in- position in her works; and is continually tellectual eye, that men of genius are ena- carrying on processes in her grand laboratobled to trace, perhaps from the smallest ry, which art is unable to imitate, Ani. caules, effects of the utmost magnitude. Thus mals and vegetables perish and decay ; and, our ingenious author, in tracing the origin of when corrupted, contribute to the support or magnesian earth, strikes out a rational theory to accommodation of each other; and many account for the undecaying saltness of the sea. mineral substances, though more permanent

“ Philosophers, he says, bave been much than those which constitute the other kinga puzzled to account for the original falt- doms, are liable to considerable changes, are bels of the sea. Some have imagined it must frequently decomposed, and forced to enter have been furnished by rivers which, into new combinations. It is not therefore flowing from the land, conveyed with to be supposed, that the same individual falc them such quantities of fall, from acci- has been contained by the ocean from the mulations of that mineral formed within the creation to the present time." We know bowels of the earth, as to communicate, and that the waters are continually evaporatii g continually supply faltness to the sea; while into the atmosphere, forming clouds, descendothers have attributed its impregnation to ing again in rain, replenishing the earth, and, rocks of salt, situated at the bottom of the after forming rivers, returning to the sea.

Tó both these opinions objections Sea salt rises, by a moderate heat, with the have been made; and the learned bishop vapour of water, and is often carried by of Landaff * bas chosen to adopt another, storms to considerable distances. By thele

* Watson's Chemical Efsays, Vol. II.
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and other means, it is probable, there must seem to have a similar origin ; and it is not be a continual waste of salt, which nature without good grounds, that they are said to must have some mode to supply.

he modifications of each other." 6 The ocean is replete with animals and plants. The destruction and corruption of

Such are the contents of the first volume these must furnish much matter fitted for of these entertaining Memoirs, which, being the formation of faline substances, much

the joint production of various writers, and earth, much of the principle of inflammabi- each paper having been already spokea to Jity, and of ar; and if water were not a

separately, will not aumit of many general

observations : however, as part of their composition, the sea would

a collection, plentifully supply that elementary ingredient.

it has some features pretty strongly marked: By the putrefaction of similar fubftances,

—there is an evident prolixiry—a want of

closeness-in mixed with calcareous earth, moistened with

many of the papers ;-quota. Water, and exposed to the gradual action of tions and notes of immoderate length 100 the air, Nitre is formed. May not the same frequently give additional looseness to the substances, under different circumstances, page and languor to the argument; whilst covered by the depth of the ocean, and re

an inordinate display of the learned languages parated thereby from immediate communi convinces us, that even the Mancheiter Sie cation with the air, produce sea-salt? It has ciety is not altogether weaned from ideat ico. lately been discovered, by an ingenious che- latry which has, age after age, been the bane mift *, that trough Nitre is produced by the

of true philosophy. Nererilicle's, we are abose butirances, with the access of air, yet fully authorized by the volume before us to it liey be lo placed that the air may be ex

say, that facts-the only forundation of mocued, and the situation perhaps 1100 too

dern philosophy---are held in due veneration moint, Sulphur, and not Nitie, is the re

by some of the most respectable Vítmbers of fult. So that the three mineral acids should

this truly respectable Society.

Discourses on Prophecy, read in the Chapel of Lincoln's-Inn, at the lecture fonnded hy

the Right Reverend William Warburton, lite Lord Dimopor Gloucester. By Eat Apthorp, D. D. Rector of St. Mary-le Bow. 2 Vols. 8vo. 125. Rivington, Lincun, 1766.


5 The.

HESE Volumes contain a series of lec. ។

neration and careful ftudy," will, to those at tures which preient a forcible and con- left who are not as great adepts as the nected argument in favor of the truth and Doctor “ in symbolic language," we doubt, certainty of revealed religion, drawn from prove, in many instances, " a lambling black." the accomplishment of a variety of pre- This work is disided into tuelve lectures di tions respecting Christianity. In tre.t. on tie following subjects. 1. Hiltory of ing this interesting subject, the author bas Prophecy. 2. Cinons of Interpretation. 3. proved himself fully adequate to so important Prophecies on the Birth of Chrift. 4. Chru. an undertaking, and has displayed so much nological Characters of the Mefliah. learning, prosound erudition, and uncom- ological Charaliers of the fame. 6. The monly extensive reading, in the inveftiga. Chain of Prophecies relating to him. 7,8, tion of it, 25 to render it difficult to deter. and 9. Prophecies of the Death of Christ, mue whether he is mon conspicuous as in and of his Kingdom.

Jo. Character of historian, a critic, a philofopher, or a Antichrift.

11. The myitic Tyre; and Chriftian divine. But though we are trappy 12. Prophecies of the Origin and Progress of in paying this just tribute to Dr. Apthorp's the Reformation. These several subjects the unquestionable merits, we cannot help la - antbor has treated fully and with great per menting that he has ventured, we think, ra- fpicuity, and supported and proveel (where ther rafhly on a dangerous coast, which has proof was postible) what he has anertou by à proved fatal to the most experienced and vast variety of illustrations and eminent auable mariners, on which even the immortal thorities. Newtor: himself narrowly escaped shipwreck. " Although prophecy," he občerves, " luth The Revelation of St. John, however "con- illumined all ages in a just degree, there are genial the book itself may be to the ancient fost eminent periods in which it was improphecies, however worthy the majesty of parted with signal luftre: namely, in the inspiration, however entitled to profound re- age of Moses :-in that of Daviu : duong

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* M. Fougeroux. Vide Memoires de l'Academie Royale des Sciences pour l'année 1786 The Sulphur produced under the above circumstances, was found amidst the ruins of an old house which had been built in a very filthy place, contained in a mass of earth, and in part cryftallized ; and conftituting, in several of the large portions of the earth, a third of the whole mals.

the Babylonian and Persian empires;--and christian religion were announced to the pro. in the evangelic a3", or first century of the plec Daniel in the reign of Cyrus, with christian church. The last and greatest of an exact specification of the very time the chriftian prophets was the writer of the of Christ's miniitry, and the year of his pas. Revelation, after whose death, it is reason- fion, with his signal julgment on the Jewish able to think that this excellent gife entirely nation after 40 years, “ when be sent forth his ceaied : the few notices we have of it after- armies, deftroyed ibofe murderers, and burned warus, being livle more than the lively impref- ibeir city.” He has likewife shewn, that the fion which so great a miracle made on the several characters of redemption these disminds of men, till the memory, or report of it, tinctly revealed are in applicable to any civil or gradually died away, like the faint murmurs secular events, and a proper demonstration of the diftant thunder, or the heaving of the that the religion of Chritt being divinely preocena uban the storm fubfides."

dicted was divinely revealed. Hiving in the first lecture stated the ge. In the sixth eure the whole chain of Der. I dea of inspiration, and given a short prophecios respecting tire promited Saviour is hittery of prophecy; he, in the following clearly stated, with sulticent examples to words, recapitulates the subject of this dif- prove the certain conclusion drawn from that course.

admirable conibination of separate proofs, “ Predictions of the highet import (r3.1- reduleing from predictions of the whole biltoscend the dite of the most ans, ni writings, ry of the Meliah, and of the most refined dieand are coeval with the world clelf: otheis trines of his religion, " The coincidence are cotemporary with the p.** archs and with of the historic with the theologic characters,'' the law : many, molt durerate and cir. our author observes, “ doubles the effect of a cumstantial, occur in the islms: another, demonftration which is perfect in each. and the largest class, ale from Dccc to The historic events, unconnected with the PC years prior to Chriftian ly ; which is itself religious truths, alone ascertain the inspira. prophetic of its owo biften to the end of to that foretoli lein. But the internal time. These prophecies, taxen collectively, conftitution of the new religion thus inseparespect not only future facts, but future ideas rably blended with its history, times, and anu ducirines : they describe the events and fortunes,


fuch an accumulared evidence, opinions of diftant ages : and they all termia as to overcome the most pertinacious fceptinate in the founder of a religion of univerial cism, so long as it retains an ingenuous sense extent and eternal fanctions. If the descrip- and love of truth." t10:15, noies, and characters of a predicted In the seventh discourse, after giving an aud prophetic Saviour are fulfilled in the au- analysis of the book of lsaiah from the 40:h THOR AND FINISHER OF OUR FAITH; ve to the 66:1 chapter, and a particular illuftrawill exclaim with reasonable confidence and lion of the three last verses of the 520 and honest rapture, We have found him, of cubrin twelve fuit of the 534 chap'er, the author Mofes in tbe Law, and obe Proplees dit curile, proceeds to demonstrate the truth of chrifti. Jesus of Nazareth, the son of Jolepl: and anity from this prophecy, and the expiatien thus finuing him, ue will ever pay bine our of fin hy the death and sacrifice of Christ. graceful homage and doration, THOU

In the cighil and ninth lefiure, the agree. THE SON OF GOD, THOU ART THE KING ment of prophecy and history is Mewn in a or ISRAEL."

general view of the adverse and prosperous In the second lecture Dr. Apthorp pro- fortune of the christian church, persecuted ceeds to establish the most useful carons of both by the pagan and antichristian powers, interpretation ; especially that which diesles yet viétorius, progrellive, universal. In Kielf to the sincere and unitiated coinmonsinje the tenth, the author of our faith is corof a wise and virtuous man, resulting from trafted with that hostile power which hath the natural and obvious coincidence of predic- so long exerted its malevolence in opporo tions with events; exemplined in the har- tion to the philanthropy of Christ, vill the miny between the religious prophecies and milchief ended in the usurpeu domicson if the life of Jesus Christ: to these b: bus annexed antichist. The temporal fplendour of lie licerary observations on the myftic and dou- church, and the orcline of learning. our au. ble sense, on prophetic actions, and the sym- thor confiders as the primary cau'es of the bolic language.

corruption of chriftianity. He next 01In the third lecture the virgin-birth and ces the origin and progress of the paral sublime attributes of our Redeemer are supremacy, brings inftances of its excelles, illustrated, cm thew the greatness and fanctity and goes on to describe the marking chaof his person and character, both human and racters of antichritt, viz. insolence of pou. divine.

er, idolatry, persecution, papal supremacy, In the fourth and fifth, the Doctor Mews mercenary superitition the doctrine of merit, that the divine author and doctrine of the and military and

cal fraternities, in

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